[[quoteright:255:[[ComicBook/{{MODOK}} http://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/modok.jpg]]]]
[[caption-width-right:255:When all you are is a giant head, it's hard to FacePalm.]]

->''"Hey guys, whaddya call a big head with tiny arms and legs?"''
-->-- '''Jamie''', ''WesternAnimation/MegasXLR''
%% One quote is enough, please put any new ones in the Quotes tab or the examples.

Critters which, rather than having a head and a torso, are basically heads with limbs. Usually a cartoony simplification, though [[SpiderLimbs Spider Limbed]] heads sometimes appear in horror movies and the like.

If you're not sure whether a creature has a head-torso or just a particularly thick neck, check how much their mouth can open. If it goes all the way to the groin, you've got a winner.

Another good way to check is the position of their arms. Generally a Cephalothorax's arms will be at the same height as his eyes (approximately where his ears would be except Cephalothoraxes almost never have ears, or at least visible ones)

If they are video game characters with really stubby legs and arms (or no arms at all), they are {{Waddling Head}}s.

An ancient Greek legend described a race of {{Cephalothorax}}es called "Blemmyae" living in north Africa, which makes this trope OlderThanFeudalism. You probably [[BellisariosMaxim shouldn't think too hard about]] where the digestive tract or heart/lungs are located.

A specific subtrope is {{Oculothorax}}, where the "head" is mostly just one big eyeball.

Not to be confused with [[EverythingsSquishierWithCephalopods Cephalopods]], though the two can overlap on occasion. Compare MyBrainIsBig.

Its important to note that arachnid and crustacean anatomy [[TruthInTelevision features a body part combining head and thorax orginally called the cephalothorax]]. While it does [[ExactWords technically fit the trope]], this is the [[Administrivia/PeopleSitOnChairs natural state]] of such creatures.


* [[ThereWasADoor Kool-Aid Man]].
* The Weight Watchers "[[http://www.shrinkingsisters.com/.a/6a00e5500c772188330105369e1d0a970b-800wi Hungry Monster]]"
* The [[Advertising/MAndMs M&M's]] spokecandies.
* Honey-Comb cereal's Craver.
* [[http://www.geekosystem.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/smooth-legs-cat-550x412.jpg This]] billboard advertisement.
* King Ding Dong on the packages of Hostess Ding Dongs.
** Most of the Hostess mascots in general, as a matter of fact.

* ''Animation/{{Oddbods}}'' has the titular creatures, round jumpsuit-wearing creatures that have faces poking out of a hole on their jumpsuits.

[[folder:Anime & Manga]]
* The Lagann, the Gurren, and several other Ganmen from ''Anime/TengenToppaGurrenLagann''; being a CombiningMecha, however, the Gurren Lagann and its larger forms have a normal humanoid shape. Lagann's identified at one point as a 'core mech', so it seems that the various [[SpellMyNameWithAnS Gunmen]] were designed headless to accommodate Lagann-types, which were designed without heads because they become the heads.
* Many ''Franchise/{{Digimon}}'' as well, specially the baby ones.
* ''Manga/OnePiece'' villain Buggy the Clown resembles one of these when he tries to assemble himself after his torso and limbs are tied up (leaving only the head, hands, and feet). He ends up stuck that way for quite a while after Luffy gives him a MegatonPunch, until Alvida finally brings him back to his crew (who held onto his torso).
* Jama-P from ''Manga/WeddingPeach''.
* King Nikochan and his alien race from ''Manga/DoctorSlump''.
* Jibaku (actually, all the spirits) from ''Twelve World Story''.
* Taken to an extreme with the Yamata no {{Orochi}} from ''Manga/RanmaOneHalf'', a legendary dragon whose "body" is just one massive, mountain-sized ''head''. The remaining seven heads sprout from the back of the main head. It just raises the question: with no body, no limbs, ''nothing'' but one giant head and seven smaller ones, where do the sake it drinks and women it devours ''go''?
* Happens at least once in ''Manga/FrankenFran'', when a guy brings Fran his girlfriend's severed head. [[spoiler:Although [[StalkerWithACrush he's not actually her boyfriend]], and is responsible for decapitating her in the first place.]] Fran manages to keep her alive by removing some of the brain and using the space to install a small system of vital organs, including a digestive tract. Later Fran attaches a hand so the head can move around. After that, [[spoiler: she gives the victim a full, monstrous body, and she takes revenge on her "boyfriend", who discovered too late that her memory of him wasn't removed with those pieces of brain.]]

