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Anime & Manga
- The Mechanismo arc in Judge Dredd features robotic versions of the Megacity One Judges, empowered exactly as the Judges were under the Judicial Code, to be judge, jury and executioner. Inevitably, they malfunction and massacre innocent civilians.
- Themis, in S.O.S Bonheur. The staff surrounding it praise it for being absolutely blind and free of stupid human mistakes... Just before it sentences a man to death for a minor offence. It is the result of deliberate sabotage rather than Themis' AI being a crapshoot.
- Demolition Man had omnipresent computerized speech monitors that fined citizens for uttering profanity.
- Several of Frank Herbert's ConSentiency stories (including Whipping Star and "The Tactful Saboteur") mention a "robo legum" court which is apparently run by a computer.
- Alan E. Nourse's "The Bladerunner". When Billy Gimp is arrested for blade running (handling black market medical supplies), he's tried and sentenced by a computer court system.
- Anne McCaffrey's Crystal Singer novel Killashandra. Near the end of the book Killashandra's boyfriend Lars Dahl is given a computer-controlled trial for kidnapping her as well as other charges. She has forgiven him and wants him to be acquitted, but the Judicial Monitor computer's equipment reads her heightened vital signs, misinterprets them as her being afraid of him, and finds him guilty of one of the charges. Eventually he's cleared of the charge and he and Killashandra get back together.
- Little Brother: a short story and an episode of the miniseries Masters of Science Fiction (aka Stephen Hawking's Sci Fi Masters) a machine called "Court" or "judge" is made up of about a thousand brains in jars; curiously enough there is only a judge and a defender, not a prosecuting AI.
- A short story, Computers Don't Argue, by Gordon R. Dickson: someone eventually got executed because the computerized justice system (actually the joke was that the entire society was computerized) thought he had "Kidnapped" someone named "Robert Louis Stevenson", when all he did was get the wrong book from a publishing company, and it kept trying to charge him, and things just went Off the Rails from there.
- In The Demolished Man, it is revealed in the end that their system of justice involves a computer which reviews the case and decides in minutes if the person is guilty or not. Note that it is not a Kangaroo Court, as the computer is very tough to convince. You need real evidence someone is guilty, indeed the need to find the evidence drives Powell's actions (and the plot).
- In Bill the Galactic Hero by Harry Harrison, the titular character is arrested on the charges of dereliction of duty, as well as losing his map of the Imperial Planet Ville (a capital offense, mind you). He is brought before a court where jury members are robots pre-programmed to always find the defendant guilty. To everyone's shock, the robots acquit him... but only because they have just received orders to sent Bill to a hellhole planet.
Live Action Television
- Max Headroom, set 20 Minutes into the Future in a Crapsack World, featured computerized trials on floppy disk!
- There are also Video Courts such as "You The Jury" that keeps the human element but turns the whole trial into a Game Show.
- The TV Movies that began the Lexx series showed that Kangaroo Court computerized trials where the judge, prosecution, and defense were all played by standardized holographic bureaucrats were a regular part of life under the Divine Order of the League of 20,000 Planets, or at least life on the Cluster, the League's capitol.
- During Travis' military tribunal on Blake's 7, the roles of prosecution and defense are filled by human beings, but the "Judgement Program" or something similar processes the disposition of the accused. The Terran Federation was, of course, consistently depicted as totalitarian.
- A "judgement machine" was also referred to in Blake's civilian trial in the pilot episode, "The Way Back."
- In a rare subversion, in the Star Trek: The Original Series episode "Court Martial," the USS Enterprise computer is used to prove Kirk's innocence (trials in the Federation typically being conducted by sentient organic beings, not computers).
- Digital Witness?
- The Doctor Who serial "The Stones of Blood" features the Megara, Justice Machines who take the place of judge, jury and executioner and can Mind Probe witnesses to be certain of the truth. They frequently converse with each other during the trial in machine code and regard the involvement of actual organics in the judicial process as a tedious necessity.
- "The Keys of Marinus," a First Doctor story, had something similar in the Conscience of Marinus.
- The Red Dwarf episode "Emohawk: Polymorph II" featured a robotic Space Corps Enforcement Orb who had been tracking the crew and Starbug for some time on charges of looting and illegal salvage. Due to the distance from formal legal proceedings Enforcement Orbs are empowered to pass judgment and mete sentence (death in this case) on the spot.
- "Justice" featured a space station that was a prison. The station was administered by The Justice Computer, who mind probed everyone entering to determine if they were hiding a criminal act and immediately rendered judgement on them.
- Narrowly averted in Tokusou Sentai Dekaranger, where, when a criminal is confronted, the computer compiles all the relevant information and sends it to a judge, who then hands down a verdict. Its American counterpart Power Rangers S.P.D. plays it straight by having the Rangers' equipment determine the guilt or innocence of the accused itself, but at least they only issue arrest warrants and don't hand out death sentences like Dekaranger does.
- One of Tim and Eric's many mock products from Cinco is "e-Trial", a software application that enables users to give themselves a trial from their home computer. Defendants click icons to select relevant pieces of evidence and portraits of virtual jurors, submit a plea, then receive a legally-binding verdict straight from the computer screen.
- Star Frontiers module SF1 Volturnus, Planet of Mystery. All of the laws of the Eorna civilization were entered into special computers. The computers control the robot police and act as judges in all civil and criminal cases.
- Paranoia. To the extent that any Alpha Complex citizen receives due process at all, the Computer usually presides over any formal trials that occur. This often occurs during post-mission debriefings when Troubleshooters accuse each other of treason.
- Feng Shui presents this as yet another feature of the Dystopian world of 2056.
- In the sixth Mega Man Battle Network game, there is a computerized judge. Which promptly gets hacked and starts accusing and convicting people of trumped up charges.
- The Simpsons: When Homer's car is abandoned in New York City he calls in to challenge the tickets.
Pleasant female voice: To plead 'not guilty,' press `one' now. Homer dials one Thank you. Your plea has been...Male rough voice: Rejected.Pleasant female voice: You will be assessed the full fine plus a small...Male rough voice: Large lateness fee.
- In The Jetsons episode "Millionaire Astro", the Jetsons are involved in a custody battle with Astro's original owners. In court, the "jury" was a computer called the Jury-vac; it had 12 volume unit meters.
- The Futurama episode "Fear of a Bot Planet" the judge in the trial is an old Apple Macintosh.
- Possibly a reference to Max Headroom, see above.
- One time Dave Barry got a ticket for driving around with an expired registration. When he arrived in court he discovered that the "judge" was a VHS recording, after which everyone was herded to the clerk to pay their fine. Granted it's just VHS and not an actual computer, but the principle holds.
- Sodexo, who run the largest United Kingdom private probation network, announced a plan to replace most of its officers with machines, to the opposition of some.
- In 2006, a Chinese court used a software program to helm them to decide prison sentences.
- A lawyer released the U.S. Federal Sentencing Guidelines calculator, as a guide to help people calculate probable sentences based on the Federal Guidelines.