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->''Fifteen men on the dead man's chest--\\
Yo-ho-ho, and a bottle of rum!\\
Drink and the Devil had done for the rest--\\
Yo-ho-ho, and a bottle of rum!''

''Treasure Island'', written by Creator/RobertLouisStevenson in [[OlderThanRadio 1881]], is a classic tale of pirates and buried treasure, which [[TropeMaker created]] many of the [[{{pirate}} pirate tropes]], including

* X marks the spot on a TreasureMap to show where the PirateBooty is hidden.
* A [[SeadogPegLeg peg leg]] and a [[PirateParrot parrot]] as the [[DressedToPlunder standard pirate look]] (despite Silver not having a peg leg in the original book).
* The excessive use of [[TalkLikeAPirate nautical slang]] by pirate characters ("Shiver me timbers!").
* The "Black Spot" as a death sentence handed out to traitors by pirates. (Though historically this ''may'' have been done with the Ace of Spades).

In the book, Jim Hawkins, an ordinary (although quick-witted) lad, discovers a treasure map among the effects of a deceased resident at his family's inn. He shows it to two local gentlemen (a landed noble and a wealthy doctor), who charter a ship to search for the treasure on Skeleton Island, but they hire sailor-turned-tavern-owner Long John Silver as their cook, [[TheMole unaware that he is a pirate]]. Long John becomes Jim's [[{{mentors}} mentor]], while winning over most of the crew -- who he helped hire.

By chance, Jim [[ExactEavesdropping overhears]] Long John's plotting, and warns his friends, just as they arrive at the island. Over the next few days, Jim repeatedly wanders into danger, meets a scary hermit and kills a pirate by himself, while Long John keeps switching sides, and the treasure is found.

Jim and his friends return home rich, Long John escapes with some of the treasure, and the rest of the pirates get marooned on the island or killed.

This book has been adapted into several {{movies}}, including:
* ''Treasure Island'' (1920) - Silent film. Now lost.
* ''Treasure Island'' (1934) - Directed by Victor Fleming. Starred Jackie Cooper as Jim, Creator/WallaceBeery as Long John Silver, and Creator/LionelBarrymore as Billy Bones.
* ''Treasure Island'' (1937) - A weird Soviet version.[[note]]Irish rebels led by Livesey find a treasure map and trick moneylender Trelawney into organizing an expedition. He hires pirates. Hawkins is a young woman (in love with Livesey), who dresses as a boy to join the expedition. In the end Trelawney and pirates are left on the island. The rebels needed the money to buy weapons.[[/note]]
* ''Film/{{Treasure Island|1950}}'' (1950) - Creator/{{Disney}}'s first fully non-animated film. Introduced the "{{pirate}}" [[TalkLikeAPirate accent]].
* ''Treasure Island'' (1966) - A French-West German television series starring Ivor Dean as John Silver. It was shown in four instalments (on the four Advent Sundays) in West Germany and in thirteen episodes in France. The 360 minutes of the series were cut to 84 for an unsuccessful US cinematic release in 1970. Ivor Dean wrote a script for a sequel series with Robert S. Baker, but that came to naught because he died in 1974. The script was dug up again in 1986 (see below).
* ''Animal Treasure Island'' (1971) - an {{anime}} version, worked on by Creator/HayaoMiyazaki
* ''Treasure Island'' (1972) - Starring Creator/OrsonWelles as Long John Silver.
* ''Treasure Island'' (1973) - an animated movie produced by Creator/{{Filmation}}, featuring Richard Dawson (from ''Series/HogansHeroes'' and ''Series/FamilyFeud'') as both Long John Silver and Captain Smollett.
* ''Treasure Island'' (1977) - A [[Creator/TheBBC BBC]] series that includes Creator/PatrickTroughton as Israel Hands and David Collings (Silver from ''Series/SapphireAndSteel'') as Blind Pew.
* ''Takarajima'' (1978) - A 26-episode TV anime series, produced by Creator/TMSEntertainment and directed by Creator/OsamuDezaki.
* ''Return to Treasure Island'' (1986) - A ten-part Disney television series based on the aforementioned script by Ivor Dean. Set ten years after the events of the novel, it starred Creator/BrianBlessed as Long John Silver.
* ''Treasure Island [[InSpace in outer space]]'' (1987) also named Pianeta Del Tesoro - Treasure Planet - A 5-episode German and Italian collaboration series, produced by Creator/and directed by Antonio Margheriti and set in 2300.
* ''Treasure Island'' (1988) - A classic Soviet half-animation half-live action musical film. Republished without live-action intermissions as ''[[NeverTrustATitle The Return to]] Treasure Island'' (1992).
* ''[[Film/TreasureIsland1990 Treasure Island]]'' (1990) - a TNT cable network TV movie, with Creator/CharltonHeston as Silver, Creator/ChristianBale as Jim, Creator/ChristopherLee as Blind Pew and Creator/PetePostlethwaite as George Merry.
* ''WesternAnimation/TheLegendsOfTreasureIsland'' (1993) - UK FunnyAnimal InNameOnly animated series with Jim as a puppy (voiced by Dawn French) and Silver as a fox (voiced by Creator/RichardEGrant). Many will recognise the cast members, especially Creator/HughLaurie playing Squire Trelawney as a member of [[Series/BlackAdder the George family]].
* ''Film/MuppetTreasureIsland'' (1996)
* ''Treasure Island'' (1999) - Starring Jack Palance as Long John Silver.
* ''Disney/TreasurePlanet'' (2002) - [[Franchise/DisneyAnimatedCanon Disney's animated version]] [[RecycledINSPACE ...IN SPACE!]] (Surprisingly good and faithful to the source considering the SpaceOpera setting.)
* ''Pirates of Treasure Island'' (2006) - Comedic take on the story, released by one and only TheAsylum.
* ''[[Series/TreasureIsland2012 Treasure Island]]'' (2012) - Sky 1 two part MiniSeries, starring an AllStarCast including Creator/EddieIzzard and Creator/ElijahWood. Slightly DarkerAndEdgier.
* ''Treasure Island'' (2013) - An AudioAdaptation of the story by Big Finish productions, starring Creator/TomBaker as Long John Silver.

