Literature: Illuminatus!

aka: The Illuminatus Trilogy

It's a dreadfully long monster of a book... and I certainly won't have time to read it, but I'm giving it a thorough skimming. The authors are utterly incompetent—no sense of style or structure at all. It starts out as a detective story, switches to science-fiction, then goes off into the supernatural, and is full of the most detailed information of dozens of ghastly boring subjects. And the time sequence is all out of order in a very pretentious imitation of Faulkner and Joyce. Worst yet, it has the most raunchy sex scenes, thrown in just to make it sell, I'm sure, and the authors—whom I've never heard of—have the supreme bad taste to introduce real political figures into this mishmash and pretend to be exposing a real conspiracy... If The Lord of the Rings is a fairy tale for adults, sophisticated readers will quickly recognize this monumental miscarriage as a fairy tale for paranoids.
Epicene Wildeblood, The Eye in the Pyramid

The Illuminatus! Trilogy is a series of three novels written by Robert Shea and Robert Anton Wilson purportedly between 1969 and 1971, and first published in 1975. The trilogy is a satirical, apparently postmodern, science fiction-influenced adventure story fnord; a drug-, sex- and magic-laden trek through a number of conspiracy theories, both historical and imaginary, which hinge around the authors' version of The Illuminati. The narrative often switches between third and first person perspectives. The third-person omniscient narrator finds these switches, as well as its original non-identity as a disembodied narrator, very troubling and disconcerting at first. It also jumps around in time, as do the minds of some of the characters, but by then it has settled down to a point where it is somewhat less evidently self-aware. It is thematically dense, covering topics like counterculture, numerology, anarchism, and Discordianism.

The trilogy comprises the books The Eye in the Pyramid, The Golden Apple and Leviathan. They were first published starting in September 1975, as three separate volumes, and in 1984 as an omnibus; they are now more commonly reprinted in the latter form. The trilogy won the Prometheus Hall of Fame Award, designed to honor classic libertarian fiction, in 1986. The authors went on to create several works, both fiction and nonfiction, that further discussed the themes of the trilogy, but no direct sequels were produced. Illuminatus! has been adapted for the stage, and has influenced several modern writers, musicians and games-makers. The popularity of the word "fnord" and the 23 enigma can both be attributed to the trilogy. It remains a seminal work of conspiracy fiction, predating Foucaults Pendulum and The Da Vinci Code by decades.

Shea and Wilson followed this up with the related Schrodinger's Cat trilogy, which develops the alternate-universes model of quantum physics, using permutations on the same characters and settings.

Wilson went on, solo, to write the Historical Illuminatus trilogy and the standalone novel Masks of the Illuminati, seemingly conventional novels providing some of the historical context behind the main trilogy, that further develop and explore the ideas of Illuminatus!. These also drop the same sort of delayed-action mindfucks and logic bombs on the reader, although far more subtly.

Shea wrote the Shike! series of historical romances set in Asia and Japan at the time of Kublai Khan, and the All Things are Light series set at the time of the Crusades. These are about 80% conventional historical thriller, and 20% mysticism, Sufi, and Zen Buddhism.

Both authors died leaving their series unfinished, although unpublished illuminatus-related work is available on both their websites.

Also known for inspiring early-90s electronic dance musicians, The KLF, AKA The Justified Ancients of Mu Mu. Both names are references to the books.


