Tess of the d'Urbervilles (or its full title Tess of the d'Urbervilles: A Pure Woman Faithfully Presented) is an 1891 novel written by Thomas Hardy. It was his second-to-last book.The book tells the story of Tess Durbeyfield, a poor but beautiful peasant girl. When the book begins, her father, John, finds out from a genealogist that his surname is really d'Urberville, which makes him and his family of noble lineage. Meanwhile, Tess participates in the local village May Dance. There she meets a young man named Angel Clare. Before they can dance with each other, however, Angel leaves; Tess believes she has been snubbed.After the dance, Tess must ride to market because her father is too drunk from celebrating his new heritage. On the way there, she falls asleep on her horse, causing it to run into a carriage and die.Feeling guilty, Tess' parents have her leave home to live with one of her apparent relatives, Mrs. d'Urberville, and her son, Alec. Tess begins working for Mrs. d'Urberville as poultry keeper. Alec takes a romantic interest in Tess; she remains, for the most part, uninterested. However, one night, on their way home, Alec intentionally gets them lost and rapes Tess. The rest of the novel recounts what happens to Tess' life after this incident and how her reputation is ultimately wrecked.Because of the themes presented in the book, such as religious themes and — God forbid, an unmarried woman who's not a virgin being presented as ultimately moral and good — it was controversial in its time. Today, it is hailed as classic literature.Tess of the d'Urbervilles has been made into a theatrical film at least three times; there are also four made-for-television movies and miniseries. There have also been several plays and even an opera made of it.
All Love Is Unrequited: Alec's lust for Tess, technically speaking. Her love for Angel is unrequited when he learns her past, and Angel himself has three peasant girls who are flinging themselves at his feet, but whom he doesn't notice at all.
Arcadian Interlude: Tess's time working for Dairyman Crick after her horrible experience with Alec and the death of her baby.
Somewhat subverted with Angel whose well known dislike of old aristocratic families comes to seem more and more like absurd reverse discrimation—especially when he claims Tess's tainted aristocratic blood is why she fell to Alec.
The Atoner: Angel becomes this by the end of the book after a horrid journey in Brazil, giving him time to rethink his treatment of Tess.
Death by Sex: First, Alex rapes her which dooms her to society and her marriage with Angel. Then the text implies (and its depicted in TV miniseries and the 1979 film adaptation) that Angel and Tess consummated their marriage during their hideout at a mansion before Tess is taken to be executed.]
Deus Angst Machina: Oh my, where to begin? First, Tess accidentally kills her horse; she gets raped; her child dies and will not be buried by the local church. Then everyone in the village seems to have turned their back on her, and so she leaves. She meets Angel again, falls deeply in love with him, and they get married, but Angel freaks out at realizing she's not a virgin, and leaves her and goes to Brazil for a while]]. In the meantime, Tess works on a farm, employed by a man who knows about her past and constantly holds it above her. Her father dies. Her family has no money, and they lose their property. The only person who will help them is Alec, and only if she becomes his mistress. After Tess is forced into this contract, Angel comes back; she kills Alec. She is arrested and finally hanged.
Double Standard: Big time, mostly reflective of Victorian ethical standards, and the most egregious being Angel's past with another woman being readily forgiven by Tess, while Tess's rape is crime enough for Angel to leave for Brazil, abandoning Tess.
Downer Ending: You could consider it a Bittersweet Ending because Tess' sister and Angel go off with each other in the end. But, Tess still gets executed in the end after all the horrible things that have happened to her, so it fits best here.
Even Angel and Tess' sister going off together is a downer, since under the laws of the time they can't marry: a man could not marry his deceased wife's sister in England. Given Angel's opinions on female chastity and the sister's purity, this basically dooms the relationship (unless the reader believes that Angel does change for the better). There is an attempted Hand Wave by Hardy.
Farmer's Daughter: Tess is a tragic Deconstruction of this trope, set in rural England in the late Victorian era. She's nubile, innocent, and sweet — but fate, with the help of her deadbeat father, flings her in the path of a man who takes advantage of her and leaves her a traumatized shell.
Fragile Flower: In some of the movie versions, particularly the 1979 adaptation, Tess is often played as one of these.
From Bad to Worse: As can be expected from something by Thomas Hardy, Tess' entire life is one long series of things getting worse and worse. It never gets better for the poor girl.