Although originally published chapter-by-chapter in a magazine, when published as a book it became very popular, the British Prime Minister Gladstone staying up until two in the morning to finish it. It is also the ultimate inspiration for all the subsequent pirate {{movies}} and other {{novel}}s, down to ''Pirates of The Caribbean''. Many of them include a ShoutOut to ''Treasure Island''. E.g., in ''Literature/PeterPan'', it is said that Captain Hook was the only man Long John Silver ever feared, while ''Film/PiratesOfTheCaribbeanDeadMansChest'' features the "Black Spot" (in a flashier form) and the song quoted at the beginning of this entry.

Starz's ''Series/BlackSails'' is a {{Prequel}} to ''Treasure Island'', notably featuring Captain Flint and a young John Silver as its protagonists.

!! The novel provides examples of:

* AffablyEvil: Long John, one of the ultimate exemplars of this trope. Sure, he's a lying, thieving, murdering scumbag pirate... but he's also a lovable, charismatic anti-villain! How can you hold anything against him? And, despite everything, his affection and respect for Jim are completely genuine.
* TheAlcoholic: Almost all of the pirates and Mr. Arrow. Billy Bones's stroke at the beginning is attributed to drinking little but rum at the Benbow Inn, and Captain Flint was allegedly killed by rum as well.
* TheAloner: Ben Gunn, who was marooned on the island by his mates after a failed search for the treasure.
* AmbiguousTimePeriod: With the trope YearX giving the year as "17--" and the mentioning of King George not clarifying which King George it is, the setting could be anywhere from 1714 to 1799.
* AntiVillain: Although Silver is the mastermind behind the mutiny, he ends up suffering a mutiny in turn, and is forced to ally with the heroes.
* ArcNumber: Number three is used several times throughout the novel. "Admiral Benbow" is visited three times by the pirates: first its Black Dog, then Blind Pew, and then Pew and Dog with the rest of their gang; there are three major adult characters and Jim's friends: Dr.Livesey, Squire Trelawney and Captain Smollett; as their evil counterpart there are three major mutineers: John Silver, Israel Hands and George Merry; Squire takes on the journey three of his servants (all of whom end up dead); there are three secret locations on the island where Flint hid his treasure, as indicated by the map; there are three major mountain tops on Treasure Island (named respectively after three types of masts); the "pointing arrow", which shows direction to the treasure is situated near three big trees; Ben Gunn spent three years marooned on the island; all the major action on the island happens on the course of three (and a half) days; at the end there are three surviving pirates left on the island; Ben Gunn spent all of his share in three weeks time.
* BadassBoast: Silver sways one of the honest sailors into joining the rebellion with one.
--> '''Silver:''' There was some that was feared of [[AxCrazy Pew]], and some that was feared of [[TheDreaded Flint]]; but Flint his own self was feared of ''me.'' Feared he was, and proud.
** Silver is so badass he even gets boasts by proxy.
---> '''Israel Hands:''' A lion's nothing alongside of Long John! I seen him grapple four and knock their heads together--him unarmed.
* BadassCrew: The crew of the ''Walrus'' prior to the events of the novel. With Flint as captain, Billy Bones as first mate, Long John Silver as quartermaster, and seamen such as Israel Hands, Ben Gunn, and Pew, it's no wonder they were able to amass such a huge horde of treasure.
* BlackmailIsSuchAnUglyWord: The pirates prefer to be called "gentlemen of fortune."
* CatapultNightmare: At the very end of the book, Jim Hawkins says that the worst dreams he ever has are when he "start[s] upright in bed with the sharp voice of Captain Flint [the parrot] still ringing in my ears."
* CatchPhrase: Silver had quite a few, including "You may lay to that!" ("You may depend on that"), "By the Powers"[=/=]"By the living thunder", and of course the immortal "Shiver my timbers!"
