Queen's Royal Standard — most members of the Royal Family have some variation of this as their personal flags
"Then I was Princess Anne's assistant for a while, but I chucked that in because it was obvious they were never going to make me Princess Anne."
Head of State of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
(and much of The Commonwealth
), the current monarch, Queen Elizabeth II
presides over a family that can, quite charitably, be described as a mix of apparently competent individuals, complete chuckleheads, and tabloid fodder. Fortunately for all concerned it was determined whether true power should rest with the monarchy or an elected parliament in 1649 when Charles I abruptly lost about 12 inches in height. Above his shoulders.
This rather emphatic statement officially authorized the trend in which the King (or Queen) gradually lost to Parliament and the head of Government, the Prime Minister, and was finally accepted as pretty much fact in 1688 when Parliament invited
William III of Orange and his wife Mary to invade England and seize the throne from the rather unpopular (and Catholic, pretty much the same thing at the time) James II.
Although the monarch now a figurehead and seen as generally useless in terms of running the country, and although there is a campaign for a republic, the abolition of the monarchy has never really entered mainstream political discourse in the UKnote
and there seems to be no prospect of it happening any time soon. Many people love the pomp and ceremony, and the fact that they really can't do anything to hurt the nation (except perhaps cause embarrassing sex scandals) means there isn't a rush to get rid of them. Also, it is argued, the monarchy is such a huge employer in the UK, and draws so much tourism to the country, that its abolition would likely have a major negative impact on the UK economy (CGP Grey explains in detail
) - though some people think otherwise
Some Commonwealth countries, who don't even get a say over who their Head of State is, consider it a small price in exchange for having all the pageantry (and amusing antics) that someone else is paying for. Nevertheless, republicanism is stronger in the former colonies. As of 2012, the most recent Realm considering a transition to an elected, home-grown head of state is Jamaica
; there is some debate there, however, as not everyone is convinced that the move is necessary or feasible (for instance, changing all the references to the Queen in all the government buildings would cost a substantial proportion of the poor country's already-tight budget). Many other countries, such as Ireland
, have already broken away from the British-born monarchy. Canada, however, (at least outside maverick Quebec) is in no apparent hurry to lose the monarchy, which exists as the Royal Family of Canada in that nation - technically a separate monarchy to the UK despite being made up of exactly the same individuals. In fact, this is the case with all of the Commonwealth Realms, but the Canadians were the first to develop the theory and consequently have both the most traditional and most developed theory of monarchy. Canada is also the most monarchist Commonwealth Realm, partly because it is the oldest Commonwealth Realm besides the UK, and partly because it has a large, friendly-but-overbearing, culturally-similar republic
right next door, making the monarchy a good way to distinguish itself from its neighbour. Canada is one of the few places where being both a leftist intellectual and a fervent monarchist is so commonplace as to be unremarkable—to many English-speaking Canadians, the monarchy is just part of being Canadian. (Doesn't mean the Governor-General is treated with any more respect, though...)
For the UK, their net worth is only £600 Million, most of which comes from stuff like paintings, palaces, estates, and other non-liquid assets (as opposed to actual cash) that would go to the National Trust and would have no other real benefit to the public other than there being more boring museums to drag your kids to. These things are open most of the time anyway and there is more of a tourist draw with the Royals being around rather than getting rid of them. They also have developed a strong commitment to being Royals Who Actually Do Something
, with the men usually joining the military (and then, usually, some sort of private-sector job, although there's a tradition of the second son becoming a career officernote
) and the women finding some sort of cause or employment.
Interestingly, if the UK were to ditch the monarchy it would (or mightnote
) also have to honour an agreement made between George III and the government of the day, in which George deeded the revenues earned by "Crown lands" to the public treasury in return for an income from the Civil List - but only for as long as his successors reigned. Those annual revenues, every penny of which would be lost if the Royals were kicked out, are currently at least twenty times
the annual cost of the monarchy.note
One economist believes the total tourism income directly dependent on the Royal Family is many times even that. In other words, the monarchy is generally considered a good investment. The Republican response would be that the monarchy represents unearned privilege and that there is a moral case for it's abolition regardless of whether or not it makes money.
See also: The House of Windsor
, HM The Queen
Although a large and sprawling family, the current membership of the House of Mountbatten-Windsor is generally considered to refer mainly to:
: 21 April 1926
: Since 6 February 1952
Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
Affectionately referred to as 'Aunty Liz'. Very dignified, dedicated, hardworking and by all accounts possessing an incredibly funny sense of humour in private, Liz is pretty much the ideal of the constitutional monarch, her sense of responsibility formed by the example of her parents in World War II
. Crowned in 1952 at the age of 26, she's been on the throne for 62 years and gives every indication that she'll pass Victoria's record of 63 years as monarch—after all, her mum lived to be over 100. As Eddie Izzard
said, "I am the queeeen... I live foreveeeeer!"
