Depending on who's talking to who, Open Blue falls in between Last Name Basis and address by rank for military characters, First Name Basis for civilians and/or pirates, or some mix of such. Even the addressing in narration differs between RPers.
Averted in the 7th Son podcast novel trilogy, as 7 of the main heroes AND the Big Bad all have the same last name. Played straight though with the supporting heroes, who are almost always referred to as Hill and Kleinman; their last names.
Most of the terrorists in Survival of the Fittest are only ever referred to by their surnames. (Danya, McLocke, Kaige, Rice, Grossi, Garnett, Konrad, Chevalier, Hurst, Richards, Baines) Dorian is the sole exception.
Among the students, we have Anna Chase of v4, who prefers to have people use her last name when referring to her. Liam "Brook" Brooks (also v4) is a minor variation, but probably still fits. Occasionally other students get this treatment as well (sometimes J.R. Rizzolo is referred to by his last name or "Riz", for example).
Most characters in Red vs. Blue save Sarge, Doc (real name Frank DuFresne), Grif's sister (although she's never referred to by her first name Kaikaina either), Lopez, the Freelancers, and any tertiary characters, due to the characters being in the military. Church didn't even know Tucker's first name when he asked him partway through the series, despite working with him for months. The cast's full names are Leonard L. Church, Michael J. Caboose, Lavernius Tucker, Dick Simmons, Franklin Delano Donut, and Dexter Grif.
In The Autobiography of Jane Eyre, Mr Rochester calls Jane, who is his employee and live-in tutor for his daughter Adele, just Jane in their second episode. He likes her, and cannot be bothered with "Ms Eyre". She however calls her boss Mr Rochester.
The Lizzie Bennet Diaries: Darcy is just Darcy for everybody. Everybody calls him that but his sister Gigi. She calls him William.
Below Board, being a Police Procedural, does this with almost all of its characters. The exception would be Chet Holloway, who goes by his first name throughout.