Britain's social structure. This contains some stuff that you might not be familiar with.
ClassBritain has far more strictly defined class divisions than the United States or many other countries. There are several ways that these are categorised by people. Some people will tell you that Class is dead in modern Britain. Do not believe them. It has ceased to matter as it once did, and most of the old elitist bastions now happily admit anyone with the right qualifications or enough money. Class is sadly alive and kicking, though - a good way to tell is by looking at the different demographics targeted by British Newspapers. Many academics have attempted to write a definition of the various classes, and most have failed to pin it down exactly, but it has a lot to do with what you do for a living. No, actually, it has a lot to do with what your parents do/did for a living, though you can transcend your class. Also note that class is not directly related to how much money you or your family earn, though it can be heavily related to what school and what if any university you went to. Alas, Tall Poppy Syndrome runs rampant; social climbing is not generally the done thing.
DCI Dick Catherwood (white guy): Get in there, Get into the community and find out what they know.
DI Moses Jones (second generation Afro-Caribbean guy): You want me to go around asking local Africans about ritual killing?
DCI Dick Catherwood: Well it's better coming from you Moses. They're your people.
DI Moses Jones: My people, and who am I, Bishop Tutu?
DCI Dick Catherwood: If only.
DI Moses Jones: I am from Shepherds Bush. note
—Moses Jones (2009 Mini Series)An important note to begin with. When Britons use the term "Asian", they are referring to someone from the Indian sub-continent, not the Far East, usually. For many years ethnicity monitoring questions on goverment forms actually gave "Asian" and "Chinese" as different options! Partly this is simply because most ethnically Asian people in Britain are of Indian/Pakistani/Bangladeshi/Sri Lankan origin, but it's also because people from the other three countries in that region get upset for good reason if they're described as "Indian". Also, there's some sensitivity about referring to people as "Pakistani" because of the common British use of the abbreviation "Paki" as a racist insult as extreme and explosive as the word "Nigger" in the USA. Also, whatever you do don't refer to black British people as African-American, you will be mocked mercilessly. Britain has been colonised by many ethnic groups over the ages (including failed colonisations between Ice Ages), with identifiable Late Stone- and Bronze Age individuals found to be from France, Germany, Switzerland,and further East such as Hungary and Poland. Much evidence was lost when the North Sea Plain flooded in more recent ages. Cheddar Man (found in the nineteenth century in a cave in Cheddar Gorge) was Old Stone Age. Britain is still a mostly white country, with 80.5% of the population being White British, 1% White Irish and 4.4% White (Other) according to the 2011 censusnote . Although this varies greatly around the country with Northern Ireland having less than 1 percent of its population being non-white (In Northern Ireland the census doesn't differentiate between White Irish and White British for obvious reasons). The Irish have migrated in large numbers to Britain for centuries; when the Irish economy was strong, this tailed off, but after the Irish economy went into the tank, young Irish have been moving to Britain in quantity again (and, when they find that Britain isn't doing much better, a lot of them end up going to the US—most commonly the East Coast, although Chicago is also popular). The non-white ethnic minorities (14.1%) of the UK are mostly found in London. Significant minority populations (in percentage of the local population terms) also exist in Leicester, Birmingham, Slough and Luton as well as this ghettos with large South Asian muslim populations exist in Lancashire and Yorkshire. Minorities are more common in cities and it is rarer (although they are still prevalent) to come across them in rural areas. The main ethnic minority groups are:
Race RelationsOne could write a rather interesting comparative history of racism in the US and UK. The UK never had the system of legalised segregation that the US had in its southern states, but there was a considerable amount of informal discrimination. Originally, the British Empire was one of the largest sources of slave traders, but they also banned slavery much earlier than the United States did and took a very hard-line approach to traders who persisted... including non-British traders who weren't actually bound by British law. However, "blacking up" lasted about 20 years longer on UK TV than in the United States. There is still a fair amount of racism in the UK. The Far Right have a worrying level of support, although it's actually lot less than in most other European nations. The British National Party breifly (between 2009 and 2014) had seats in the European Parliament. They lost them in 2014 but The UK Independance Party (AKA UKIP) have gained a large number in their place. And contrary to popular belief, the far right will probably do worse under proportional representation since a) the most likely forms involve ranked voting and they are a lot of people's absolute last choice and b) electoral reformers claim proportional representation will greatly increase turnout, swamping