Subverted with the Brotherhood in 1984, in that it is implied to be a trap set by the Party to capture dissidents.
The titular characters of Animorphs are this, most obviously when the Yeerks find out about their true identities.
The Bible features many stories in the Old Testament of Hebrew resistance fighters throwing off conquering invaders. It's pretty much what the entire book of Judges is about, making this trope Older Than Feudalism.
In the book of Revelation, Satan mounts a resistance force against "the beloved city" at the end of the Millennium, which ends up being smoked by God.
In Timothy Zahn's largely-unknown Blackcollar series, humanity has been curbstomped by the Ryqril, a very aggressive race whose idea of a war is to bomb entire worlds if that's what's needed to subjugate their enemies. Even the elite of the elite, the genetically-enhanced Blackcollar warriors, couldn't stop the massacre. But when defeat is officially signed the Blackcollars don't take it very well, declare themselves La Résistance and embark in a long guerilla-like battle against their conquerors. They are ultimately forced to face the futility of their actions on the grand scale of things, and they more or less surrender and turn to a pathetic, sad life of drunkenly remembering the good old days. This is, of course, merely a ruse to throw their enemies off their tracks; when the opportunity presents itself they go back to their former selves, and epic asskicking results.
In the Bolo novel The Road to Damascus, a resistance against a corrupt planetary government is put up against a Bolo, faring better against it than one would expect, due in part to the wife of the Bolo's former commander advising them on how to conduct guerilla warfare against a supertank that nominally requires another supertank to stop.
The revolutionary cell "The Red Army" in Terry Pratchett's Interesting Times is far too polite to do anything other than put up slightly incendiary posters. Rincewind, the erstwhile hero, subverts the "Hero becomes its champion" aspect: not only does he make it clear he wants nothing to do with them, he points out how they're far more likely to get themselves killed than they are to change anything and that a coup isn't going to affect the life of the average peasant, anyways. It probably counts as a subversion, since it is organized by the main villain. He discovers this is harder than it sounds.
Night Watch contains a very interesting take on La Résistance - initially it's pretty standard, with a small portion of the city taking up arms and building barricades against the corrupt government. But as the barricades expand, a character brings up the interesting point of what would happen should the barricades and the ranks of La Résistance expand until they contained a larger portion of the city than the entrenched government. It never quite happens, but it's still an intriguing thought.
Steven Brust's Teckla and Phoenix from the Dragaera: Vlad Taltos series have Cawti involved in a resistance movement of the lower classes. In fact, Dragaeran society, which goes through a pre-determined cycle of leadership, is designed to have a period of time in which the peasant Tecklas rise up and convert the Empire into a Republic. Vlad is upset because this particular resistance movement isn't occuring during the correct time in the cycle, and thus he believes it is doomed to fail.
Dragonlance. In Dragons of the Hourglass MageRaistlin works with a secretive group within Neraka working to bring down the Dark Queen Takhisis, called the Hidden Light.
In 1636: The Saxon Uprising, the usurper Axel Oxenstierna tries to create this as an excuse for cracking down on uptimer-inspired political movements threatening the status quo from prior to Grantville's arrival. However, the heroes see his goal and foil it by obeying the law, and keeping unrest to a minimum. This steals all of the usurper's thunder and neatly deprives him of a causus belli to seize power.
In Harry Potter, we have the Order of the Phoenix, La Résistance group against Voldemort, and Dumbledore's Army, the student group created againstUmbridge originally to study Defence Against the Dark Arts, which later becomes a true resistance group against the Death Eaters that control Hogwarts.
Subverted and deconstructed to hell and back in Honor Harrington. The Havenite Revolutions, Civil Wars, Resistance Movements (please note that is plural on purpose) are based on the French Revolution, and if you have even the tiniest bit of knowledge about that era of European history you should be able to guess that things get very ugly and very bloody very quickly.
In Andy Hoare's White Scars novel Hunt for Voldorius, on Quintus.
The Varden in Eragon. Then again, the entire story is Star Wars re-recycled in a fantasy setting, so that wasn't much of a surprise.
In It Can't Happen Here, Trowbridge leads a resistance movement against the Windrip regime after fleeing to Canada. Lorinda, Doremus, and several members of the Jessop household disseminate forbidden news that they receive from Canada. At the end of the novel, a full-blown rebellion against the now-Haik regime has erupted across the country.
The Tribulation Force in the Left Behind book series becomes this as they oppose Nicolae Carpathia and his Global Community during the Tribulation, earning the perjorative "Judah-ite" once the converted rabbi Tsion Ben-Judah becomes the main mouthpiece of the resistance.
In the Legacy of the Force series, the galactic government that replaced The Empirenote Well, the Spiritual Successor of the government that replaced The Empire, but let's not quibble. Much. has become another The Empire, complete with another Vader. The inevitable result is a fresh La Resistance, with plenty of reference made to the circularity. (Especially because the new La Resistance has many of the same central people as the original.)
In Les Misérables, Les Amis de l'ABC (whose name has "the friends of the downtrodden" as a second meaning).
Some of the characters in Rutherfurd's London get involved in this trope in the years following the Norman Conquest, trying to foment unrest that will leave it open to another Danish invasion and put a second King Canute on the British throne. True to history, they fail miserably.
In Crossed (the sequel to Matched), the Rising is a resistance against The Society that runs the country.