Is also very much the model of
a Cool Old Lady
. She is apparently quite the Deadpan Snarker
, and also a fan of Doctor Who
. She's also a bit of a technophile - televising her coronation was her idea. More recently, there was a serious flap when President Barack Obama gave her a iPod on her first official visit when she already had an iPodnote
; she later clarified that she specifically asked
for it, as her old one was out of date. She is an accomplished equestrian, and rode sidesaddle during every Trooping the Colour ceremony until 1986, when her mare Burmese
was retired. She is also the first, and so far only, female royal to hold military rank in her own right; she joined the Women's Auxiliaries during the war as a mechanic
and rose to the rank of Junior Commander. However, ignoring all of the above, her Cool Old Lady
status was solidified when she co-starred with James Bond
) in the opening ceremonies of the 2012 Olympics.
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
: 10 June 1921
Married Elizabeth in 1947. Famously irascible and has a reputation for making extremely blunt commentsnote
. Depending on his mood and how much you've prepared, he can alternatively be your best friend or your worst enemy. Widely considered to be quite old-fashioned with dated views, he was, however, quite a progressive member of the royal family during the early years of the queen's reign. He instituted several reforms within Buckingham Palacenote
, was the one to suggest televising the queen's coronation (contrary to popular belief), and even presented a couple of documentary programs on television. He was also an early advocate for environmentalism, long before it became vogue within the general public.
He served with distinctionnote
as a naval officer in World War II
on the Allied side and, despite being primarily of German descent, is a member of the former Greek royal family, which in turn is a junior branch of the Danish royal family. People say that he could have easily become an admiral on his own merits, but he had to resign his commission to serve as Queen Elizabeth's consort. He was given honorary five-star ranks in the British Army, Royal Navy, and Royal Air Force in recognition of what he had to sacrifice, in addition to various colonel-in-chief appointments. He was called a German Nazi by Mohammed Al-Fayed in one of the stranger moments of the very strange Diana inquest. (This was apparently very hurtful to Philip, who fought in World War II and whose mother was named a Righteous Gentile by Yad Vashem for saving Greek Jews.) Due to being part of the Greek royal familynote
is sometimes referred to as "Phil The Greek". Apparently, he is worshipped as a god
by inhabitants of some Pacific islands. Despite, or possibly because of, his regular foot-in-mouth episodes (and thus his being viewed as reliable entertainment by the general public), he has a reputation for being hardworking (he created the Duke of Edinburgh award among other things) and well meaning despite being older than Christopher Lee
at 92, and he is rather well liked.
Insiders say that while Prince Philip plays a subordinate role to Queen Elizabeth in regards to their public duties, behind the scenes it's Philip who is the absolute head of the household and is someone who is loving, playful, and stern in equal measure. It was Philip who convinced William to walk behind Diana's coffin and he joined the procession as a show of support for his grandsons. He could be briefly seen putting his arm around William and making sure his grandson was alright just before they walked onto Horse Guards Parade
Prince Philip is himself eligible to become King, being on the line of succession as a descendant of Princess Alice, daughter of Queen Victoria. However, his position is so low (Number 679 as of 2011, according to one (unofficial) source
) that most people don't even bother keeping track of it.
Prince Charles, Prince of Wales
: 14 November 1948
Diana, Princess of Wales (née
Spencer) (1981—1996); Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall (née
The heir apparent, perhaps best known as being the husband of the deceased Diana, he's also gained a reputation as an environmentalist and perhaps a bit nutty and New-Agey. The talking to plants thing doesn't help. Yet, he is also considered to be remarkably prescient and became a pioneer for organic farming and sustainable livingnote
at least a decade before it even entered mainstream consciousness. Has rather large ears
Was particularly unpopular in the wake of the breakup of his marriage to Diana, but his popularity has gradually improved, especially after his rather touching speech at the close of the Queen's Diamond Jubilee concert. There are occasional grumblings of somehow finding a way to skip over him and going straight to William in the order of succession, but current popular opinion of Charles is better now than it has been in the past. When The Vicar of Dibley
finished up, Richard Curtis didn't want to strike the sets, saying (rather presumptuously) that "Britain might need some cheering up when Charles becomes king." Charles himself, however, is known to have quite the sense of humour and is fond of British comedy, notably being the highest ranking fan of Monty Python
(as well as their foreunner The Goon Show
) in the world. He and Camilla have seen their image undergo a positive change in the last few years thanks to the "Will and Kate Effect."
