Literature / Knowledge of Angels

Knowledge of Angels is a philosophical story by Jill Paton Walsh set in a fictional country, Grandinsula, based on Mallorca, following an atheist named Palinor and a girl raised by wolves named Amara, and documenting their actions and responses to being thrust into a medieval Christian society.

The first main character, Palinor, is found washed up on a beach, near dead and with no forms of identification or proof that he is who he says he is-an elected Prince of a foreign land. No-one from Grandinsula has heard of this country, and it is soon learned he does not believe in God, an offense punishable by death. It falls to the Cardinal Prince of Grandinsula to convince Palinor to convert, and he delegates this task to the loyal Church scholar Beneditx. Beneditx has many theological conversations with Palinor, yet fails to convince him to convert (and, in fact, ends up suffering from a Crisis of Faith himself).

The other side of the story, with Amara, focuses on how a group of nuns hope to raise her to become 'human', and yet keep her ignorant of God, so as to see whether knowledge of God is innate or learned- a plan orchestrated by Severo, as, if it can be proved that humans are not born with knowledge of God, then Palinor will not be held guilty of rejecting God- rejection can be punished, ignorance cannot be. However, though early tests with Amara would suggest knowledge is learned, she is later couched by the nun caring for her in proclaiming belief in God, so she will be let go rather than kept confined waiting to see if she finds it by herself. Thus it is left unclear as to whether this knowledge really is innate or not, although Amara shows no signs of it before this.

Either way, the Church authority uses this as proof of Palinor's sin, and puts him to death for heresy.

It's on the A level syllabus.


Contains examples of the following tropes:

  • Agnosticism: Even though he is identified as an atheist, Palinor's stated view toward the existence of God seems more like a strong version of agnosticism. He states that it's impossible to know whether God exists, and anyone who claims they do is simply mistaken.
  • Artistic License – Religion: Catholic doctrine did not view witchcraft as heresy in 1450. In fact, the official take was that witchcraft claims were delusions or lies, with it being sinful to believe they were true. Thus an Inquisitor would not tell people that witchcraft was a sign of heresy. Atheism is also not heresy, and so the Inquisitor would have no authority over Palinor. The only problem would be him trying to convince anyone else of atheism, which he didn't do.
  • As the Good Book Says: Used by the religious side of the main debates between Beneditx and Palinor, along with 'As Thomas Aquinas Says'.
  • As You Know: The Inquisitor reminds Severo the Inquisition's authority overreaches that of the local cardinal where heresy is concerned, something Severo retorts he already knows.
  • Author Tract: The entire book is one of these about theism and atheism, set as a story.
  • Church Militant: The Holy Inquisition, naturally.
  • Coitus Ensues: About two-thirds of the way through the book, Palinor has a threesome with his (female and male) servants, which comes up quite unexpectedly while adding nothing to the plot. It also paints him in a somewhat bad light, given the questionable consent on their part as they're dependent on him for livelihood and used to obeying his orders.
  • Crisis of Faith: Beneditx has one after talking with Palinor, and becoming convinced by Palinor's atheist retorts.
  • Deliberate Values Dissonance: The values of Renaissance Christians are ably demonstrated for the reader, such as the far more powerful role of religion in people's lives-to the point of harsh persecution toward dissidents. Additionally, the Christian characters find Palinor's view hard to fathom (as indeed real Christians would have at the time). The Inquisitor finds the idea of religious tolerance, as Palinor describes in his homeland, utterly appalling.
  • Despair Event Horizon: Beneditx reaches this after he becomes convinced by Palinor that God does not exist.
  • Downer Ending: Palinor is killed, Beneditx has become a broken man, Severo is full of regret over Palinor's death, Amara has gone off to live a life of isolation, and an Aclaran fleet is coming to punish the island for Palinor's death.
  • Easy Evangelism: Averted by how set Palinor is in his beliefs (or lack thereof), making Beneditx's job of converting him impossible. Palinor outright states he cannot be convinced.
  • Elective Monarchy: Palinor is an elected prince of his home country, Aclar.
  • Heel–Faith Turn: Beneditx was hoping to cause one in Palinor, though Palinor wasn't a Heel to begin with (the Church saw Palinor as evil for rejecting God, and so Beneditx was hoping that, by converting Palinor, the Church would see him as good and spare him).
  • Hollywood Atheist: Discussed. Palinor does not fit the stereotypes, surprising the Christian characters, who believe an atheist has no reason to be moral.
  • Karma Houdini: Although the abbess curses them, she doesn't inform the authorities of the shepherds raping Amara, and they're never punished or even arrested.
  • Kill It with Fire: At the close of the book, Palinor is burned at the stake by the Inquisition for heresy.
  • Mercy Kill: Palinor is killed with a material that emits deadly yet painless fumes to spare him from being burned alive.
  • My God, What Have I Done?: Severo reacts this way after he realizes what is going to happen with Palinor after he turned him over to the Inquisition.
  • Religion Is Right: Beneditx thinks his arguments (especially Aquinas' Five Ways) prove God exists.
  • Religion Is Wrong: He becomes convinced that they don't after hearing Palinor's replies, which, to him, means that there is no evidence for a God, and so how could one exist?
  • Static Character: Palinor is a big example of this, made more prominent by how much he changes those around him (for example, Palinor's beliefs are the same on the first and the last page, while Beneditx has had a Crisis of Faith through merely talking with him).
  • The Soulsaver: Beneditx (and Severo) try to be this for Palinor.
  • Unwitting Pawn: Amara is one in Severo's plan to see if knowledge of God is innate or learned, and while Severo is not the villain, the plan ends up causing Palinor to be executed.
  • Will Not Tell a Lie: Palinor refuses to lie, even when his life is on the line, saying it would demean him.
  • Wild Child: Amara, raised by wolves from a young age, is one (and is actually based off of a real life feral child found in France).
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