Literature: Foucault's Pendulum
is a 1988 novel by Umberto Eco
, and a notable work of conspiracy literature
While The Da Vinci Code
plays the conspiracy theory view of history completely straight, and Illuminatus!
subverts it wildly, this novel is an elaborate
and sometimes savage Deconstruction
. The main characters are:
- Casaubon: Protagonist and narrator. Also an intellectual dilettante and expert on The Knights Templar.
- Jacopo Belbo: Editor who is haunted by failure and frustrated desires.
- Diotallevi: Belbo's partner who is obsessed with all things Jewish and Kabbalistic.
The narrative contains numerous flashbacks, dream sequences, and historical anecdotes, but the basic plot is this:
Casaubon, while working on his degree, meets Belbo at a bar one night and they have a conversation during which Casaubon reveals his field of expertise - the history of the Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon
, also known as the Knights Templar. Belbo, who works for a publisher named Garamond who specializes in academic works and doubles as a vanity press
for various crackpots and assorted nuts with pretensions to intellectualism, finds Casaubon interesting and invites him to visit the publisher. Casaubon is introduced to Diotallevi and is allowed to be present and re-presented as a "topical expert" while they interview an aspiring author, Colonel Ardenti, who presents a manuscript. This turns out to be a book purporting to expose the secret of the Templars, which Ardenti believes to be dangerous knowledge.
Sure enough, the man disappears mysteriously, but the police investigation goes nowhere. Casaubon moves to Brazil, where he hooks up with a radical socialist girlfriend named Amparo and later meets a man named Aglič who is an expert in occultism. Aglič likes to tell historical stories as though he were there in person. Eventually, Amparo leaves Casaubon, and Casaubon moves back to Italy.
Upon his return, Casaubon becomes a freelance researcher and accepts work from Garamond, first on a history of metals, and then a history of occultism. He also meets and falls in love with a woman named Lia. During their projects, he, Belbo, and Diotallevi meet many odd characters from the occult world of conspiracy theories and secret histories, partly with the help of Aglič who has contacts there. Bemused and bored by the inanity of the various conspiracy theories they are require to listen to, read about, and publish, the trio decide one night to fabricate their own arcane history based on the idea that one root occult conspiracy is the cause of all world historical events. This byzantine, chimerical super conspiracy they enigmatically designate "The Plan".
Over Lia's objections, Casaubon and his partners become more and more invested in the Plan they have created, but then unwisely start hinting to Aglič that they possess knowledge he does not. Aglič, Ardenti, and other members of the European occult community decide that they are meant to be in control of history, and start chasing after the (completely synthetic) secret of the Plan, starting by pursuing the trio of protagonists themselves.
Provides Examples Of:
- Ancient Conspiracy / Conspiracy Kitchen Sink: Played with to Serial Escalation levels.
- Ambiguously Jewish: Diotallevi
- Arc Number: 120.
- Arson Murder And Jay Walking: A really peculiar inversion with the garrulous publisher's habit of starting out hyperbolic in his praise of things and then (apparently without realizing it) taking an abrupt downturn. E.g. "It is a palace! A dwelling fit for kings! I'll put it even more strongly: It's a genuine Piemontese villa!"
- An example done straight is in when Casaubon mentioned the Borborites, who rip out fetuses from women's bodies, crush them in mortars and eat them with honey and pepper. Diotellavi says: "How revolting, honey and pepper!"
- Author Avatar:
- A lot of Belbo's stories about his wartime childhood are directly taken from Eco's biography. Especially the trumpet episode.
- Like Diotallevi, Umberto Eco's grandfather was a foundling, and if the book is anything to go by Eco definitely seems to have an interest in Kabbalah.
- Big Bad: Aglič.
- Bilingual Bonus
- Bolivian Army Ending: Diotallevi dies of cancer, Belbo and Lorenza are killed by the Tres members (probably, if Casaubon didn't hallucinate this), and Causabon himself expects that Tres would soon come after him (this is, most likely, a delusion of him, even if everything before this was true)
- Conspiracy Theorist: Subverted. The three protagonists all start out as Genre Savvy Deadpan Snarkers lampooning Conspiracy Kitchen Sink theories in general, but as the the book nears its end, they become raving Conspiracy Theorists themselves, seeing symbolism and dark secrets behind absolutely everything.
- Deconstructive Parody: The whole book does this to the Conspiracy Literature genre. Lampshaded numerous times.
- Epigraph: Opens each chapter. Most of them are of obscure texts related to the chapter's theme, but there's one about the physics of a hanged man (which is also related to the particular chapter).
- The epigraphs are, of course, the list of 120 quotes repeatedly referenced by Belbo and Casaubon.
- Fake Real Turn: The Plan.
- Fascist Gold: The policeman mentions a Con Man who claimed he had found Benito Mussolini's famous treasure in a lake. All he'd need was a bit of starting money...
- Fascist Italy: Belbo tells long stories from his childhood, which took place during Mussolini's rule.