Many of the colonies in Harry Harrison's Starworld decide they've had enough of Earth's tyrannical rule. They band together, along with a number of fleet officers. In fact, the admirals commanding both fleets in the key space battle used to be good friends. It ends up being a Curb-Stomp Battle, in which the rebels obliterate Earth's fleet using a new weapon (mass drivers). Then they attack Earth's orbital defenses, while Israeli forces storm the Mojave spaceport in a well-coordinated attack.
The very originally named Resistance in The Bartimaeus Trilogy. A slight subversion, as it turns out that, despite being an annoyance to the government, there are only a dozen of them and they're defeated rather easily when confronting a real danger. Not to mention that while one of the viewpoint characters is a member, another is a government magician hunting them down.
In The Ganymede Takeover by Philip K. Dick and Ray Nelson, the last-remaining resistance to the alien occupiers consists of a Black Muslim guerilla movement in the hills of Tennessee, and a secret organisation operating under the auspices of the World Psychiatric Association.
Katniss Everdeen and a group of teens in The Hunger Games turn into this by the end of Catching Fire and most of Mockingjay along with District 13, with Katniss ending up the mouthpiece of the rebellion.
Played straight as an arrow by Robert A. Heinlein in The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress. The protagonist joins an ragtag resistance movement big on talk and small on action. He helps reorganize it along rational lines. A revolution is then planned, plotted, fought and won, all without any significant internal splintering, and Luna gains independence from the evil Earthling overlords. The End. (It does help that the sentient central computer that controls Luna's entire infrastructure sides with La Resistance).
Played with in The Poisonwood Bible: Anatole, now the husband of Leah, becomes a part of the anti-Mobutu resistance, and is portrayed as heroic for it. It's made clear, however, that not everyone in La Résistance is so heroic; for example, a more violent faction of it kills Pascal.
The commoners during the French Revolution were essentially a massive version of this... and in this way, they're the bad guys in The Scarlet Pimpernel.
The main protagonists of The Tripods are this, there's a group in the White Mountains of Switzerland and one mentioned as being in the Rockies in the US.
The undertreated members in This Perfect Day quickly discard the notion of actually trying to overthrow the oppressive supercomputer that runs their society, and content themselves with smoking and having illicit sex in empty museums in the middle of the night. The islanders occasionally send terrorist strike teams to attack UNICOMP, but these all fail thanks to an extensive system of shepherds who join all such strike teams and ensure they get caught. Our hero, Chip, eventually gets suborned into the secret ruling circle, and forms a one-man La Resistance inside their circle of power, finally managing to destroy the computer and free mankind.
In Dan Abnett's Gaunt's Ghosts novel Traitor General, Gaunt and his team join with the Gereon resistance to carry out their mission and, because of their sacrifices, stay to help reorganize and strengthen them after it is done. They are briefly reunited in The Armor of Contempt, but the Inquisition comes down hard on the resistance, and they vanish. Gaunt declares he will not help them find them again.
The backstory of Barrayar includes occupation by The Cetegandan Empire, with General Count Piotr Vorkosigan as a resistance leader and hero. In one book Miles discovers a collection of Cetegandan scalps presented to the General by his men. "Can't throw them away: they're presents".
The Vorkosigans slipped straight back into La Résistance mode during the early stages of Vordarian's Pretendership.
In the short story "The Borders of Infinity", Miles has been dropped into a Cetagandan POW camp in order to find the man who, in his boss's words, is just the right person to give La Résistance of the Cetaganda-occupied Marilac "a shot in the arm." Unfortunately, he finds the man just in time for him to die. So he breaks out the entire prison camp en masse. Ten thousand new recruits with plenty of reason to hate the oppressors? That'll do. We learn in a later book that Cetaganda pulled out of Marilac entirely.
Eric Frank Russell's novel Wasp involves a man named James Mowri being sent to a hostile alien world in order to cause dissent and chaos and prepare it for an imminent invasion by Terran forces. The planet is part of the large Sirian Empire, whose fascist-like government rules with an iron fist and its State Sec Kaitempi is feared by all. Mowri's primary task is to make it appear as if La Résistance exists in the form of Dirac Angestun Gesept (the Sirian Freedom Party). This involves sending threats signed by D.A.G., lists of people killed (most names are made up), and stickers with anti-government slogans. He then starts hiring local contract killers to take out government and Kaitempi officials and placing fake wire taps on government buildings to build up paranoia. By this point, the Kaitempi is convinced La Résistance is real and a major threat to Imperial stability. The final phase of the plan (which Mowri is forced to speed up due to the imminent invasion) involves diverting the attention of the government and Kaitempi away from space by sabotaging naval ships. After the successful invasion, Mowri finds out that many others like him have been sent to other Sirian worlds. In fact, he is being immeately reassigned to a world where the "wasp" sent there has gone silent.
In the Dale Brown novel Wings of Fire, the Night Stalkers receive help from the Sanusi Brotherhood, led by usurped Libyan king Sayyid Muhammad ibn al-Hasan as-Sanusi and fighting against the current Libyan dictator.
The Daughter of the Lioness books in the Tortall Universe focus on the native resistance group in the Copper Isles, who are also waiting for favorable conditions from The Prophecy and their patron god to overthrow the oppressive luarin government.
The cast of The Hour Before Morning are involved in a particularly scattered version, local groups in for the long haul, fighting against a vast and well-established empire.
The French novella Le Silence de la Mer, which was written in 1942 by a member of the Trope Namer. At the end of the story, the niece joins the French Resistance.