Ranma 1/2: Shampoo and her grandmother hail from a hidden amazon village, deep in the mountains of China. Needless to say, she's almost always seen in Chinese garb and her speech pattern is the stereotypical broken english, which lacks use of pronouns.
Princess Aska from Magic Knight Rayearth had elements of Chinese Girl. One of the Magic Knights even comments on how she and her entourage seem to be a weird mix of Chinese and Japanese stereotypes.
Ku Fei and Chao Lingshen from Mahou Sensei Negima! seemed unusual in sharing the same trait, until Chao's more specific gimmick was revealed to be time-traveling descendant of Negi's come to Set Right What Once Went Wrong. They both know Kung Fu, but Chao cheats.
Possibly Tenten from Naruto, who definitely invokes the design, despite the fact that her world doesn't seem to have a China. In the databooks, her favorite food is Chinese food. Team Guy as a whole seems to have a Chinese theme going on, from Rock Lee and Guy-sensei being Bruce Lee Clones to Neji Hyuuga's fighting style coming from baguazhang, a Chinese form of martial arts.
Fei from Gate Keepers is a particularly noxious example of this trope. She seems hard pressed to have thirty seconds of screen time without squealing "Ayiyi!".
Sha Chi from Penguin Musume, complete with the qipao and martial arts thing. Also adds "-dachi" to the end of every sentence.
Kagura from Gintama, despite being an alien, dresses in Chinese outfits and is occasionally referred to by strangers as Chinese.
Ruri and Hari, cute Chinese minions of moth demon Menōmaru from the first Inuyasha movie.
3x3 Eyes: Mei Shin is from Hong Kong, knows Kung-Fu, and is drawn to actually appear Asian. She typically wears a red uniform, but slips into a Qipao during a later scene, in an attempt to get Yakumo's attention.
Wang Liu Mei from the Gundam 00 series, although she only wears a qipao in the first episode and it is her Battle Butler and older brother Hong Long that knows kung fu.
In the Cowboy Bebop manga, Faye refers to herself as "an Asian beauty". In her flashbacks, it's shown that she originally lived in Singapore. Though not directly stated in the anime, it's implied that she's Chinese.
Melissa Mao from Full Metal Panic! is of Chinese descent but she doesn't follow any of the stereotypes. This is because she's lived most of her life in New York, although she also spent some time in Hong Kong.
The two that do follow this trope's stereotypes, however, are the Creepy Twins Yu Fang and Yu Lan. One of them wore their hair in the Odango hairstyle at one point, and was even wearing a qipao. And they both know martial arts (a whole lot better than Mao).
Taiwan and Vietnam from Axis Powers Hetalia, at least in looks. Also, the originally male China in the Gender Flipped art (whether fanart or the doodles done by Himaruya himself).
I-Pin from Katekyo Hitman Reborn! is a good example of this, particularly once she's hit with the Ten Year Bazooka.
Vivian Wong from Yu-Gi-Oh!. Aside from having her hair up in odango, she goes around waving fans and a duel disk, wears a yellow qipao and apparently knows enough kung-fu to fix Grandpa's back.. or break it, as the case may be. At some point she and Mai Kujaku duel the Paradox brothers on the Great Wall of China.
Darker Than Black has an interesting subversion in Alice, Misaki's childhood friend, who invites her to her birthday party slash mob gathering, which she herself attends in a western-style ballgown, while stuffing a rather embarrassed Misaki into a qipao, complete with odango. Lampshaded by Alice's crimeboss father, who grumbles about her displaying her xenophilic tendencies so blatantly at such an important event.
Ming Chao from Et Cetera. She's a really bright brunette and has the biggest eyes of the whole cast, but hey, she carries a wok on her back!
Chan Lee from Bakugan, and it really shows through her clothing, esspecially in the New Vestroia arc.
Ling Yunque (Suzu) from Amuri in Star Ocean. Except for the martial arts part, but she's got some crazy super powers with Chinese motifs instead, so it all evens out.
Huang Lingyin from Infinite Stratos, who wears a qipao in fanart and in the second season's third episode, alongside having a family who own a Chinese restaurant, and also has a Chinese-esque theme song.