* ChurchgoingVillain: Silver and the other pirates, who are worried about bad luck when one of their own cuts a page from Literature/TheBible to create a Black Spot.
** There is apparently an upside to possessing a mutilated Bible, which Silver touches on briefly: you can swear on it to tell the truth, and then lie without fear of the consequences.
%% * ComingOfAgeStory: For Jim Hawkins.
* DressedToPlunder: The TropeCodifier, almost singlehandedly popularizing the look.
* EvenEvilHasStandards: Pirate, mutineer and murderer Long John Silver may be, but he bends over backwards, even risking the Black Spot, to keep Jim Hawkins alive, even when he stands to gain nothing by it.
* EvilCannotComprehendGood: Averted with Silver, but played straight with the other pirates. Near the end of the book, Silver even points out to Dr. Livesey when the latter contemplates checking up on the surviving pirates, "...these men down there, they couldn't keep their word... and, what's more, they couldn't believe as you could."
%% * EvilCripple: Pew, Silver to a lesser extent.
* FaceDeathWithDignity: [[spoiler:When Jim is captured by the pirates and is given the offer of joining them ''or else'', he delivers a defiant [[FacingTheBulletsOneLiner Facing The Bullets Speech]] outlining how it was him the whole time that [[DefiantToTheEnd kept screwing up their plans]], that the laugh's on his side and he no more fears them than he fears a fly,]] but he'll put in a word at court for them if they choose to spare him.
* ForegoneConclusion: The story is introduced as Jim's tale of his adventure retold at the request of Squire Trelawney and Dr. Livesey, which keeps you from getting too worried whenever their lives are at risk. Considering that the story already includes a boy [[spoiler:getting hit by a thrown knife as well as being captured by pirates and threatened with torture,]] this may have been necessary at the time to keep the story from feeling too dark and shocking the audience.
* FreudianTrio: Squire Trelawney is the Id, Captain Smollett is the Ego, Dr. Livesey is the Superego.
* GenreBlind: Crewing out a ship for a secret mission in search of buried treasure, the characters hire a one-legged, tattooed old sea-dog with a Bristol accent and a parrot. But then, [[UnbuiltTrope the book was what made all these traits stock attributes of pirates in the first place.]] Jim Hawkins still might have known better since he was specifically warned by Billy Bones to beware of "a one-legged sea-faring man" -- they just [[IdiotBall decide he couldn't possibly have meant this particular one-legged sea-faring man]] (but then again, considering England's history in naval warfare, there's probably a lot of ex-sailors with one leg limping around).
* GoodIsNotNice: Cpt. Smollett delivers a blunt assessment of his displeasure over the crew, expecting to be dismissed. Jim dislikes him from the beginning, and Trelawney comments on finding his behaviour "downright un-English;" however they soon discover that he was quite right, and he leads the party's resistance for most of the story.
* HandicappedBadass:
** Long John Silver killed an honest crewman who refused to join the pirates, by hurling his crutch at him, thus breaking his spine, and then hopping one-legged to him and slitting his throat.
** Pew is fully blind, yet most of the survivors of Flint's crew fear him only slightly less than Billy Bones or Silver.
* HappilyMarried: What little is said about Silver and his black wife seems to indicate that they get along well.
* HeelFaceRevolvingDoor: Silver is an opportunist who will jump to any side if it seems to be the winning one.
* HonorBeforeReason:
** Jim keeps his promise not to escape with the doctor even though his life is in danger if he stays, at the point where even the doctor himself is ready to break his word because he can't bear the thought of young Jim [[spoiler:being tortured to death]]. This is the turning point in Jim's ComingOfAgeStory.
** Similarly, during Long John's final escape, he has everything to gain by shooting Jim, but he can't do it. He likes Jim too much.
** The Pirates are able to shell the Loyalist base by aiming at the flag flying above the trees. The defenders are aware of this, but striking their colors is unthinkable.
** Dr. Livesey is determined to heal the ill, even if they are ruthless pirates.
** In a lesser (but rather more baffling) case, Jim's mother, who rifles through the recently deceased Captain's sea chest but refuses to take any more money than what the Captain owed them for room and board. Which resulted in her doing arithmetic over the sea chest even when she knows that Pew's gang is coming at any minute to take the chest and slit everyone's throats.
* HorribleJudgeOfCharacter: Squire Trelawney, in keeping with his UpperClassTwit status, unknowingly hires a bunch of pirates to sail his treasure-hunting vessel.
* ImprobableAimingSkills: Squire Trelawney may be a bit of a stereotypical landed-gentry Englishman, but he's also a crack shot. At one point, the mutineer's gunner -- his intended target -- is roughly a hundred yards away, on the deck of the ship, stooping over a cannon muzzle. Trelawney himself is seated in an 18-foot "jolly boat," which is overloaded with 4 other men and a ton of supplies. And he's armed with a ''musket''. Despite all this, only a CoincidentalDodge saves the intended target's life -- and Trelawney still picks off one of the other villains.
* KarmaHoudini:
** Long John Silver, who gets away with his life and a few hundred pounds from the treasure (rather less than one tenth of one percent).
** Also Ben Gunn. Nobody seems particularly bothered that he was a part of one of the most feared pirate crews that ever sailed, and he gets a larger share of the treasure than Silver did (which he manages to blow in three weeks, at which point he is given a pension). Presumably, the characters and readers consider his time marooned on the island punishment enough (not to mention it mellowed him out considerably).
* KnifeNut: Silver kills with a knife "on camera;" Israel Hands kills with a dirk "off camera" and tries to kill Jim throwing the same dirk; Tom Morgan threatens Jim with a knife, and "the captain" offers to pin Dr. Livesey to the wall with one early in the book. TruthInTelevision: knives were cheap, easily carried, and unaffected by the occasional dousing with seawater.
* LeaveBehindAPistol: For Ben Gunn. But they also left behind a shovel and a pick.
* LeaveNoWitnesses: Captain Flint killed the sailors who helped him bury the treasure. Considering that there were ''six'' of them, nobody has any idea how the hell he managed it.
* LoopholeAbuse: During his confrontation with KnifeNut Israel Hands, Jim manages to prime his two pistols while Hands is still too far away to stab him with his dirk, and tells Hands in no uncertain terms that he'll shoot if Hands comes any closer. Hands responds by throwing his dirk at Jim.
* LoveableRogue: Long John Silver, verging on MagnificentBastard.
%% * LovableTraitor: Long John Silver.
* MakeItLookLikeAnAccident: The death of Mr. Arrow, who apparently fell overboard one night in a drunken stupor. In most adaptations that include this incident, a scene is shown of Silver blatantly slipping him rum so that he would be drunk all the time and no one would inquire into his death too much; in the book, Jim merely guesses (from overhearing Silver casually mention that he has a key for the keg) that this is what happened.
* ManlyTears: Trelawney is not afraid to cry [[spoiler: when his servant Tom Redruth is dying]].
%% * TheMedic: Doctor Livesey, [[MeaningfulName unsurprisingly]].
%% * TheMole: Again, Silver.
* MundaneLuxury: Ben Gunn swears UndyingLoyalty to Dr. Livesey in exchange for a palm-sized piece of cheese (parmesan, to be precise), something he has craved for years.
* TheMutiny: Captain Flint's crew, under Long John Silver, rebelled in the backstory. Silver also leads the gang of pirates that rebel against Captain Smollett in the actual story.
* OffscreenMomentOfAwesome: In a flashback, Captain Flint goes ashore with six crew members (all of them hardened pirates) to bury his treasure; later he comes back on board alone, having singlehandedly killed them all.
* PirateBooty: The treasure, of course. The book is the TropeCodifier if not the outright TropeMaker.