[[folder:Comic Books]]
* ComicBook/{{MODOK}} ([[FunWithAcronyms Mental Organism Designed Only for Killing]]) from the Franchise/MarvelUniverse, pictured above. He was originally a normal human mook before he got shoved ''very'' unwillingly into the machine that transformed him. Then he used his new hyperintelligence and psychic abilities to take over the organization. Despite his appearance, he's not a true Cephalothorax. He's got a normal-looking body and a truly massive head, and can only sit or move about at all because of the floating chair thing.
* Several species of aliens featuring the various ''Franchise/GreenLantern'' comics count: Green Lanterns Chaselon and Diamalon, natives of the planet Barrio III, resemble Disco Balls with metallic tentacle limbs. Green Lantern Galius Zed and his EvilCounterpart Zilius Zox of the Red Lantern Corps are near-spherical heads with small limbs coming out of them. Whilst Blume of the Orange Lantern Corps has no limbs to speak of. He's basically just a giant flying head with a prehensile mustache.
* Sugar Man, from the ComicBook/AgeOfApocalypse.
* [[http://www.marvunapp.com/Appendix/kraytr.htm Judge Kray-Tor]] from Marvel Comics, foe of ComicBook/AdamWarlock in the Silver Age adventures as written by Starlin. Bonus points for having TWO pair of arms where his ears would be.
* ComicBook/CaptainAmerica villain Arnim Zola appears to be this, but the face on his torso is actually a flatscreen monitor; as a World War II era villain, he survived through BrainUploading and uses various robot bodies to commit his experiments.
* ComicBook/IronMan in the ComicBook/GuardiansOfTheGalaxy issue of ''ComicBook/MarvelOneHundredthAnniversarySpecial'', when he isn't using his "Iron Manites" as a battle suit.

[[folder:Films -- Animation]]
* The Goblins from the Rankin-Bass Animated ''WesternAnimation/TheHobbit'' edge onto this when they open their mouths fully.
* Mike Wazowski in ''WesternAnimation/MonstersInc.''
* ''WesternAnimation/ToyStory''
** One of the deformed toys from was a truly frightening sight for a kid's movie: A bald doll's head with mechanical spider legs made from an Erector set. Like all the other "monster" toys, though, it [[DarkIsNotEvil turned out]] to be good-hearted and kind.
** Don't forget Mr. Potato Head who is practically this trope embodied.
*** Should that be em-headed?
* Maxum from ''Animation/{{Gandahar}}''/''Light Years''. No distinct head, but a face on the front of his torso (rather like one of the aforementioned Blemmyae).
* Humpty Dumpty from ''WesternAnimation/PussInBoots''.

[[folder:Films -- Live-Action]]
* The krites from the ''Film/{{Critters}}'' films are built like this.
* The metamorphosed Gregor Samsa in the comic short film ''Film/FranzKafkasItsAWonderfulLife''.
* Fizzgig in ''Film/TheDarkCrystal''.
* Tabanga the Tree-Monster in ''[[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BiP6W0ZCQRg From Hell It Came]]''.
* Mr. Electric, the main villain of ''Film/TheAdventuresOfSharkboyAndLavagirl''.
* Some of the Separatist droids from the ''Franchise/StarWars'' series films.
** Additionally, the [[http://starwars.wikia.com/wiki/Kintan_strider Kintan strider]] makes a brief appearance in Episode IV as one of the pieces on the game board.
* The Monster From the Id, in ''Film/ForbiddenPlanet''. It's easier to tell when you are looking at sculptures of the (mostly) invisible monster, but it is basically a gigantic, evil lion-like head standing on two limbs that are a cross between a gorilla's arms and a bird of prey's legs.

[[folder:Fairy tales]]
* [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kolobok Kolobok]] — being from Russian fairy tale, a singing runaway round bread. In popular culture is drawn mostly as a yellow spherical head with limbs.
* The [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Headless_men Blemmyes]] were supposedly a race of people with faces on their chests that were rumored to live in unexplored parts of the world, though this was later changed to mean "India."