the committed nutters with less committed moderates. Or, to put it more simply: racism, particularly casual racism, is arguably less prevalent in the UK than on the Continent, but is arguably more prevalent than in the US. For example, where a Brit might see a funny caricature or romantic painting, an American (particularly one born since 1975 or 1980) might well cringe at the racial undertones. On the other hand, if the American pointed out to the Brit, "that's actually kinda racist," he/she is more likely to say, "I see... you seem to have a point" than, say, a Frenchman or a Pole (unless, of course, the thing is racist towards Frenchmen or Poles, in which case the insult was probably intended). Arguably though, and certainly in the opinion of the UK and Europe, there are some places where America is still more racist than the UK. There are still high tensions in many places between different races, which can also be seen through class barriers. For example, in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina there were accusations of racism due to the majority of people not being able to leave New Orleans being black and working class. President Barack Obama has had to deal with accusations of "being too black", "not being black enough", being foreign and being a Muslim, all of which he has taken with very good humour. It could be pointed out, that despite America having increasingly equal amounts of White Americans to other ethnicities, if you look at their media you'll notice its predominantly white. As several sociologists have pointed out, out of A list actors, only two are black, none are Asian, Hispanic etc, and both of those actors (Morgan Freeman and Will Smith respectively) are straight and male. As mentioned there is also a high amount of suspicion of muslim people ever since 9/11, though this to a lesser extent is in Europe and the UK too. One could say that due to America and Europe having different histories of racism, different issues worry them and different things they interpret as racist. For example, slavery is a sore subject for America but in places like Scandinavia where countries had both white and black slavery, this isn't seen as much of an issue.
Cold is God's way of telling us to burn more Catholics.
—Blackadder's Puritan Auntie, Black Adder II, "Beer".Britain has not had the mass persecution of some other countries, but it has been there — especially against Roman Catholics. After the Reformation, the monasteries were "dissolved" and the assets seized by Henry VIII, on the specious grounds of debauchery by the monks. Contrary to common understanding, while he legalised the Church of England, Henry didn't fully convert the country to Protestantism- that was actually left to his very young heir Edward VI (who, being crowned at only 9, was subject to heavy influence by advisors.) Catholics were subjected to organised discrimination, such as the Disenfranchising Act 1727 in Ireland, barring all of them from voting. This also applied to other "non-conformists", such as the "Clarendon Code" (though Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon and chief minister, didn't write them or fully approve of them). These effectively barred them from holding public offices. Henry's daughter, Mary I (who inherited when Edward died unmarried aged 15), converted the country back to Catholicism, and executed numerous dissenters, hence being known as Bloody Mary. Her half-sister, Elizabeth I, converted it back to Protestantism, and made at least a token effort not to offend Catholic Europe by doing so. During the reign of the Stuarts there was a kind of Red Scare against Catholics, thanks to the scaremongering tactics of Titus Oates and others — people believed that there was a widespread conspiracy to overthrow the British monarchy and forcibly convert all of the Britons to Catholicism. It got so bad that people were afraid to go out to the theatre in case the Catholics got them. Laws were put in place to make sure Catholics could never have power in Britain again. Ironically, the last Stuart king (James II and VII) was a Catholic, which is why they got rid of him and replaced him with his very Protestant daughter, Mary II. Despite this, there remained certain pockets of Catholicism in Britain; leaving out Ireland, there was also the Scottish Highlands, as well as some parts of the North. Additionally, certain aristocratic families became firmly associated with Catholicism over the centuries, to the point where all of society expected them to be "recusant" (the legal term for English Catholics back then). Particularly notable are the Howard family, the main line of which, being the Dukes of Norfolk, were the seniormost non-royal aristocrats in the country and held certain hereditary roles in the government which they never lostnote despite being Catholic (it sort of became one of those utterly incomprehensible institutions of which the British are so fond). Most of the anti-Catholic laws were repealed in the early 19th century, but there is one notable exception — if a member of the Royal Family were to become a Catholic or (until 2013) marry one, they are barred from ascending to the throne. In the 19th century, there was a secret society called the Kit-Kat Club dedicated to ensuring the future heirs to the kingdom were all Protestant. (It either no longer exists, or is having a break.) Lingering anti-Catholic feeling may have contributed to Tony Blair not formally converting to Catholicism