It is widely believed that, upon accession to the throne, he will take the regnal name George VII
(as it is one of his middle names, along with Philip and Arthur) in honour of his grandfather, George VI. Reports have been contradictory (the official statement was it would be decided at the time) and he may choose to use his first name after all, which would make him Charles III
; however, there is a widespread stigma
attached to that name. (Charles III was also the regnal name of the Jacobite pretender also known as "Bonnie Prince Charlie"
Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall
: 17 July 1947
: Andrew Parker Bowles (1973—1995); Prince
Charles, Prince of Wales (2005—present)
Formerly Camilla Parker Bowles (née
Shand), she was the first love
and long-term mistress of Prince Charlie before finally marrying him. A socialite who went to finishing school in Switzerland, Camilla Rosemary Shand is the granddaughter of the 3rd Baron Ashcombe. Having married Charles, she is technically the Princess of Wales, but chose not to use the title, out of respect for Diana (and the backlash it would have caused). There is a strong feeling by many that she shouldn't become the Queen Consort; in all likelihood, she will become Queen Consort in law, but never use the title in deference to public opinion (the official word right now is that her title will be "Princess Consort".) Apparently, this is also her idea. She does her job without any fuss and never upstages Charles. Actually reported to be a very nice, down-to-earth person who doesn't deserve the vitriol spewed her way; unfortunately, the circumstances surrounding their marriage blight
the public's opinion of her, although once again the Will and Kate effect, coupled with some positive press during recent 60th Jubilee celebrations, has helped improve her image somewhat. She is incredibly devoted to her charity work, a considerable amount of which focuses on animal welfare. Sometimes, rather uncharitably, compared to a horse.
Princess Anne, Princess Royal
: 15 August 1950
: Mark Phillips (1973—1992); Sir
Timothy Laurence (1992—present)
Currently on her second marriage, Anne was the tabloid target for her antics before Diana was on the scene. Since then, "Princess Sourpuss" has mellowed considerably and has become a rather popular royal due to her constant presence waving the flag for the family. She used to be a rather good show rider and competed in the Olympics in 1976. Zara Phillips is now filling her shoes in this respect and won Olympic silver in 2012. She was almost kidnapped and killed when a man forced himself into her car and said he was going to hold her hostage (saying "I want you to come with me for a day or two, because I want two million. Will you get out of the car?"). Her response to this was to scathingly reply "Not bloody likely - and I haven't got two million."
Contrary to popular opinion, she did not punch her attacker in the face, reasoning that "I nearly lost my temper with him, but I knew that if I did, I should hit him and he would shoot me."
She was born 3rd in line for the throne, behind her mother and her elder brother. Her mother succeeding George VI two years later saw her position rise to second, which would prove her zenith; she is presently 11th in line, behind all of her brothers and their descendants. Though she was eligible for the title of Princess Royal
(customarily granted to the eldest daughter of the Sovereign) from 1965 (upon the death of her great-aunt, Princess Mary, as the title is held for life), it was not granted to her until 1987.
Prince Andrew, Duke of York
: 19 February 1960
: Sarah, Duchess of York (née
Flew helicopters in the Royal Navy, served in combat in the Falklands War, and was generally a career officer to the boot. Had his own share of tabloid trouble thanks to his marriage and divorce of Sarah Ferguson. Sadly for those looking for scandal, the separation and divorce was amicable, the two are apparently still friends (and actually live beside each other), and shared custody of the two daughters, Beatrice and Eugenie, until both became adults. The two pulled off an unbelievable transformation from tabloid fodder to Model Divorced Couple
. Sarah, Duchess of York, would return to the spotlight in 2010 after being caught attempting to sell access to her ex-husband. Princesses Beatrice and Eugenie win the "Craziest Headgear Award" at every royal wedding (with Beatrice definitely winning◊
at Will and Kate's).
Born 2nd in line for the throne (displacing his elder sister, Princess Anne, under male-preference primogeniture in place at the time), he is presently fifth, behind Prince Charles and all of his descendants. Andrew has no sons, which means that he will likely continue the peculiar trend of each Duke of York since Edward IV either dying without a male heir (as has happened four times - five if Andrew continues the pattern, which seems likely as he's already in late middle age and hasn't shown any interest in remarrying), or having their titles merged into the crown upon acceding the throne (as has happened five times - with Henry VIII, Charles I, James II, George V, and George VI) before passing them on. The title Duke of York
, due to having not been inherited since 1460, is traditionally awarded to the second son of the Sovereign, but as it is a lifelong title,note
it is likely that Charles will predecease Andrew (who is 12 years younger) and will therefore not be able to create his
second son (Prince Harry) the Duke of York (male-line descendants of living monarchs get their ducal titles upon marriagenote
and get to pass them on to their eldest sons). Therefore, the person who is likeliest to hold the title next is Prince William's second son, assuming he has one.
Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex
: 10 March 1964
: Sophie, Countess of Wessex (née
Gave up a a career in the Royal Marines before it started and showed an interest in theatre and television production (going on to host several documentaries). His first foray into that, It's a Royal Knockout
was a bit of a failure. Dogged by rumors he's gay, which were somewhat quieted when he married Sophie Rhys-Jones (who is by all accounts the Queen's favourite daughter-in-law) in 1999. Will be made Duke of Edinburgh after his father passes or when his brother becomes King (whichever comes second). He and Sophie have two children, Lady Louise Windsor — who was a bridesmaid at the wedding of her cousin, Prince William — and James, Viscount Severn. By right (as grandchildren of the Queen in the male line) they should be called Princess Louise of Wessex and Prince James of Wessex, but like his sister Anne, Edward chose not to burden them with royal titles, insteady styling them like the children of an Earl.
Born 3rd in line for the throne, he is presently 8th. His son, the Viscount Severn, is the highest-ranked person in the line of succession who is not styled Royal Highness
or has princely status (though the latter is disputed).
Prince William, Duke of Cambridge
: 21 June 1982
: Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge (née
First son of Charles, and 2nd in line for the throne, William has had a bit of a rep as a playboy and concerns he doesn't take his responsibilities that seriously. However, he has mellowed out in the past few years, and his popularity is quite high. He is almost as much a master of the poker face as the Queen herself. Like his father, he's spending time in all three branches of the British military (navy, army and air force) for his future role as commander-in-chief. In September 2010, he earned his wings as an RAF search and rescue pilot. He married his long-time girlfriend, 'commoner' Kate Middleton — now known as Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge — on 29 April 2011 in the biggest royal wedding since Charles and Diana, to general approval. They live in Wales, as he is being stationed on Anglesey, and completed a tour of Canada. He is a big sportsman, playing polo and supporting Aston Villa
in the Premier League
; he has been President of The Football Association
since 2006 and takes as active a role in that as his military and royal duties will allow.
After leaving the military, he began training to become an air ambulance pilot, becoming the first direct heir to the throne to take a job in the private sector.
Assuming he uses his first name as his regnal name upon accession to the throne, he will be known as King William V
. This is especially fitting, as it is reasonably likely that he will be reigning during the millennial anniversary (in 2066) of the Norman Conquest, which established William I (the Conqueror) upon the throne of England.
Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge
: 9 January 1982
William, Duke of Cambridge
Wife of Prince William and future Queen of England, she was known as Catherine Elizabeth "Kate" Middleton before her marriage (and despite it being factually incorrect, media both in the UK and abroad insist on referring to her by her maiden name, Kate Middleton). Met her future husband at the University of St Andrews, where she also earned her degree in History of Art. They dated off and on (but mostly on) for eight years before he popped the question in October 2010. As mentioned above, theirs was the biggest royal wedding in over two decades, and as such was accompanied by quite a lot of hoopla.
Since then Catherine has devoted herself to charity work and performing public duties on behalf of the royal family. And, it must be noted, she is a fashion icon around the world. She was also more or less officially deemed Team GB's lucky charm during her ubiquitous appearances at the 2012 Olympics, where the former field hockey champion served as Team GB ambassador. The teaming of William and Kate has had a restorative effect on the monarchy in not only the UK but in Canada as well, with more than one poll showing that people are willing to put up with a period of Charles being King with the knowledge that William and Kate are waiting in the wings. News of her impending motherhood broke in late 2012, earlier than planned, when the Duchess was admitted to hospital for minor complications with her pregnancy. Her second pregnancy was also announced earlier than expected in September 2014 for the same reason, though without a hospital admission. Assuming the child is born (due in April 2015), he or she (or they
even) will be fourth in line to the throne.
Prince Henry 'Harry' of Wales
: 15 September 1984
Second son of Charles, Harry acquired a reputation as a bit of an idiot thanks to stunts like showing up at one costume party dressed in a (Nazi) Afrika Korps uniform complete with a swastika armband. Since then has settled down as a career soldier in the British armoured corps and is apparently a very dedicated officer and small unit commander and very much a typical member of the military when it comes to beer and women. He is rumored to have threatened to make a public spectacle if he wasn't allowed to go to Afghanistan with his unit in 2007. He has since served in active duty in Afghanistan, but was brought back after certain members of the media broke silence on his being there (not cool, Aussie media). Then he took up flying helicopter gunships, which solved the problem — an AH-64 Apache being a priority target anyway, the enemy isn't going to care if the pilot is a prince. Was in an on-again, off-again tabloid-fodder relationship with wealthy Zimbabwean Chelsey Davy from 2004-2009; they have since split for good and the gossip hounds seem to have moved on to his latest squeeze, Cressida Bonas (with marriage rumours abounding). Harry is immensely
popular with the ladies, even more than his older brother, mostly due to being a young, hot, bad boy
. Yet another beneficiary of the Will and Kate effect, with the three forming a popular trio at the 2012 Olympics and other events. Appeared in the tabloids in August 2012 after being photographed naked at a party in Las Vegas
; the British public were mostly
supportive and viewed it as simply him letting off steam as any other young buck might do. His Father and Grandmother, however, were not pleased at all. Dogged by persistent low level rumours that he is a bastard, not helped by the fact that Harry tends to take more after the Spencers than the Windsors in appearance.
