Literature: Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?
A 1968 novel by Philip K Dick
about escaped androids trying to pass for humans in a dystopian future, and the people whose job it is to hunt them down. The book is notable for film fans as being the source material for Blade Runner
In the distant future of the 1990s
, nuclear war has destroyed nearly all life on Earth. Almost all animals are extinct, and only a fraction of the human race remains on Earth. Those left behind are either unwilling to leave, or are "specials" (called "chickenheads" or, in severe cases of mental damage, "antheads"), who are ineligible to leave due to overexposure to fallout. The people on Earth give their lives meaning by taking care of the last animals that are left on planet. As a proof of their empathy and humanity, those who can't afford a real animal inevitably end up buying an electric model instead; it's considered antisocial, if not downright sinful, to not have an animal to show the neighbours.
Most of humanity has emigrated throughout the solar system, rebuilding civilisation along with their organic android slaves ("andys") to do the hard labour. Androids have advanced to the point where they look completely human inside and out, but exhibit certain psychological differences and are not officially recognised as alive. Naturally, there are some androids who try to flee from a life of slavery and pass as human on Earth.
But being non-human, the androids are excluded from the experience of "Mercerism", a religion based around respect for all life, and the shared empathy of all the human race. People can connect together using "empathy boxes", bonding over the shared visions of The Messiah figure Wilbur Mercer. Most of humanity on Earth follows Mercerism, but the religion is ridiculed by famed comedian Buster Friendly, whose shows on TV and radio "Buster Friendly and His Friendly Friends" broadcast 23 hours a day each and who seems determined to bring Mercerism down for good.
Rick Deckard is a bounty hunter working for the San Francisco police department. He's assigned to hunt down and "retire" six Nexus-6 androids who have escaped from Mars, after the previous man on the case was left critically injured. His task is complicated when Deckard meets Rachael Rosen, a beautiful young woman associated with the leading android manufacturing company, and he begins to question the morality of his job. Deckard's life isn't going quite the way he wanted: he's stuck on earth, his wife has discarded artificial moods in favor of actual depression, and his sheep is electric.
Meanwhile, John R. Isidore — a chickenhead who lives alone in a decaying apartment building — finds that somebody else is now living in another apartment. It's a beautiful young woman named Pris Stratton, who calls herself "Rachael Rosen", then abruptly changes her story. She is cold and dismissive towards him at first, but later appeals to him for help: she has friends who have to come and hide out with her, because there's a bounty hunter trying to kill them. J.R. Isidore, who has never had a friend, is eager to help...
As in most Philip K Dick
novels, the characters are all extremely confused about their identity and their surroundings. Some plot twists are overly obvious from the start, and although the novel never explicitly states why the characters don't notice them easily, it can be assumed that every person in the novel suffers from some level of fallout-related brain damage and detachment from reality. The result is a very dreamy, expressionistic story that has become one of Dick's most popular works.
Provides Examples Of:
- Adaptation Expansion: From his novella, "The Little Black Box," which introduced Mercerism and empathy boxes.
- Artificial Human: The androids.
- Black Market Produce: It's not elaborated upon as some examples, but Isidore mentions getting pre-war luxury food such as bean curd, peaches and wine off the black market for a hefty price for himself and Pris.
- Deliberate Values Dissonance: Given Dick's sympathetic portrayal of androids elsewhere (cf. "The Electric Ant"), one interpretation of the book is that messed-up post-apocalyptic society itself alienates the androids to the point that they have no empathy.
- Deuteragonist: J.R. Isidore.
- Do Androids Dream?: The Trope Namer. Androids ultimately do feel emotions, but are incapable of feeling empathy.
- Doppelgänger: Rachael Rosen and Pris Stratton are physically identical, being the same model of android. Pris even attempts to use the name "Rachael Rosen" with Isidore as well, but she changes her story when he recognises the surname Rosen as belonging to the robotics manufacturer.
- Dystopia: The Earth is ruined and mostly abandoned.
- Even Evil Has Loved Ones: Roy Baty cares about no one save Irmgard. Even Pris, Polokov, and the other andies are expendable to him.
- Extremely Short Timespan: The novel takes place in a single day, but due to the extreme volume and gravity of events that happen throughout, even the main character finds this hard to comprehend.
- Heel-Faith Turn: Deckard. More of an anti-hero faith turn.
- Kick the Dog: Rachael killing Deckard's goat. Pris cutting the legs off the spider Isidore found, just to see if it could still walk. Roy also seems to take an inordinate amount of delight in relating bad news to the group, including the deaths of their friends.