Kou Shuurei and all the other female characters in Saiunkoku Monogatari, which is a fictional version of China after all. However, they all wear Han period costumes and not the traditional qipao of the Manchu period.
Tiger & Bunny has Dragon Kid, real name Pao-Lin Huang, the youngest of the heroes. She's a cute tomboy.
Then, there's the android assistant Colon from Choujuu Sentai Liveman. A Chinese robot girl... who moonwalks. And won't hesitate to hop into one of the vehicles and make some People in Rubber Suits eat missiles when the Rangers are in trouble. And her (removable) Odangos do stuff, too.
Street Fighter II'sChun Li is the earliest and best known example by far. Her look has even become iconic: from her odango hairdo, her spiked bracelets, and her legendary thunder thighs.
An earlier example from Capcom (which, according to some of its employees actually inspired Chun Li's design) is the Pooh/Kuniang sisters (Ton, Bei, and Sai) from Strider and its sequels. The color-coded triplets are styled in traditional chinese clothes, are experts in Chinese Kempo with incredible powerful plasma-creating kicks. and even speak Mandarin in-game! They also use chinese hairstyles, most notably Tong Pooh's braided ponytails and Sai Pooh's really-complex pigtails in Strider 2. While the chinese influence in attire got toned quite down in the 2014 reboot, they were given chinese weapons to compensate.
It's at least heavily implied in the OGverse, whenever she cooks (for some reason they make a big deal of everyone sharing a big meal before the final battle) she makes unspecified Korean food and she is a Black Belt in Tae Kwon Do and ... has a Korean name.
Mei Ling from Metal Gear Solid is the perky and heavily-accented teenage girl in charge of saving your game. When she returned in Metal Gear Solid 4, however, she loses her accent and is pretty much indistinguishable from anybody else, except physically.
Hong Meiling from Touhou, whose name was initially difficult for fans to remember because it can be read as "Kurenai Misuzu" thanks to ZUN not specifying on how it was supposed to be pronounced...when people even bothered to remember her name rather than just calling her China. However, after she was given more characterization, this nickname hasn't been used as often.
Chen as well, but she's known more as a Cat Girl than this.
Both Meiling and Chen were preceded by Orange in Lotus Land Story, one of the PC-98 Touhou games. Some fans are even convinced that Orange was the prototype for Meiling, since they are both redheaded Chinese youkai who predominantly wear green.
Seiga Kaku, who is a Taoist hermit.
Chai Xianghua from Soulcalibur, a young member of the Ming Emperor's personal guard and the one tasked with finding "The Sword of Heroes". She comes with the typical attitude and attirue, and as an added bonus, she was the chosen wielder of the titular weapon (the first one in the series, even) and she's top of top tier.
Her daughter Leixia takes over her spot in Soulcalibur V, being pretty much a copy-paste of her mother.
Which is funny, because she is otherwise the most stereotypical Japanese character ever. Her dreams, along with her conversations with her Chinese distant relative note Wang actually isn't her grandfather, despite what others would have you believe and her inner monologues are in Japanese.
Fantasy Counterpart China got an expansion in Dark Dawn, but Feizhi was nowhere to be seen. Much to the fans' dismay.
Rin Rin from MadWorld she has dual fan blades and the stereotypical Chinese dress. She returns in Anarchy Reigns, this time with her sisters Ai Rin (who uses nunchucks) and Fei Rin (who uses an ice spear).
Laurel Hua (Silver Serpent), daughter of the Iron Dragon (the WU expy for Fu Manchu). She is one of the Bad Seeds (the children of supervillains) at Whateley Academy.
Chou Lee (Bladedancer), has had Chinese-ness forced upon her by her Upgrade Artifact, the magic sword Destiny's Wave. Not only was she physically transformed into a Chinese hottie, but also given a language imprint so deep that she now speaks English with a Chinese accent.
Aja Leith from Jem shares a few characteristics with the trope, although she leans toward the Token Minority aspect (it was The Eighties, after all).
Toph from Avatar: The Last Airbender fits this trope. Azula, Ty Lee and Mai also, since the Fire Nation seems to be based more on Tang Dynasty Chinese and Thai culture, while the Earth Kingdom is definitely more Qing Dynasty Chinese in nature.