  • The All-Concealing I: Much of the first-person narration is revealed at the end to be from the perspective of a third-person omniscient narrator in a fiction novel.
    • There is a strong argument to be made for the existence of multiple first-person narrators; including, at one point, a squirrel.
  • All Stories Are Real Somewhere
  • Anarchy Is Chaos: Inverted.
  • Ancient Conspiracy: Subverted. While several conspiracies claim to be ancient, none of them are more than 250 years old, and the only organization that really is as old as it claims is more of an Ancient Tradition than a conspiracy.
  • Ancient Tradition: The Erisian Liberation Front.
    • And several others.
  • Apocalypse Cult: The Illuminati Prime (the five most powerful people in the world) are actively seeking to Immanetize the Eschaton - ie, bring about the apocalypse - to make themselves immortal and provide a massive blood sacrifice to their Elder Brothers and Sisters, the Lloigr of Cthulu.
  • Apple of Discord: Turns out it works on Nazi zombies.
  • Arc Number: 5, 17, 23
    • Arguably also several others.
  • Artistic License:Biology: Howard and his friends are alternatively referred to as dolphins and porpoises. They are, in fact, biologically distinct species.
  • The Atoner: Gruad the Greyface, a.k.a. the Dealy Lama, is either this or a Hero with Bad Publicity, depending on who you ask. Of course, if you ask him, he'll probably tell you that he's actually a Villain with Good Publicity — we ultimately learn that he engineered his own bad publicity as part of being The Atoner.
  • Author Tract: A lot of the book is blatant anti-authoritarian ranting. But Some Anvils Need to Be Dropped.
  • Bavarian Firedrill: Trope Namer.
  • Beethoven Was an Alien Spy
    • The bank robber John Dillinger was actually identical Zen master quintuplets and one of the JFK assassins.
    • George Washington may have been secretly replaced by Adam Weishaupt, "founder" of the Bavarian Illuminati.
    • Cecil Rhodes coined the expression "Kick out the jams!", which later became the basis for the title of MC5's classic punk song.
    • The Beatles are the only band in the history of rock and roll to not be controlled by Satan.
    • Post-resurrection Jesus was a Physical God from ancient Greece, who's also Simon Magus and the Reverend Billy Graham.
    • The true identity of Stella/Mavis/Mao/Eris is strongly implied to have been Marilyn Monroe.
  • Betty and Veronica: Arguably Stella and Mavis, for George. Subverted in that they turn out to be the same person (or rather, Goddess).
  • Brown Note: fnord It is hinted that the actual fnord word is not fnord, but some word people actually fnording use, with the same effect.
  • Cargo Ship: An in-universe example in Leviathan/FUCKUP
  • The Chessmaster: Hagbard
    • And several others.
  • Cold War: The story opens with the US, China and the USSR on the verge of incinerating the planet for downright trivial reasons.
    "He was harassed, but still he spoke with authority. He was, in fact, characteristic of the best type of dominant male in the world at this time. He was fifty-five years old, tough, shrewd, unburdened by the complicated ethical ambiguities which puzzle intellectuals, and had long ago decided that the world was a mean son-of-a-bitch in which only the most cunning and ruthless can survive. He was also as kind as was possible for one holding that ultra-Darwinian philosophy; and he genuinely loved children and dogs, unless they were on the site of something that had to be bombed in the National Interest. He still retained some sense of humor, despite the burdens of his almost godly office, and, although he had been impotent with his wife for nearly ten years now, he generally achieved orgasm in the mouth of a skilled prostitute within 1.5 minutes. He took amphetamine pep pills to keep going on his grueling twenty-hour day, with the result that his vision of the world was somewhat skewed in a paranoid direction, and he took tranquilizers to keep from worrying too much, with the result that his detachment sometimes bordered on the schizophrenic; but most of the time his innate shrewdness gave him a fingernail grip on reality. In short, he was much like the rulers of China and Russia."
    — A note on the President of the US... followed by exact repetition in discussing the leaders of those other two countries.
  • Conspiracy Kitchen Sink: To the extent that every other conspiracy theory/mindfuck is laughable once you grasp Illuminatus! Seriously. This is the book whose appendices included the line "We have mentioned only one real conspiracy; this book is part of it" [paraphrased].
  • Conspiracy Redemption