- Femme Fatale: Lorenza, with a few twists.
- French Jerk: Pierre, the French satanist
- Genre Deconstruction: The novel deconstructs all the stories of Conspiracy Theories.
- Gone Horribly Wrong: Belbo, Casaubon and Diotallevi create "The Plan", an elaborate and ridiculously Trope Overdosed Conspiracy Theory as nothing more than a fun project for killing some free time and for mocking all the Conspiracy Kitchen Sink theories and secret histories they were forced to read while editing the manuscripts of various wacko authors for publishing. Their whole prank gradually starts getting out of hand and sounding far too real, since it's often even more convincing than all the pulp conspiracy theories it was supposed to make fun of in the first place. Then a secret society of whackjobs show up, and they might have been telling the truth by accident all along.
- Hollow Earth: One of the final pieces of the Plan.
- How We Got Here: Casaubon's narration.
- Kabbalah: The branches/spheres of the kabbalistic tree of life serve as chapter headings.
- Last Name Basis: The three main characters.
- Ley Line: Part of the conspiracy theory.
- Loving Force: Subverted. When Amparo, as she told, noticed a guy approaching her in the night on the street, and suspected he wanted to rape her, she offered him to have sex. He ran away, because he wanted to hurt women, not sex.
- Names Given to Computers: Abulafia, after the founder of the school of Prophetic Kabbalah.
- No Name Given: The first names of Casaubon and Diotallevi are never revealed.
- Casaubon's first name may be Pim. However, only Lia calls him that, so it might be just a nickname.
- Numerological Motif: Lia gives Casaubon a talk about the real meanings. The number one is special because every human is, well, one human and has one head, heart, nose, mouth, private part etc.; two is special because two people make a couple, and humans generally have two hands, feet, eyes, ears etc.; three OTOH is so special because our bodies don't have three of anything (but man + woman + child make a family); etc.
- Oh Wait, This Is My Grocery List: Double subverted, thanks to the Fake Real Turn.
- Older Than They Look: Aglič. Maybe.
- Readers Are Geniuses
- Reality Is Unrealistic: The narrator notes how many contradictions and other unexplainable things happen in the story of the Knights Templar, which helped creating the mystery around them:
- The Pope Clemens V prolonged the trial; as the king suspects, to give the knights time to flee. But they don't.
- The king sends his mooks to check the riches of the knights, to make sure he won't lose anything. The knights don't suspect anything.
- Then, the king orders to arrest the knights. It takes one month from order to arrest, but the knights don't flee.
- Almost all the tortured knights confess. Even if you think that they have suffered worse in the war.
- But they only confess if it's demanded by them, and only confess what the inquisitors want to hear.
- Some try to play the accusations down, others confess even worse things than demanded.
- Then, the pope tries to get the control of the trial himself. Does he want to save the knights?
- Later, the king even gives in - but soon after, the pope gives the control back!
- Really 700 Years Old: Aglič. Or is he?
- Redemption Equals Death
- The Reveal: When we find out that the mysterious document that the Plan is based on is basically a grocery list from the late eighteenth or early nineteenth century.
- Shakespeare in Fiction: Or in metafiction, at least - Belbo's writings about The Plan include an excessively convoluted theory about Shakespearean authorship.
- Written in a narrative style with Belbo imagining himself as a reincarnation of the true original writer.
- Shout-Out: Hundreds if not thousands of them. Belbo's files are especially crammed: one reads like a crazy Troperiffic pastiche in which each paragraph (maybe each line) references a different nineteenth century adventure, mystery or conspiracy story. Did we say Genius Bonus?
- Stylistic Suck: Belbo's own attempts at litterature are quite awful. He is very aware of this and doesn't want anyone to read them. His only "good" pages are when he abandons the Plan for his chilhood memories.
- Take That: A strong one against conspiracy theories and those who believe in them.
- Taxidermy Is Creepy: The narrator meets the taxidermist Salon in his shop and feels very creeped out.
- The Password Is Always Swordfish: Played with. Casaubon tries to figure out the password to Belbo's computer, which asks: "Do you know the password?" Since Belbo is his close friend, he tries numerous expressions he thinks Belbo could've used, but none of them work. Eventually, he angrily types: "No." This is the password. (There's a deeper reason for this: In order to gain knowledge, you have to admit that you don't know a specific thing.)
- There Are Two Kinds of People in the World: When Casaubon and Belbo meet for the first time, Belbo talks about how there are four kinds of people in the world: "cretins, fools, morons, and lunatics."
- Through the Eyes of Madness: Casaubon, by the end, doubts his own sanity, and questions how much is true of what he had seen.
- Vanity Publishing: In-story, there is the publishing house of Garamond doing this. The owner also changes the business model: he makes the occultists and conspiracy nutters pay to have their books published, and then sells the books.
- Women Are Wiser: Lia. She rejects all conspiracy theories, explains that there are very simple reasons for Numerological Motifs and the document the whole Plan was based upon is simply a very old laundry list.