* Humpty Dumpty from ''Literature/AliceInWonderland''. And lampshaded: Alice cannot tell whether the garment wrapped around his middle is a [[ClassyCravat cravat]] or a belt.
* The Kaldanes in Creator/EdgarRiceBurroughs' ''[[Literature/JohnCarterOfMars The Chessmen of Mars]]''.
* Or for that matter, the Martians of ''Literature/TheWarOfTheWorlds'', described as blubbery heads with tentacles.
* The ''Literature/MrMen and Little Misses'' from Roger Hargreaves' series of children's books. The "sort of animals" in his ''Timbuktoo'' series are cephalothorax FunnyAnimals.
** Exceptions: Mr Snow and Mr Dizzy both have an "8" shape with a distinct head and body, as does Honk, a sort of seal. Mr Greedy's bulging tummy similarly makes it clear where his head is. Less certain examples are Mr Skinny, Mr Busy, Mr Mean and Little Miss Neat, whose faces are in the top halves of their ovular/rectangular bodies (see the above comment about "just a thick neck").
* In Edmond Hamilton's ''The Man Who Evolved'' (1931), a scientist [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin evolves]] [[EvolutionPowerUp himself]] with a machine of his own invention, his brain [[MyBrainIsBig growing larger and larger]] in the process while his body shrinks to nothingness. At a certain point, he's nothing but a huge head with hands and feet sprouting just below his chin.
* The Blemmyes of legend inhabit one of the alternate Earths in ''[[Literature/{{Somewhither}} A Tale of the Unwithering Realm]]''. They have a tough skin, are immensely strong, and have a taste for human meat. They have somewhat bizarre anatomy with ears under their armpits, their nose-holes on the top of their shoulders, and a mouth and stomach which [[BiggerOnTheInside seem to have more room than the Blemmyes' size would indicate.]]

[[folder:Live-Action TV]]
* The Nakaleen Feeder from ''Series/BabylonFive''
* The ''Series/InLivingColor'' sketch "The Head Detective": the doctors tell the partner of a detective in the ER that they could rebuild him... for [[Series/TheSixMillionDollarMan six million dollars]]. But since the partner only has $28.45 on him, the best the surgeons can do is a cephalothorax.
* Paroos from the ''Series/{{Farscape}}'' episode 'A Prefect Murder' probably qualified. He was basically Father Jack's head from Father Ted, except alien and slightly better looking.
* Inside their saltshaker-like armor, Daleks on ''Series/DoctorWho'' look like brains with tentacles and [[{{Cyclops}} one big eye]] in the middle.

[[folder:Tabletop Games]]
* Squigs from ''TabletopGame/{{Warhammer}}'' are essentially heads with legs and a little tail. [[MoreTeethThanTheOsmondFamily And lots of teeth.]]
* Sekis, a character in "The Velvet Circle" adventure in the Demon Magic supplement for ''Stormbringer''.
* Vargouilles in ''Tabletopgame/DungeonsAndDragons'' are BodyHorror heads with wings and tentacles, created by TheVirus.
** Modrons
** Beholders are giant floating heads, with extra eyes on eyestalks. They look pretty comical, until their eyes start shooting rays of destruction in all directions at once. And then they vomit up their young, and you wonder if you'll ever get to sleep again.
* In spite of having distinct body parts to damage, several Mechs in ''TabletopGame/BattleTech'' look like this, most notably the ''[[http://www.sarna.net/wiki/Urbanmech UrbanMech]]'' and the ''[[http://www.sarna.net/wiki/Imp Imp]]'', though it's hard not to get this feeling off the ''[[http://www.sarna.net/wiki/Ursus Ursus]]'' and its skull-bodied, [[Anime/TengenToppaGurrenLagann Gurren-like]] appearance.
* The eponymous monsters in ''TabletopGame/TheAwfulGreenThingsFromOuterSpace'' are blobs with legs and one large eye.
* Greed abominations in ''TabletopGame/TheOthers'' are blobs of flesh with a gaping maw, four stumpy arms, and two stumpy legs.

* Audrey II from ''Theatre/LittleShopOfHorrors'' qualifies in almost all productions.
* In Shakespeare's ''Theatre/{{Othello}}'', while describing the stories of adventure he told to woo Desdemona, Othello mentions "Men whose heads beneath their shoulders grow," likely a reference to Blemmyae. The text does not clarify whether he means it seriously; some performances have Othello indicate that this is a tall tale.