  • Conspiracy Theorist
  • Contemplate Our Navels
  • Cosmopolitan Council: Since it's Discordians, the funny costumes were probably just for laughs. Probably.
  • Counter-Earth: The leaders of the Illuminati may have originated on a counter-Earth named Vulcan and come to Earth on flying saucers from Mars via Saturn.
  • Creepy Uncle: the man who made Atlanta Hope the woman she became and who indirectly inspired Telemachus Sneezed.
  • Cynical Mentor: The Dealy Lama (AKA Gruad the Greyface), who lives beneath Dealy Plaza.
  • Double Reverse Quadruple Agent: Tobias Knight goes this trope one better, being described as the only quintuple agent in the history of espionage.
  • Eldritch Abomination: In addition to the Lloigor, there's also the Leviathan, a mountain-sized single-celled life form that's lived in the oceans since the Precambrian Era.
  • Fakeout Escape: The explanation provided for Dillinger's escapes from prison.
  • Fun with Acronyms: Two examples are an ultra-right-wing group called the Knights of Christianity United in Faith, and a computer named the First Universal Cybernetic-Kinetic Ultramicro-Programmer. There's also two right-wing organizations whose acronyms are WHORE and TWAT. One of the many groups holds its meetings on Lake Shore Drive "because of the acrostic significance".
  • Gambit Pileup: The strategies of several different competing secret societies collide and bounce off each other, introducing Chaos into Order.
  • General Ripper: Pretty much everyone in The Pentagon is presented like this.
  • Genre Roulette: horror, sci-fi, fantasy, police procedural, political thriller...
  • The Government: It's worth noting that Illuminatus was originally written before the Watergate scandal, although it was revised somewhat afterward. It was also revised after the publication of Gravity's Rainbow in order to insert Shout Outs to Pynchon's novel. note .
  • Hippie Van: Subverted and Lampshaded when Hagbard Celine criticizes George Moon's VW, pointing out that a bunch of hippies in a VW Microbus will be stopped and searched EVERY time, while a white guy in a suit driving a BMW will never be stopped by the police. This is Hagbard's method of choice for drug transportation, and George admits he never dares have anything on him when he's in his VW.
  • Historical-Domain Character: William S. Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg appear in a scene set at the 1968 Chicago Democratic Party convention.
  • Ironic Echo Cut: The paragraphs introducing the US president, the Soviet premier, and the Chinese premier are word-for-word identical, and all end by comparing the one to the other two.
  • Just for Pun: Fission Chips a.k.a. 00005, a James Bond expy.
  • Just Like Robin Hood:
    • John Dillinger via Historical Hero Upgrade.
    • Also, to a certain degree, Hagbard Celine. Somewhat justified in that Hagbard seems at least to a certain degree to be a parody of Ayn Rand's character Ragnar Danneskjold.
      • As far as this (and the following trope) goes, it's interesting to note that Wilson was a former admirer of Rand's and much of the (quite savage) parody of her work in the novel is probably a kind of Take That against his younger self. (Lampshaded when one character mentions that he always believes what he reads absolutely and only later do his critical reasoning powers kick in.)
  • Lawyer-Friendly Cameo: The novel Telemachus Sneezed, a parody of Atlas Shrugged, which asks the question "What is John Guilt?" Atlas Shrugged is mentioned several times itself, however. Telemachus Sneezed might be a thought experiment on what would have been the result if Ayn Rand had focused her interest in Ancient Greek philosophy on Heraclitus instead of Parmenides and Aristotle. It's an interesting fact however that Atlas Shrugged is anti-government, while Telemachus Sneezed is depicted as definitely pro-strong-government to the point of being openly fascist.
  • Leaning on the Fourth Wall: The book contains a scathing review of the fictional Telemachus Sneezed. All of the criticisms are aspects of the Illuminatus! Trilogy itself.
  • Loads and Loads of Characters
  • Long List: The complete listing of the names of the rock bands that are set to play at the climactic Walpurgisnacht concert goes on for quite a while. One of them is Nirvana.
  • Metafiction
  • Milkman Conspiracy: One Illuminati front works through controlling Discordians and anarchists, while another is led by the four members of a European teen pop group called "The American Medical Association".