until he had left the office of PM, although it was more likely simply his not wishing to make a big deal over his level of religious belief, as profession of and the influence of such tends to be more subdued than in the US even with pious politicians. This was far worse in Ireland and continues to have an impact in Northern Ireland, and to a lesser extent in Glasgow, where there is a large population of Irish descent. Because the Church of England's split from Rome was because of the King's sex life rather than popular demand, the Anglican Church has always had a rather wider range of internal doctrinal difference than most Christian denominations. The traditional split, to simplify things considerably, has been between the Anglo-Catholics, or "High Church", who think that just because you reject the authority of the Pope doesn't mean you can't continue to substantially accept Catholic doctrines and practices, and the Evangelicals, or "Low Church", who are fully Protestant in their doctrines and practices. The English Civil War was partly a religious conflict, with the High Church siding predominantly with the King and the Low Church with Parliament. Since the nineteenth century a third element has been added in the shape of the Modernist/Liberal wing. These, stereotypically, are the kind of people who hold yoga sessions in the church hall, publicly doubt the bodily Resurrection, and want to be able to hold same-sex marriages. Note that the political associations of the High and Low Churches have to some extent dissipated and even reversed. Most notably, the ultra-High-Church Oxford Movement of the 19th century was devoted to making Anglicanism as much like Catholicism as possible, with the hope of an eventual reconciliation or at least rapprochement with Rome; those in the movement were often the period equivalent of champagne socialists and tended to have conciliatory/"pro-Irish" views on The Irish Question (historically characteristic of the left) and as a result, many High Church members are today associated with the Christian Left (Tony Blair, an Anglo-Catholic prior to his conversion to Catholicism, is probably the most prominent contemporary example). In the meantime, many Low Church members became the sort of business-oriented, religiously conservative small shopkeepers who back the Conservatives. Note that the link between class and church orientation has been weakened as well; Queen Elizabeth herself has been noted to have a "serious Low Church piety" (possibly the influence of her Scottish mother). Beyond the Low Church wing of Anglicanism, there are a variety of even more Protestant denominations who reject the Anglican system as too centralised and/or too much of a compromise with Catholicism, including Congregationalists, Presbyterians, Quakers, Baptists, Methodists,note and a host of other smaller and sometimes short-lived movements. These are collectively known as Nonconformists (as in refusing to "conform" to Anglicanism) or Dissenters, and were persecuted and restricted at times in the past. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the Dissenters were, like Catholics, generally prohibited from holding public office, attending university, or even having churches in the cities. As time went on, these restrictions were lifted, but not before they built an elaborate network of academies that, unlike their Church of England counterparts, taught practical subjects like applied maths, science, (living) foreign languages, engineering, and business methods. Oh yes, business methods: Since the Dissenters were not prohibited from becoming craftsmen, and their religions tended not to frown upon and often even encouraged the pursuit of material success, they developed their crafts into industry—a field that Anglicans (particularly High Church Tories) were often too high-and-mighty to touch. The Treaty of Union (1707) which combined England with Scotland included protection of Scotland's own established church, which is Presbyterian (the Scottish Anglican minority is known as the Scottish Episcopal Church). It has had several acrimonious splits over its history. The stereotype of these folks, in sharp contrast to the Anglicans, is grey-haired, grizzled ministers with hard boots preaching the coming Doom of the world and railing against sinful fun. This is seldom true, and almost any instances will be found in the Western Isles or rural areas of the Highlands. Most of these will be part of one of the churches known as the Wee Free (the Free Presbyterian Church of Scotland, the Association of Free Churches, the Free Church of Scotland, the Free Church of Scotland (Continuing) and so-on), some of which are unrelated and some of which result from the traditional habit of schisming. The result of all of this is that the Dissenters—along with some Scots (the hardworking, business-minded Lowlanders who made up the core of the Kirk's membership found the English Dissenters most congenial as brothers in faith and as business partners)—were absolutely critical in making Britain what it became. As the craftsman Dissenters and Scots quickly discovered, the basic tools of industrialisation were lying all around them, with many key inventions dating back to the Middle Ages: things like techniques for running heavy machinery on power (usually water power, which sent a lot of Dissenters to the hills, where fast-running streams were in ample supply) and processes for making glass that, it turns out, translated easily to