After spending his entire life at third in the line of succession, he was displaced by the birth of his nephew on 22 July 2013, is now fourth, and will drop to fifth when George's sibling is born. It has been reported that he will be created Duke of Sussex (a title once held by a younger son of George III) upon finally settling down and getting married; though he is the second son of a future monarch, and these have traditionally been created Dukes of York, it is unlikely that his father will outlive his uncle, Prince Andrew, who is (as mentioned) a full 12 years younger than Harry's father Charles.
: 15 November 1977
: Autumn Phillips (née
Only son of Princess Anne, Princess Royal, and her first husband Mark Phillips. Like his sister, Peter has no royal title because his mother didn't want her children to grow up with any.
You don't hear about him very much, because he keeps a low profile as a mid-to-upper level corporate executive (having worked for Jaguar
, Williams F1
, and the Royal Bank of Scotland
). The only time he really hit the news was when he got married: his Canadian fiancee Autumn Kelly had to convert from Catholicism to Anglicanism in order to keep him and their prospective children in line for the throne, which touched off debates about the Commonwealth's succession laws. Other than that, only really notable for giving the Queen her first two great-grandchildren, Savannah and Isla.
: 15 May 1981
: Mike Tindall
Following in her mother Anne's footsteps, took up competitive eventing and reigned as Eventing World Champion from 2006-2010, but could not defend her title due to some horrifically bad luck with her horse. Made up for it and then some, though, when she won Olympic silver for GB in eventing at the 2012 Games aboard her new mount High Kingdom. As the Princess Royal was dishing out the medals, all of Britain found this a little funny, too. She also got Sports Personality of the Year in 2006. Turns up in, of all things, the comic book V for Vendetta
, as Queen Zara, all those above her in the list having been killed in a nuclear war. In June 2011, she married Mike Tindall (who at the time was captain of the England national Rugby Union
team, and played for Gloucester until retiring in 2014). When she was born she was 6th in line for the throne (now currently fifteenth), but she doesn't possess an HRH title because her mother did not want her children to grow up with any, which excludes her from automatic entitlement to royal status.
In January 2014, she gave birth to a baby girl named Mia Grace Tindall, who is the lowest-ranked person in the line of succession who is a direct descendant of Elizabeth II, at 16th place.
Prince George of Cambridge
: 22 July 2013
First son of William, and 3rd in line for the throne. As the junior-most direct heir, he is presently the lowest-ranking person in the line of succession who cannot be displaced. Born 22 July 2013 at 4:24 pm (15:24 UTC). He was given the name George Alexander Louis
two days later, which is historically very fast for a newly-born royal (Prince Charles went nameless for almost a month
). His birth marks the first time since 1901 that the Sovereign and three generations of direct heirs have all been alive at the same time. As the eldest son of the eldest son of the Prince of Wales, he is automatically entitled to the style His Royal Highness
and the title of Prince, but this would not have been the case for any of his potential future siblings had the Queen herself not issued letters patent making it so. Notable for being the first person to have an entry on The Other Wiki prior to his own birthnote
If he takes his first name as his regnal name upon eventually becoming King, he will be known as either George VII
or George VIII
, depending on whether his grandfather also takes the regnal name George. In the latter case, it would tie that name with Henry and Edward as the most frequent regnal names for post-Norman monarchs (Edward was also used multiple times before then). If he uses his middle name of Alexander instead, he would be known as Alexander IV
, because there have been three Scottish (though not English or British) Kings by that name.
He is also, by general accolade, the most adorable baby in the history of all adorable babies to have ever been adorable.
Line of Succession
The line of succession to the British throne used to use male-preference primogeniture. In practice, this meant that any male children automatically went before the female children, even if the sister was older. Catholics and people who married
Catholics were also excluded. This was changed in 2011—2013 to absolute primogeniture, meaning the oldest child inherits, no matter what gender; people who married Catholics were also restored. However, the gender aspect only applies to any children after 2011. Another change in the succession laws concerns royal approval of marriages. Before 2013, anyone in the line of succession was (technically) required to receive royal approval before any marriage in order to remain in the line. Now, only the first six individuals in the line of successionnote
require such approval.