[[folder:Video Games]]
* VideoGame/{{Kirby}}, VideoGame/{{Ristar}} and [[VideoGame/TheLegendaryStarfy Starfy]] from their respective videogames.
* ''{{Website/Neopets}}'':
** Jubjubs are an entire species of these, as they are just creatures with head, and feet. They are often the subjects of lampshades, on how they can hold things, despite having no hands.
** Another species, Kikos, only have heads and arms instead.
* Half of the ''SuperMarioBros'' enemies.
* ''VideoGame/PacMan'''s cartoon form, also present in the Namco video game ''Pac-Land''.
* The Green alloy in ''VideoGame/SuperSmashBros Brawl''. Note also that its body is based off of Kirby's, who is listed above.
* In ''Franchise/DeadSpace'' there are enemies that amount to little more than a grotesque head with a couple of arms and legs. If they kill you, they hijack your body in a rather squicky death sequence.
* Gnaars from ''VideoGame/SeriousSam''.
* The Gnomes in ''VideoGame/KingdomOfLoathing''.
* The Nu species from the game ''VideoGame/ChronoTrigger'' are (usually) blue creatures like this, with (usually) moss-green mohawks on their head/body.
* The four Giants from ''VideoGame/TheLegendOfZeldaMajorasMask'' each have a Cephalothorax the size of what a giant's head would normally be, and otherwise only count as giants thanks to their incredibly long and spindly arms and legs.
* The classic 8-bit game ''{{VideoGame/MULE}}'' had several alien races for the player to choose as their avatar. Among these was the Packer, an obvious ShoutOut to Pac Man, who was essentially a big walking mouth with two stubby legs and a pair of eyes.
* At least one monster in ''VideoGame/DwarfFortress''. Unusually for this trope, all vital organs are still present, so you can hit the monster in the head and bruise its lung.
* In ''VideoGame/LSDDreamEmulator'', there is an NPC that is a cephalothorax in the courtyard outside of the hotel/apartment building.
* ''VideoGame/CustomRobo'' has the aptly-named "Funky Big Head" (or "Big Boys", depending on the game) line of robos.
* In Capcom's ''VideoGame/MegaManClassic'' series. It is used in "Air Man-type" Robot Master.
** In ''VideoGame/MegaMan2''. The first Robot Master to use this trope is Air Man.
** Needle Man, the needle-based Robot Master from ''VideoGame/MegaMan3''.
** Toad Man from ''VideoGame/MegaMan4''
** Napalm Man from ''VideoGame/MegaMan5''. Despite what his in-game sprite suggests, Charge Man is not an example; official artwork reveals that he has a separate head, just one that's ''extremely'' bizarrely shaped.
** Blizzard Man from ''VideoGame/MegaMan6''
** Cloud Man from ''VideoGame/MegaMan7''
** Magma Man from ''VideoGame/MegaMan9''
** Sheep Man and Strike Man from ''VideoGame/MegaMan10''. Sheep Man's 'face' is so low in his torso that it's barely above his pelvis.
** Venus from ''VideoGame/MegaManV'' for the Game Boy resembles Toad Man.
** [[http://megaman.wikia.com/wiki/Konro_Man Konro Man]] from the obscure Wonderswan-exclusive ''Rockman & Forte: Challenger from the Future'', a bipedal stove heating unit.
** [[http://megaman.wikia.com/wiki/Volt_Man Volt Man]] from the rather badly made DOS game.
** [[http://megaman.wikia.com/wiki/Wave_Man_%28PC%29 Wave Man]] ([[NamesTheSame no relation]] to the one from ''5''), from the also-bad sequel to the first DOS game.
** [[http://megaman.wikia.com/wiki/Arcade_Man Arcade Man]], [[http://megaman.wikia.com/wiki/File:DarumanConcept.jpg Daruman]], [[http://megaman.wikia.com/wiki/File:Tabletman.png Tablet Man]], and [[http://megaman.wikia.com/wiki/File:Udonman.jpg Udon Man]] are contest winners who were added to ''VideoGame/RockmanXOver''.
* Hansel and Gretel from ''VideoGame/{{NieR}}'' are giant Gunmen-like helmets with limbs.