* PirateParrot: The TropeMaker. Although it's quite likely that real Caribbean pirates may have kept the occasional parrot, this is also true of monkeys and cats, and one of these animals is ''far'' more associated with pirates than the others.
* PosthumousCharacter: Captain Flint, who died prior to the events of the novel but whose actions are central to the plot.
* PreInsanityReveal: Ben Gunn was once a part of Captain Flint's crew, though unliked by his shipmates. He knows the location of Flint's treasure, but no one believes him. Marooned on a deserted island, he becomes more than a little addled, talks in the third person and has an obsessive craving for cheese.
%% * PublicDomainCharacter: All of them!
* TheReasonYouSuckSpeech: Silver delivers an epic one to his crew when they try to throw him out.
-->'''Long John Silver''': Why, I give you my word, I'm sick to speak to you. You've neither sense nor memory, and I leave it to fancy where your mothers was that let you come to sea. Sea! Gentlemen o' fortune! I reckon tailors is your trade.
* RedShirtArmy: Trelawney's three manservants are all given single cabins, as if they were important passengers; yet they are all quickly slain and receive little characterization.
** Old Tom Redruth plays a [[MauveShirt slightly bigger role]].
* RegeneratingHealth: Jim doesn't seem to suffer any long-term effects from being wounded and pinned to the mast by Israel Hands's dirk (which had previously been used to kill another pirate), or having to tear a bit of skin off of his shoulder to escape the pinning. It isn't even mentioned when [[TheMedic Doctor Livesey]] sees him again.
* RetiredBadass: "The captain," aka Billy Bones, only wants to be let alone at the Admiral Benbow Inn to drink, sing, and enjoy his own "fair" share of the ill-gotten gains. His former crew, excepting Pew, are still terrified of him.
* RetiredMonster: Flint, the captain who murdered a good chunk of his own crew to hide the treasure's location, was afraid of Silver. Silver has been peacefully running an inn and living happily with his wife for some years when the story begins, and he continues this after making off with a part of the treasure in the end.
* {{Robinsonade}}: Ben Gunn has been marooned on the island.
* SeadogPegLeg: Long John Silver is one of the {{Trope Codifier}}s, although he didn't have a peg leg in the original book, using a crutch to help him move around instead. The peg leg would originate in later adaptations.
* StiffUpperLip: Most of the sympathetic characters. Captain Smollet maintains rigid discipline throughout their ordeal. Hawkins maintains his dignity and poise even under threat of death. The Squire's servants are said to react to every calamity without complaint or even much surprise.
%% * StolenMacGuffinReveal
* SwitchingPOV: For practical reasons, the doctor picks up the narration when important events occur that Jim didn't witness.
* TheyCallMeMisterTibbs: After successfully seizing control of the ''Hispaniola'', the pirates start referring to their leader as "Captain Silver".
%% * TreasureMap: TropeCodifier.
* TrojanPrisoner: Long John Silver pretends to hold Jim hostage. Or does he?
* TropeMaker: Many of the tropes associated with pirates today come from this novel, such as the way Silver's parrot was fond of repeating "pieces of eight."
* UpperClassTwit: Squire Trelawney to an extent, although he himself had followed the sea at one point and, as noted above, he does have some skills.
* WoodenShipsAndIronMen: Long John Silver and his crew exemplify this trope.
* WeNamedTheMonkeyJack: Captain Silver has a parrot named Cap'n Flint.
* WhatTheHellHero: During a parley scene, Cpt. Smollett orders John to sit down, which John does on the condition that someone help him up after the conversation is finished. No one does, and Jim feels rather bad about this.[[spoiler: This is all part of Smollett's plan. He wants to anger Silver so that he will order an immediate attack by the pirates, while the gentlemen are alert and prepared for it.]]
* WhenItAllBegan: When Captain Flint buried his treasure on the island.
* YearX: The story takes place "in the year of grace 17--".
!!Adaptations with their own trope pages include:

* ''Film/{{Treasure Island|1950}}'' (1950, Robert Newton as Silver)
* ''Film/{{Treasure Island|1990}}'' (1990, Charlton Heston as Silver)
* ''WesternAnimation/TheLegendsOfTreasureIsland'' (1993, Richard E. Grant as Silver)
* ''Film/MuppetTreasureIsland'' (1996, Tim Curry as Silver)
* ''Disney/TreasurePlanet'' (2002, Brian Murray as Silver)
* ''Series/{{Treasure Island|2012}}'' (2012, Eddie Izzard as Silver)

!!Tropes from adaptations that don't have their own pages:

* AdaptationalVillainy: Trelawney, Smollett and even Dr. Livesey are all subjected to this in the 1999 version, [[spoiler: to justify [[AdaptationalHeroism Long John's portrayal]] and Jim's decision to join him and Ben Gunn at the end]].
** Trelawney again, in the [[TreasureIsland2012 2012 version]].
* AnthropomorphicAnimalAdaptation: ''Animal Treasure Island'' is a partial example. There are a few human children (notably Jim, the main character), but all the pirates are portrayed as animals. There is also ''The Legends of Treasure Island'' where everyone is an animal.
* LargeHam: The sets of the 1934 film must have shook from the volume of Lionel Barrymore's bellowing as Billy Bones.
* LeftStuckAfterAttack: In the Soviet animated adaptation, a drunken fight between Israel Hands and O'Brian starts with them angrily bashing on a table. Hands bashes through the table, and O'Brian uses it to bitch-slap him, only to run away in terror when Hands ''lifts'' the table and chases him waving it over his head. He quickly gets stuck in a door and O'Brian again scores some free kicks, until Hands finally breaks the table.
* LostInTranslation: In the original Jim views the whole story as an ordeal, wants nothing to do with it, of which he says in not uncertain terms, and he's still often [[CatapultNightmare thrown off the bed]] when he dreams of it. In fact, the very first paragraph implies that he wasn't particularly keen on [[LiteraryAgentHypothesis writing the story]], but did so only because Trelawney and Livesey asked him to. The most popular Russian translation by [[http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Николай_Чуковский Nikolay Chukovsky]], while pretty faithful in most regards, throws his attitude completely out of the window, making it as if Jim ''likes'' the adventure.
* PapaWolf: Silver has been portrayed as this many times towards Jim.
* TravelMontage: The 1934 film intercuts bits from the voyage with a shot of a map as the ship heads to the island where the treasure is buried.