open/close all folders
Current Line of Succession
1. Prince Charles, Prince of Wales
(b 1948) first son of the Queen
2. Prince William, Duke of Cambridge
(b 1982) elder son of Prince Charles, Prince of Wales
3. Prince George of Cambridge (b 2013) only child (so far) of Prince William, Duke of Cambridge
4. Prince Henry/Harry of Wales (b 1984) younger son of the Prince Charles, Prince of Wales
5. Prince Andrew, Duke of York
(b 1960) second son of the Queen
6. Princess Beatrice of York (b 1988) elder daughter of Prince Andrew, Duke of York
7. Princess Eugenie of York (b 1990) younger daughter of Prince Andrew, Duke of York
8. Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex
(b 1964) third son of the Queen
9. The Honourable James Mountbatten-Windsor, Viscount Severn (b 2007) only son of Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex
10. Lady Louise Mountbatten-Windsor (b 2003) only daughter of Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex
11. Princess Anne, Princess Royal
(b 1950) only daughter of the Queen
12. Peter Phillips
(b 1977) only son of Princess Anne, Princess Royal
13. Savannah Phillips (b 2010) elder daughter of Peter Phillips
14. Isla Phillips (b 2012) younger daughter of Peter Phillips
15. Zara Tindall
(b 1981) only daughter of Princess Anne, Princess Royal
16. Mia Tindall (b 2014) only daughter of Zara Phillips
17. The Hon. David Armstrong-Jones, Viscount Linley
(b 1961) only son of Princess Margaret
18. Charles Armstrong-Jones (b 1999) only son of Viscount Linley
19. Margarita Armstrong-Jones (b 2002) only daughter of Viscount Linley
20. Lady Sarah Chatto
(b 1964) only daughter of Princess Margaret
21. Samuel Chatto (b 1996) elder son of Lady Sarah Chatto
22. Arthur Chatto (b 1999) younger son of Lady Sarah Chatto
Descendants of Prince Henry, (1st) Duke of Gloucester (King George VI's younger brother) (1900—1974)
Prince William of Gloucester (1941—1972) first son of Prince Henry, died unmarried and with no children before his father
23. Prince Richard, (2nd) Duke of Gloucester
(b 1944) second son of Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester
24. Alexander Windsor, Earl of Ulster
(b 1974) only son of Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester
25. Xan Windsor, Baron Culloden
(b 2007) only son of the Earl of Ulster
26. Lady Cosima Windsor (b 2010) only daughter of the Earl of Ulster
27. Lady Davina Lewis
(b 1977) elder daughter of Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester
28. Senna Lewis (b 2010) only daughter of Lady Davina Lewis
29. Tane Lewis (b 2012) only son of Lady Davina Lewis
30. Lady Rose Gilman
(b 1980) younger daughter of Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester
31. Lyla Gilman (b 2010) only daughter of Lady Rose Gilman
32. Rufus Gilman (b 2012) only son of Lady Rose Gilman
Descendants of Prince George, (1st) Duke of Kent (King George VI's younger brother) (1902—1942)
33. Prince Edward, (2nd) Duke of Kent
(b 1935) elder son of Prince George, Duke of Kent
34. George Windsor, Earl of St Andrews
(b 1962) elder son of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent
Edward Windsor, Baron Downpatrick (b 1988) only son of the Earl of St Andrews, barred because he is a Catholic
Lady Marina Windsor (b 1992) elder daughter of the Earl of St Andrews, barred because she is a Catholic
35. Lady Amelia Windsor (b 1995) younger daughter of the Earl of St Andrews
Lord Nicholas Windsor (b 1970) younger son of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, barred because he is a Catholic
36. Albert Windsor (b 2007) elder son of Lord Nicholas Windsor
37. Leopold Windsor (b 2009) younger son of Lord Nicholas Windsor
38. Lady Helen Taylor
(b 1964) only daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent
39. Columbus Taylor (b 1994) elder son of Lady Helen Taylor
40. Cassius Taylor (b 1996) younger son of Lady Helen Taylor
41. Eloise Taylor (b 2003) elder daughter of Lady Helen Taylor
42. Estella Taylor (b 2004) younger daughterof Lady Helen Taylor
43. Prince Michael of Kent
(b 1942) younger son of Prince George, Duke of Kent
44. Lord Frederick Windsor
(b 1979) only son of Prince Michael of Kent
45. Maud Windsor (b 2013) only daughter of Lord Frederick Windsor
46. Lady Gabriella Windsor (b 1981) only daughter of Prince Michael of Kent
47. Princess Alexandra, Lady Ogilvy
(b 1936) only daughter of Prince George, Duke of Kent
48. James Ogilvy
(b 1964) only son of Princess Alexandra