  • Mind Screw: At just about every possible opportunity. One of the conspiracies involved even has a plan called "Operation Mindfuck," a reference to a real life Discordian project with the same name, though the novel's equivalent has greater ambition (or possibly just greater resources).
  • Mole in Charge: Hagbard is one of the leaders of just about every conspiracy out there, even though they're all opposing each other.
  • Multilayer Façade: Every ancient secret is actually a cover-up for some other ancient secret. And yes, that same principle applies to pretty much every level, thus creating an infinite loop of The Reveal.
  • Never Going Back To Prison: Dillinger's attitude towards returning to prison.
  • The New Rock & Roll: Actually, just rock and roll.
  • No Fourth Wall: The main characters eventually learn that they are characters in the book itself, being narrated by an all-powerful, overseeing AI. Of course, the book is so perspective-jumping and Mind Screw-filled that what the "truth" is is intentionally left up to the reader. In an earlier example, twice in the book the associate editor of "Confrontation" (the magazine that several of the characters are associated with) calls up his book reviewer to ask about the progress of his latest review. The books described by the book reviewer are obviously the Illuminatus! trilogy itself (for added humor, the book reviewer has nothing but contempt for the trilogy's length, shifting perspective, complicated plot, or frequent use of sex, drugs, and obscene language).
  • Old Cop, Young Cop: Goodman and Muldoon
  • Order Versus Chaos: A somewhat complex example; while the Discordians are generally viewed as worshiping chaos, they actually believe in balance. It's just that the state of the world is so heavily tilted in the Order direction that the Discordians are forced to take up Chaos to balance it out.
    • It's even more complex since nobody knows what the Illuminati are up to, it's possible that the Discordians do everything they do just for the lulz, and Chaos is usually the exact opposite of balance.
    • As far as the Discordians are concerned, Order and Disorder are only two aspects of Chaos, which contains everything. They are on the side of Disorder because Order has overwhelmed the society, but they don't plan on destroying Order entirely (or believe that they could).
  • Out-Gambitted: You know the Bavarian Illuminati? Secret organization out to rule the world from behind the scenes? Well, it turns out that they're the ones who are being manipulated. In fact, every single one of the dozens of the dozens of plans and predictions and all the quick adjustments played by the different characters and factions in the book can be interpreted as Out-Gambitted from one point of view or another.
  • The Parody: One of the characters is a book reviewer who trashes a novel that sounds very much like the trilogy itself.
  • Pineal Weirdness: And how.
  • The Plague: Anthrax Leprosy Mu
  • Postmodernism: While the book is frequently categorized as Postmodern literature, Postmodernism is deconstructed and parodied throughout. Whether that qualifies as Take That or Self-Deprecation depends on how much of the authors' Mind Screw you feel applies; however, Robert Anton Wilson has published more direct deconstructions of Postmodernism (e.g. Maybe Logic), so it's more likely to be the former than the latter. (Then again, the authors were apparently pretty big fans of Thomas Pynchon, one of the seminal Postmodern authors, so take that how you will).
  • Prison Rape: Harry Coin on George Dorn. Or not.
  • Psychic Powers
  • Public Secret Message: A secret society places personal ads reading "In thanks to St. Jude for favors answered - A.W." as a code to their other members.
  • The Rashomon: Just when, where, why, and how the Illuminati came to be varies wildly depending on who's telling the story. Most agree it started on Atlantis, but the rest is up to debate.
  • Real Life Writes the Plot: Wilson and Shea's initial inspiration for the novel was the wide range of Conspiracy Theorist nutbars of all persuasions whose letters they read as editors for Playboy.
  • Red Scare
  • Reptiles Are Abhorrent: The Ophidians.
  • Revealing Cover Up: Two police detectives get sucked into the story when a left-wing magazine's office is bombed, and they find a collection of notes about the Illuminati in the wreckage. It turns out the magazine's editor set the bomb, specifically to get one of the detectives on the case.
  • Sapient Cetaceans: Dolphins aid the Discordians in their underwater expeditions.
  • Scare Campaign: One of the Illuminati's favorite ways of keeping the masses in line.