Kissing Cousins: Tess and her family think that Alec is their cousin, but that doesn't stop the children (at least) from thinking that Tess is going to "be made a lady of," i.e. marry their cousin (which was okay, but growing out of favor at the time) and become gentility. What none of them know is that he actually just bought the name D'Urberville, so they aren't related at all.
Meaningful Name: Tess names her baby Sorrow. Also Angel Clare and Mercy Chant.
Moral Dissonance: Examined with Angel. On their wedding night, after admitting that he had already had consensual sex with someone when he was younger, Angel completely loses it when Tess tell him she was raped and thinks less of her. So much so that he leaves her. Angel actually acknowledges that Tess was "was more sinned against than sinning." It's the fact she's not a virgin that freaks him out and he doesn't even blame her for the rape. This sends him straight into the Jerkasszone.
My Girl Is Not a Slut: The poster child of this trope. In fact, the major aspect of Tess which Angel emphasizes when trying to persuade his parents to approve the marriage is her virginity. (This is rather...understandable, considering she has neither money, land, nor connections to recommend her.)
Names to Trust Immediately: Angel Clare, though it’s subverted in that he actually betrays Tess by abandoning her when she needs him most.
"Not If They Enjoyed It" Rationalization: A thorny situation between Alec and Tess. Alec definitely first took advantage of Tess while she was sleeping, but it's suggested (subtly) that she derived some enjoyment from the sexual advances and, in her confusion, permitted them. But then, Tess makes clear that once she came to her senses, she was horrified, ashamed, and traumatized.
Replacement Goldfish: In a bizarre application of this trope, Tess reassures Angel that he doesn't need to be sad when she dies, because her little sister has hit puberty and is just like a copy of Tess from before she met Alec, so Angel can marry her. The narration appears to agree with her and this is seen as a good thing.
This is deeper than it seems. Marrying a deceased wife's sister was considered incest by the more religiously conservative set at the time and because of that was actually illegal under English law. Angel's choice would be either to abandon the sister and keep her as his mistress (and given that she's a symbol of purity, that's unlikely), or emigrate with her to a country where such a marriage would be legal. Of course, Hardy might have tried to Hand Wave the situation by having Tess state that marrying her sister, "is nothing. People marry in-laws continually about Marrott."
Saintly Church: Averted by Tess's church, who refuse to bury her innocent baby so that they can keep up appearances. Played more straight for the upper-class, but compassionate Reverend Clare who is raising his church that way, and even the text mentions it was unfortunate Tess encountered the Clares' pompous sons rather than the parents.
Sex Is Evil and I Am Horny: Alex d'Urberville morphs into this trope after a spiritual "reawakening". He later drops the whole religion thing. After Tess uses Angel's favourite anti-religious arguments on him because she can't stand his self-righteous piety. Oops.
The Simple Life Is Simple: Angel quickly learns that it is not. The lifelong pampered son of a preacher gains a real admiration for those who have farmed, and will farm, all of their lives.
So Beautiful, It's a Curse: Tess's mother exploits her beauty in hopes of connection to her rich "relation" Alec who rapes/seduces her and leaves her to suffer in a society that defines by her impurity and promptly blame her for it.
Together in Death: Subverted. Tess asks Angel whether he thinks they will be together again after death. Angel responds with an awkward pause, and eventually a kiss. Tess then breaks down crying, realizing this means no. She is executed in the next chapter.
Unstoppable Rage: After finding out that Angel is still alive, and wants to reconcile with her, Tess sends him away before realizing what she has done, stabbing Alec to death so she can finally be with him.
Many readers reaction to Angel's coldhearted, self-righteous rejection of Tess on their wedding night.
A milkmaid, Tess's devoted friend, whom Angel tried to take as his mistress, gives him a subtle one by confessing that she wouldn't ever love him as much as Tess, who would give her life for Angel.
Tess finally gives Angel one through a letter which reaches him too late.
Women Are Wiser: Tess, who is always in connection with nature because Ludd Was Right. Her mother also has a great deal more common sense than her husband.
You Can't Fight Fate: It's one of the overriding themes of all of Hardy's work; this is no exception.
Younger than They Look: Tess is often described as seeming and acting much older than she is when she is a teenager. The early narration attributes her physical appearance to a " fullness of growth" that her mother assures her she'll grow into.