* The many ''Franchise/{{Pokemon}}'' examples have been put into lists. See the lists of [[http://bulbapedia.bulbagarden.net/wiki/List_of_Pokémon_by_body_style#Pok.C3.A9mon_consisting_of_only_a_head Pokémon species that consist entirely of a head,]] [[http://bulbapedia.bulbagarden.net/wiki/List_of_Pokémon_by_body_style#Pok.C3.A9mon_consisting_of_a_head_and_a_base that have a base but are otherwise just a head,]] [[http://bulbapedia.bulbagarden.net/wiki/List_of_Pokémon_by_body_style#Pok.C3.A9mon_consisting_of_a_head_and_arms that have arms but are otherwise just a head,]] and [[http://bulbapedia.bulbagarden.net/wiki/List_of_Pokémon_by_body_style#Pok.C3.A9mon_consisting_of_a_head_and_legs that have legs but are otherwise just a head.]] Jigglypuff, Igglybuff, Elekid, Hitmonlee, Polywhirl, Polywrath, Snorunt, Budew, Nosepass, Chingling, Trubbish, and Darumaka are basically heads with arms ''and'' legs.
* The Bomb-type enemies from the ''Franchise/FinalFantasy'' series.
* The body of Ogmo from ''VideoGame/{{Jumper}}'' series consists entirely of a rectangular head and two tiny legs.
* From ''VideoGame/CaveStory'', there are critters and Balrog. The formers consist almost ''entirely'' of heads (their legs are barely visible), while the latter is a soap-bar with only a face and stubby limbs.
* Sneakers in ''Sneakers'' and ''Fast Eddie'', two early 1980s games by Sirius Software.
* From ''VideoGame/{{Doom}}'', there are the Cacodemons, and in Doom II there are the Pain Elementals, both of which are floating monster heads that shoot things at you.
* The titular VideoGame/MeatBoy, plus his lover Bandage Girl.
* Flumpty Bumpty of ''VideoGame/OneNightAtFlumptys'' is basically a psychotic egg-based abomination with arms, legs, and a face that takes up the whole front of his ovoid body. The same is true of the equally nightmarish Golden Flumpty.
* Some creatures in ''VideoGame/{{Spore}}''
** An example is seen here with [[http://spore.wikia.com/wiki/Creature:Bellylegs this creation]]. This creature has mouths and faces [[TooManyMouths all over its body]] ([[AHeadatEachEnd tail]], belly, legs, etc...), including on its belly. Although the belly faces could have been once considered a [[BellyMouth Belly Mouth]], the [[TinyHeadedBehemoth small human head]] was [[LosingYourHead crushed]] by ''[[OrganAutonomy the feet]]'', making these belly faces the highest faces on the body, therefore a face that was once located on the belly was now the creature’s head. However, after some time the creature could be considered a BellyMouth again since faces formed on its ''belly mouth’s belly''.
* [[http://www.gamershood.com/19338/point-and-click/the-old-tree This]] tiny baby creature, which you must guide through ''The Old Tree'', doesn't even have proper limbs, just four small tentacles on its head/body.
* The ginormous dragon angel Fortitudo from ''VideoGame/{{Bayonetta}}'' combines this trope with being a MultipleHeadCase.