  • Screw Learning, I Have Phlebotinum!: The AUM drug, sort of. It is supposed to just increase intelligence, openness and creativity, but a judge who takes it suddenly also has a profound understanding of higher mathematics, communication theory, and set theory.
  • Sealed Evil in a Can: Yog-Sothoth is imprisoned inside The Pentagon, where he's kept dormant by sacrificing unto him the souls of all the Americans who die in auto accidents every year. It gets released near the end.
  • Self-Deprecation: At one point there's a scathing "review" of a novel which is pretty transparently Illuminatus! itself. See the page quote.
  • Shout-Out: To Principia Discordia in particular, as well as HP Lovecraft, Ayn Rand, Conan the Barbarian, The Lord of the Rings, and numerous others. Some of these might be Take Thats, depending on your reading.
    • The Rand one is definitely a Take That. Celine's comments in the appendix (Celine being as close to an Author Avatar as there is in the book) make that obvious. There are also several Shout Outs to Thomas Pynchon, especially Gravity's Rainbow.
      • Wilson had been a huge admirer of Rand's in his youth, and the quite savage parodies of her work in this trilogy were in part a Take That to his earlier self (lampshaded when one character reads the Rand parody Telemachus Sneezed and believes every word, until he starts to apply his critical judgment to it).
    • When the Illuminati come for him, Drake quotes Bride of Frankenstein: "We belong dead."
  • Stock Ness Monster: It says something about the nature of this book that a brief encounter with Nessie is one of the least weird things to happen in it.
  • Strawman Political: Several.
  • Submarine Pirates: Hagbard Celine.
  • The Syndicate: Putney Drake's takeover of the mobs creates a mega-syndicate.
  • Take That: One example from the appendix (although it is hardly the only one), talking about the difference between property(1), which only exists due to the threat of force, and property(2), mutually agreed upon by all members of society:
    The error of most alleged libertarians — especially the followers(!) of the egregious Ayn Rand — is to assume that all property(1) is property(2). The distinction can be made by any IQ above 70 and is absurdly simple. The test is to ask, of any title of ownership you are asked to accept or which you ask others to accept, ‘Would this be honored in a free society of rationalists, or does it require the armed might of a State to force people to honor it?’ If it be the former, it is property(2) and represents liberty; if it be the latter, it is property(1) and represents theft.
    • An in-universe example with Howard the Porpoise's song about sharks:
    May plagues and rains and typhoons beat them.
    May Great Cthulhu rise and eat them!
  • Those Wacky Nazis: Namely, Ghostapo: (the Nazis that attack the Ingolstadt Rock Festival are a SS division who collectively committed suicide and was then revived as Zombies by the Illuminati).
  • Treacherous Advisor: Hagbard , to both the Discordians and the Illuminati.
    • He's not really aiming to betray anyone, just teach and illuminate them towards independent, non-destructive existence. In the case of the Illuminati he eventually gives up due to their refusal to even try to communicate peacefully with the world.
  • Trickster Mentor: Hagbard Celine goes out of his way to make sure his 'disciples' know he's a massive liar who can't be completely trusted. He hopes they'll apply that lesson to other mentors as well.
    • He has named his organization "The Legion of Dynamic Discord" primarily so that he can eventually tell the members that the initials "LDD" really stands for "Little Deluded Dupes." He is also fond of a painting of Moses on Mount Sinai carrying stone tablets that read "Think for yourself, schmuck!"
  • Unfazed Everyman: George Dorn, arguably.
  • Unreliable Expositor: As befits a Conspiracy Kitchen Sink, taken Up to Eleven.
  • Unreliable Narrator: In the beginning, the narrator doesn't know who, what, or when he is as he bounces back in forth in the story through different viewpoint characters, and eventually realizes he's a third-person omniscient narrator in a fiction novel.
  • Warrior Poet: Howard the Porpoise.
  • Who Shot JFK?: Turns out the Law of Fives applies here, too.
  • Wrong Genre Savvy: 00005, a James Bond expy who finds himself in way over his head trying to infiltrate the Esoteric Order of Dagon. Still, when at Fernando Poo, is more aware of the truth behind the event than all the major intelligence agencies.
    • In fact, several characters suffer from this to various degrees. It doesn't help that the books constantly shift between genres, sometimes even in the middle of a sentence.


Alternative Title(s):

The Illuminatus Trilogy, Illuminatus