metallurgy. With no way to get ahead except starting a business and turning a huge profit, these Dissenters (and their Scottish brethren) started to put old technologies together in ways that changed the world—all with an eye to making a fast buck from the rich Anglican snobs who disdained them but also seemed to collectively have more money than sense. The origin of the Industrial Revolution is thus peppered with the names of the Dissenters and Scottish Presbyterians who put these pieces together—people like Abraham Darby,note Thomas Newcomen,note James Watt,note John Wilkinson,note Josiah Wedgwood,note William Murdoch,note and so on. A large proportion of the basic science on which the industrial techniques were founded were also the product of Dissenters (and their Church of Scotland brethren); the most consequential are probably Joseph Priestley (John Wilkinson's brother-in-law, a bad preachernote but a great chemist—he discovered carbon dioxide and oxygen) and Joseph Black (a professor at the University of Glasgow who discovered latent heat,note a concept critical to the development of efficient steam engines), but really, the whole scientific side of the Scottish Enlightenment (in full swing at the time) counts. And they financed much of this themselves, too: both Lloyds Bank and Barclays, the first banks to provide capital to the provincial cities where this business was happening, were founded by Quakers—largely because the Anglican financiers of London didn't think banking had a future outside the capital. By the beginning of the 19th century, the Dissenters (and the Scots) had turned Britain into an industrial powerhouse, creating the middle bits of the aforementioned class structure (by creating the non-agricultural working class outright and by expanding the middle classes through various direct and indirect means), and establishing themselves as industrialists—in part because their ancestors had had their other opportunities severely limited (and to a lesser degree, because the Anglican upper crust laughed at them). So, thank you, C of E, we guess? Jews have also suffered, with discrimination against them being common during the Middle Ages. There was ultimately the Edict of Explusion of 1290, where all the Jews in England were expelled — this was not formally overturned until 1656 by Oliver Cromwell, who it turns out wasn't as harsh a Puritan as people sometimes think. (Though in fairness letting the Jews back in was inspired by millenarianism. Why? Ask an eschatologist.) By 1874 Britain had an ethnically Jewish Prime Minister, Benjamin Disraeli. (Religiously he was Christian - in fact he'd become an MP many years before it became legal for observant Jews to hold public office - but this was still a big deal, and he was proud of it.) It is possible that Britain will have its second Jewish Prime Minister after the next election with Ed Miliband, leader of the Labour Party, being Jewish (although again not a religious Jew—Miliband is an atheist).note There are now quite a lot of Muslims in Britain (2.7 million at the 2011 Census), mostly (South) Asians. There have been small populations of Asian Muslims for quite some time, but their numbers didn't really take off until The Sixties and The Seventies, when Asians in general started migrating. Discrimination against Muslims has generally been ethnic rather than religious (i.e., Asian Muslims and Asian Hindus, Sikhs, Parsis, Buddhists, etc., generally all faced the same treatment), but recent events have led Baroness Warsi, co-chair of the Conservative Party and a Punjabi Muslim herself, to claim that Islamophobia is the last socially acceptable form of racism in Britain. This created a small stir in some circles. There are also a considerable numbers of Hindus, Sikhs and Buddhists in Britain. The first two of these outnumber Jews in Britain and the last one has approximately the same number of adherents. Hindus and Sikhs are mostly concentrated in the South East and Leicester whilst Buddhists are present in small numbers all over the country with the most Buddhist town in the UK being the military town of Aldershot in Hampshire mainly due to it being home to large numbers of Buddhist Gurkhas who were allowed to settle in England and chose to do so near where they had been based whilst in the army. The oldest Tibetan Buddhist Monastery in Europe is also in the UK, Samyť Ling at Eskdale in the Scottish Borders. Leonard Cohen and David Bowie studied Buddhism there in the late 1960s; Bowie almost became a monk at Samyť Ling, but ultimately decided to pursue pop music rather than celibacy.
The North-South DivideOne clear division that can be seen in the UK is the divide between the "North" of the country and the "South". The precise divide is debated (common ones are the Watford Gap Service Station, the most northerly point where one can buy the Evening Standard note , and anywhere outside the M25), but the 1983 General Election, where Labour won no seats south of Birmingham outside of Greater London gives you a good hint. Note that the North-South Divide refers to the north and south of England, not England/Scotland rivalry. Care must be taken when refering to a place as The North as this can mean northern England ("Oop North"), Northern Ireland ("Da North"), or northern Scotland. A not too uncommon conversation (here between an English and a Scottish person) might go: "I'm from the North." "Oh, like Inverness?" "No, Newcastle." "So the South." "Um, yes. But no."