49. Alexander Ogilvy (b 1996) only son of Alexander Ogilvy
50. Flora Ogilvy (b 1994) only daughter of Alexander Ogilvy
51. Marina Ogilvy
(b 1966) only daughter of Princess Alexandra
52. Christian Mowatt (b 1993) only son of Marina Ogilvy
53. Zenouska Mowatt (b 1990) only daughter of Marina Ogilvy
Descendants of Princess Mary, Princess Royal/Countess of Harewood (King George VI's younger sister) (1897—1965)
George Lascelles, 7th Earl of Harewood (1923—2011) elder son of Princess Mary
54. David Lascelles, 8th Earl of Harewood
(b 1950) first son of the 7th Earl of Harewood
The Hon. Benjamin Lascelles (b 1978) first son of the 8th Earl of Harewood, barred because he was born outside marriage
Mateo Lascelles (b 2013) only son of Benjamin Lascelles, barred because his father was born outside marriage
55. Alexander Lascelles, Viscount Lascelles (b 1980) second son of the 8th Earl of Harewood (first child born when parents married)
56. The Hon. Edward Lascelles (b 1982) third son of the 8th Earl of Harewood
Lady Emily Shard (b 1975) only daughter of the 8th Earl of Harewood, barred because she was born outside marriage
Isaac Shard (b 2008 or 2009) first son of Lady Emily Shard, barred because his mother was born outside marriage
Ida Shard (b 2008 or 2009) only daughter of Lady Emily Shard, barred because her mother was born outside marriage
(Unknown Boy) Shard (b 2011) second son of Lady Emily Shard, barred because his mother was born outside marriage
57. The Hon. James Lascelles
(b 1953) second son of the 7th Earl of Harewood
58. Rowan Lascelles (b 1977) elder son of James Lascelles
59. Sophie Lascelles (b 1973) elder daughter of James Lascelles
60. Tewa Lascelles (b 1985) younger son of James Lascelles
Tanit Lascelles (b 1981) younger daughterof James Lascelles, barred because she was born outside marriage
61. The Hon. Jeremy Lascelles
(b 1955) third son of the 7th Earl of Harewood
62. Thomas Lascelles (b 1981) only son of Jeremy Lascelles
63. Ellen Lascelles (b 1984) first daughter of Jeremy Lascelles
64. Amy Lascelles (b 1986) second daughter of Jeremy Lascelles
65. Tallulah Lascelles (b 2005) third daughter of Jeremy Lascelles
The Hon. Mark Lascelles (b 1964) fourth son of the 7th Earl of Harewood, barred because he was born outside marriage
The Hon. Gerald Lascelles (1924—1998) younger son of Princess Mary
Charlotte Lascelles (b 1996) first daughter of Mark Lascelles, barred because her father was born outside marriage
Imogen Lascelles (b 1998) second daughter of Mark Lascelles, barred because her father was born outside marriage
Miranda Lascelles (b 2000) third daughter of Mark Lascelles, barred because her father was born outside marriage
66. Henry Lascelles
(b 1953) elder son of Gerald Lascelles
67. Maximilian Lascelles (b 1991) only son of Henry Lascelles
Martin Lascelles (b 1962) younger son of Gerald Lascelles, barred because he was born outside marriage
Alexander Lascelles (b 2002) only son of Martin Lascelles, barred because his father was born outside marriage
Georgina Douet-Lascelles (b 1988) only daughter of Martin Lascelles, barred because she and her father were born outside marriage
The line continues with the descendants of King Edward VII and so on, all the way back to King George I
(the Act of Settlement 1701 specifies that the descendants of Electress Sophia of Hanover are eligible for the throne; however, only two of her children (George I and Sophia Charlotte) had children, and the only son of Sophia Charlotte married Sophia Dorothea, his cousin and George I's daughter
, so all those alive today are also descended from George I).
Other European monarchs that are in the line of succession
Since Queen Victoria
had nine children and since most of these sons and daughters married other European monarchs, princes and nobles, it is natural that nearly all the current European monarchs are in, or could potentially be in, the line of succession. She was even nicknamed Grandmother of Europe
to reflect this. For much the same reason, there are also monarchs in the list who are not her
descendants, but those of (in reverse chronological order) George III; Prince Frederick, Prince of Wales (who never became king since he died before his father, George II) and George II — George I's daughter Sophia Dorothea is not included, as presently there are no monarchs among her descendants (though there are some pretenders of abolished monarchies).