[[folder:Web Animation]]
* ''WebAnimation/HomestarRunner''
** The Cheat is little more than a squat head with stubby arms and legs.
** Strong Mad might be more appropriately called a Thoraxocephaloid, as he's the exact opposite: A torso without a head.

[[folder:Web Comics]]
* Gobules in ''Webcomic/TheMansionOfE'' are heads with legs, even lacking arms.

[[folder:Western Animation]]
* ''WesternAnimation/LooneyTunes''
** Taz the Tasmanian Devil.
** [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gossamer_(Looney_Tunes) Gossamer]] the red monster.
* ''WesternAnimation/SouthPark'': The "girl born without a midsection" on the Maury Povich show.
* Dizzy Devil from ''WesternAnimation/TinyToonAdventures'', inspired by Taz.
* Stimpy from ''WesternAnimation/TheRenAndStimpyShow''.
* WesternAnimation/{{SpongeBob SquarePants}}. Lampshaded in one episode, when someone sat on him: "Excuse me sir, but you're sitting on my body, which is also my face."
* ''WesternAnimation/ReBoot'' has Mike the TV and the "1" and "zero" binomes.
* Baby Poof, from ''WesternAnimation/{{The Fairly OddParents}}''.
* Magnanimous (Who's a homage to MODOK from Marvel) from ''WesternAnimation/MegasXLR''.
* Technically, the members of ''WesternAnimation/AquaTeenHungerForce'', depending on whether you consider food with a face a "head". But their faces are centered on their bodies, and none of them have ''actual'' heads, so....
* Krumm from ''WesternAnimation/AaahhRealMonsters'' had no head, but a mouth in the middle of his chest. And that was far from being the most unusual feature of his anatomy--his eyes weren't attached to his body at all, and he had to carry them around in his hands.
* Big Fat Baby in ''WesternAnimation/{{Histeria}}'', essentially.
* The cartoon versions of the ''WesternAnimation/{{Madballs}}''.
* ''WesternAnimation/{{Squidbillies}}'' brings us the always naked, [[CorruptCorporateExecutive always greedy,]] Dan Halen.
* Lugnut from ''WesternAnimation/TransformersAnimated'', especially his toy form.
* A good number of characters in ''WesternAnimation/TheAmazingWorldOfGumball'', most notably Darwin, which is mentioned when Masami describes that "he's got legs an, you know... a head.". Although Darwin's "head" is really his whole fish body with legs attached. Depends on how you look at it.
** This is also lampshaded by his seat in class having a stack of books just so his face can reach above his desk[[note]]Gumball's does too, but despite them being about the same height Darwin's stack is twice as high.[[/note]].
** Lampshaded again in "The Dream", as Gumball dreams Darwin kissed Penny, wakes up, then shakes Darwin by the knees.
--->'''Darwin''': What are you doing?\\
'''Gumball:''' Trying to throttle you, but you don't have a neck!
** Darwin mentions in "The Kids" that he's "hopin' that there's still a chance to grow a chest!"--while the screen shows a version of Darwin with a flabby chest with manboobs.
* Garrett Bobby Ferguson from the ''WesternAnimation/RegularShow'' episode "High Score".
* ''WesternAnimation/LiloAndStitchTheSeries'' has this with some of Stitch's cousins, including [[http://stitchipediaalilostitch.wikia.com/wiki/Kixx_%28601%29 Kixx]].
* Krang from ''WesternAnimation/{{Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles|1987}}'', after being stripped of his body when he was banished from Dimension X. Shredder designed and built a humanoid exo-suit for him when they teamed up.
** The Utroms only ''look'' like brains.
* ''WesternAnimation/BumpInTheNight'' protagonist Mr. Bumpy fits this trope to a T, as does one-shot antagonist the Living Bread from the episode "Night of the Living Bread".
* [[http://www.toonhound.com/murun.htm Murun Buchstansangur]] was a tiny cephalothorax who lived in a human-sized house and had lots of human-shaped (but Muran-sized) friends. Please don't ask why they chose that name for him.
* All the characters in ''WesternAnimation/TheFlumps'' are fuzzy lumps with faces on the front and arms and legs.
* Everyone in ''WesternAnimation/{{Rollbots}}'', with the exception of [[BigBad Vertex]].
* The [[WesternAnimation/DorbeesMakingDecisions Dorbees]] are just balls with faces and limbs.
* The Eggpos from ''WesternAnimation/TwoMoreEggs'', the [[TheGoomba goomba]] style enemies in Dooble's video game, are one-eyed purple heads with feet.

[[folder:Real Life]]
* The cephalothorax is a standard stage of development in how a child draws a human figure, that every healthy child goes through in their toddler years. It is preceded by squiggly lines and followed by a figure with a head, torso, and limbs, but no neck. [[http://www.learningdesign.com/Portfolio/DrawDev/kiddrawing.html (source)]]
* The giant ocean sunfish is basically a fish head with fins and a fringe of tail protruding from it.
* A puffer fish appears to be a spherical head with fins when it is inflated.
* Evolitionary origins of [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tardigrade water bears (tardigrades)]] was long disputed. Latest researches show that probably they are closely related to arthropods, i.e., their ancestors looked like primitive myriapodi; but during their evolution they have lost all body segments except head ones which now contain all their organs.