- Kinetic Weapons Are Just Better: Double subverted. Lasers are stated to be more effective against androids, but when Deckard is divested of his ray tube, his backup slug thrower is able to do the job.
- Lack of Empathy:
- Androids have no empathy. It's the only way to tell them apart from (most) real humans.
- Deckard notes that bounty hunters have to switch off their human empathy while on the job so that they can kill androids that are physically indistinguishable from humans except through precise, clinical tests. It's one of the many ways in which the line between humans and robots is blurred.
- Manipulative Bastard: Pris Stratton, Rachael Rosen.
- Mind Screw: The climax.
- Obfuscating Stupidity: It's implied that this is how Luba Luft beats the Voigt-Kampff test; every time Deckard asks a question, she either misses the point, argues with the premise, or claims not to know a key English word. This probably wouldn't have given her a false negative on the test, since if she really did understand the questions, then her unconscious physical responses would still reveal her to be an android. However, she uses her behavior to get the drop on Deckard and hold him at laser-point.
- Old Shame: At one point, PKD claimed he loathed the book. However, that didn't stop him from turning down a $400,000 paycheck if he wrote a quickie junior novelization to tie into the film.
- Only Electric Sheep Are Cheap: Animals are a luxury, as many died out or became extinct due to fallout from World War Terminus. This results in owning an animal being a sign of wealth or status, which in turn means people buy fake, robotic animals to make themselves look more important. In the beginning of the book, Deckard owns an electric sheep.
- Protagonist and Friends: An in-universe example in Buster Friendly and His Friendly Friends
- Ridiculously Human Robots
- Too ridiculous, as in these robots can actually pass for human. The people of Earth are aware of this trope, much to their annoyance, since they're the ones who have to track down renegades who have escaped from Mars. Multiple times they've requested the Andies' manufacturer to make the Andies less human-like. The book also insinuates that the Andies are made so realistically because the Mars colonists are using them as a replacement for human intimacy (including sex).
- There are also Ridiculously Animal Robots, robotic animals that have been programmed to act like animals even when malfunctioning (so other people don't realize they are robots). In one scene, a character who works for a robot animal repair shop has someone call him to help their cat... and he doesn't realize that the cat is real until it dies and he can't find any wires.
- The Reveal: Buster Friendly claims towards the end on his show to have evidence of Mercer being a harmless old fake. This is when Pris reveals to Isidore that Buster and his co-stars are all androids, explaining why Buster was so desperate to prove Mercer a fraud. Averted when Isidore rushes to his Empathy Box to confirm the truth, where Mercer reveals that it doesn't matter if he's real or not, only that Isidore and millions of others just rushed to their Empathy Boxes to maintain their faith in him.
- Sleeping Single: Rick and his wife Iran.
- Standard Female Grab Area: Deckard uses this on Luba Luft.
- "I can't stand the way you androids give up".
- The Vamp: Rachael and Pris.
- Title Drop: A partial one comes when Rick ponders about the thought, philosophy and emotional capacity of the escaped androids, and what it would take for them to want to come to earth. The full title, however, postdates the manuscript; Dick wanted to call it either Do Androids Dream? or The Electric Sheep. It was his publisher who decided to mash them together.
- Tomato in the Mirror: Subverted. Phil Resch almost becomes convinced he's a robot, and has to take an empathy test to find out.
- Almost, almost done with Deckard when he's captured by Garland's department.
- Two Lines, No Waiting: The book has two protagonists — Rick Deckard and JR Isidore.
- Unbuilt Trope: Deconstructed the What Measure Is a Non-Human? trope before Blade Runner widely popularized it
- Unholy Matrimony: Roy and Irmgard Baty.
- What Measure Is a Non-Human?: The book answers — it's empathy. Humans can feel for another's distress and act selflessly, while androids are incapable of doing so. Very little really separates Andies from sociopaths, who are incapable of feeling empathy for another living being. Deckard admits the only reason the Voight-Kampf test is effective is because of the assumption that all the human sociopaths are locked away in asylums. Just like real life sociopaths, the Andies have become masters of using charm and deception to manipulate other people's emotions for their own benefit. They also cannot comprehend the idea of a fictional character still being "real" to people or inspiring them. Wordof God states that Dick got the idea for the book because he couldn't believe the Nazis were human because of all the horrifying things they did to other people.
- World War Terminus.
- You Are What You Hate: Collective guilt over the nuclear war is implied to be why humanity loves and cherishes animals, even artificial ones, yet consigns artificial humans to slave labor and kills them without a shred of empathy.