- King Harald V of Norway (b 1937), who is a great-grandson of King Edward VII, and thus a second cousin of the Queen — 75 in line. Descended from:
- King Edward VII —> Queen Maud of Norway —> Olav V of Norway —> Harald V of Norway
- King Michael I of Romania (b 1921), who is a great-great-grandson of Queen Victoria — c. 90/100 in the line. Descended from:
- Queen Victoria —> Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha —> Queen Marie of Romania —> Carol II of Romania —> Michael I of Romania
- King Alexander II of Yugoslavia (b 1945), who is a great-great-great-grandson of Queen Victoria — c. 100/110 in the line. Descended from:
- Queen Victoria —> Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha —> Queen Marie of Romania —> Queen Maria of Yugoslavia —> Peter II of Yugoslavia —> Alexander II of Yugoslavia
- King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden (b 1946), who is a great-great-grandson of Queen Victoria (and first cousin to Margrethe II) — c. 190/200 in the line. Descended from:
- Queen Victoria —> Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn —> Princess Margaret, Crown Princess of Sweden —> Prince Gustaf Adolf, Duke of Västerbotten —> King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden
- Queen Margrethe II of Denmark (b 1940), who is a great-great-granddaughter of Queen Victoria (and first cousin to Carl XVI Gustaf) — c. 220/230 in the line. Descended from:
- Queen Victoria —> Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn —> Princess Margaret, Crown Princess of Sweden —> Queen Ingrid of Denmark —> Margrethe II of Denmark
- King Constantine II of Greece (b 1940), who is a great-great-great grandson of Queen Victoria — c. 430/440 in the line. Descended from:
- Queen Victoria —> Empress Victoria of Germany —> Queen Sophia of Greece —> Paul of Greece —> Constantine II of Greece
- Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, the Queen's husband (b 1921), who is a great-great-grandson of Queen Victoria (thus making him a third cousin of his wife, as well as her second cousin once removed through the Danish line of Queen Alexandra and her brother King George I of Greece) — c. 500s/600s in the line. Descended from:
- Queen Victoria —> Princess Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse and by Rhine —> Princess Victoria, Marchioness of Milford Haven —> Princess Alice of Battenberg —> Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
- King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands (b 1967), who is a descendant of King George II — c. 800 in the line. Descended from:
- King George II —> Princess Anne, Princess of Orange —> William V, Prince of Orange —> William I of the Netherlands —> William II of the Netherlands —> William III of the Netherlands —> Wilhelmina of the Netherlands —> Juliana of the Netherlands —> Beatrix of the Netherlands —> Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands
Catholic monarchs barred from the throne but descended from British monarchs
The Act of Settlement 1701 barred anyone who was Catholic or married to a Catholic from taking the British throne. This bar stood until 2013, when the Succession to the Throne Act 2013 deleted the bit about people married to Catholics being barred from the throne; actual Catholics remain forbidden (for the practical reason that the monarch is still Supreme Governor of the Protestant Church of England and is, while in Scotland, a member and "protector" of the even more Protestant Church of Scotland. As we mention elsewhere, the monarch does change religion every time he/she enters Scotland. Yes, we know
.) That didn't keep the later descendants of British monarchs from marrying Catholic royals (and "recusant" British Catholic nobles), and so quite a few Catholic monarchs would
be in the line were they not Catholic.
- King Juan Carlos I of Spain (b 1938; abdicated 2014)note and his son King Felipe VI of Spain (b 1968) would be somewhere in the 700ish range, with Felipe immediately following his father. Juan Carlos is a great-great-grandson of Queen Victoria. Descended from:
- Queen Victoria —> Princess Beatrice —> Queen Victoria Eugenie of Spain —> Infante (Prince) Juan, Count of Barcelona —> Juan Carlos I of Spain —> Felipe VI of Spain
- King Phillipe of Belgium (b 1960), who is a descendant of Prince Frederick, Prince of Wales (and a first cousin of Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg) would be somewhere in the 1300/1400 range. Fun fact: the Belgian and British monarchies are even more closely related, as they are both agnatically of the House of [Wettin von] Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (name later changed on account of a nasty family squabble): the first Belgian King Leopold I was Prince Albert's paternal uncle. However, this closer relationship doesn't count, since it's not descent from Sophia. (With the accession of Prince Charles Britain will switch to being agnatic Oldenburgs.) Descended from:
- Prince Frederick, Prince of Wales —> Duchess Augusta of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel —> Princess Augusta of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel —> Prince Paul of Württemberg note —> Pauline, Duchess of Nassau —> Sophia, Queen of Sweden and Norway —> Prince Carl, Duke of Västergötland —> Queen Astrid of Belgium —> Albert II of Belgium —> Phillipe of Belgium
- Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg (b 1955), who is a descendant of Prince Frederick, Prince of Wales (and a first cousin of Phillipe of Belgium), would also be somewhere in the 1300/1400 range. Descended from:
- Prince Frederick, Prince of Wales —> Duchess Augusta of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel —> Princess Augusta of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel —> Prince Paul of Württemberg —> Pauline, Duchess of Nassau —> Sophia, Queen of Sweden and Norway —> Prince Carl, Duke of Västergötland —> Queen Astrid of Belgium —> Joséphine Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg —> Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg
And, for reference
- Last (4,973rd place as of 2011) — Karin Vogel, a pain therapist from Rostock, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, and a female-line great-great-granddaughter of Alexander, Duke of Wurttemberg (1771–1833), himself a great-great-grandson of George I by his daughter, Sophia Dorothea.