There is an employee who is noted for resembling Snoop Dogg who is very insistent on making sure everyone knows his title, making sure nobody calls him Snoop Dogg Intern when he becomes Snoop Dogg Attending and so on. Although he wishes that, just once, someone would just call him Ronald.
The Janitor objects to his uniform being called a jumpsuit (or, more usually, being referred to as "Jumpsuit" himself). "It's a shirt and pants. Who wears a belt with a jumpsuit?"
Gareth Keenan and his American counterpart Dwight Schrute constantly refer to themselves as "Assistant Regional Manager," prompting nearby employees to insist, "Assistant to the Regional Manager," a much less impressive and largely meaningless title.
There's also Bob Vance, Vance Refrigeration. He's even introduced this way by the pastor at his wedding.
In Dwight's case, at least, it actually is meaningless; in one episode, when Dwight is particularly obnoxious about the authority it supposedly gives him, Michael admits that no such title exists, and he just made it up one day to keep Dwight quiet. Dwight takes this very hard.
Dwight's karate instructor also does this by making him his sempai.
In an example from one of Star Trek: Deep Space Nine's Ferengi episodes, the good guy Ferengi repeatedly have to correct people who refer to "Grand Nagus Brunt" by insisting that they call him "Acting Grand Nagus Brunt".
Brilliant cop Lester Freamon of The Wire is very insistent about the amount of time he spent banished in the pawn shop unit — thirteen years and four months.
Fabio Viviani from Top Chef season 5. After a judge called his filet mignon sandwich "essentially a cheesesteak", he went on to declare, "It's a filet mignon sandwich. Not a cheesesteak."
Memetic mutation has done this to Dr. K of Power Rangers RPM. It's Bio-Armor, not spandex!
Dr. K: The material is a self-assembling nanofiber formed with an inter-cellular shape memory alloy.
Not just memetic mutation, as it's cropped up again a few episodes after the first incident. Schoolkids on a field trip get a Q&A session with the Rangers, and K has to be restrained when the S-word comes up.
Dr. K is very insistent on terminology. During the Q&A session she holds with her Series Operators in the beginning of "Ranger Blue", Scott asks her about the eyes in front of their Zords. She tells them that they are not eyes, but that they are actually optical field scanning sensors for their cockpit's displays. But, of course, this doesn't go around the fact that...
Dillon: They look like eyes! Ziggy: Big, googly anime eyes.
Arrested Development: "ILLUSIONS, Michael." A trick is something a whore does for money... Or cocaine!
Though funnily enough, near the end of the series the shadowy pimp Michael is talking to reveals himself to be GOB when he talks about his girls "turning illusions," hinting that there's really no reason besides forced eccentricity.
One of the first things Ned in the pilot of Pushing Daisies says is that the people he brings back to life are not zombies or undead, merely "alive again".
In the 2007 Christmas special, Bannakaffalatta, a red-skinned, spikey alien cyborg, takes it personally when the Doctor tries to call him "Banna".
The Doctor in general is rather insistent that he borrowed the TARDIS, not stole it. Meanwhile, the TARDIS herself insists that she stole him.
Steven Taylor, one of the First Doctor's Companions, would often call him "Doc". The Doctor would demand that Steven call him by his proper name.
Similarly, Ace refers to the Seventh Doctor as "Professor", which, like "Doc", often irked the Doctor.
The classic series has 26 seasons. The revival's first series, which being a continuation should have started with season 27, instead starts with series 1. Most British shows would refer to a season as a series, so why classic Doctor Who called them seasons is a mystery.
The West Wing, thanks to its focus on the arcana and minutia of politics, encounters this quite often.
For example, in episode 1x08, "Enemies", Sam Seaborne is roped into writing a birthday message for the Secretary of Transportation. That he is staggeringly overqualified for this minor assignment is emphasized throughout.
Josh: What're you guys working on? Toby: It's a birthday card. Sam: Actually, it's a birthday message.
Sam Seaborn's friend Laurie is a "call girl", not a "prostitute". It's an important distinction, Toby.
And don't disrespect the president.
Hoynes: I have had it up to here with you and your pal.
Leo: Excuse me....Are you referring to President Bartlet?
Leo: Refer to him that way.
Legislative uses tends to come in two flavors:
Names that simplify or brand the issue so as to make it hard to oppose, such as the real-life "death taxnote referring to the estate tax" or Annabeth reframing the alternative to Charlie's poverty assistance plan a "poverty/poor tax."
Names that are obfuscatingly wordy so as to make them easier to oppose, like the "Comprehensive Access and Responsibility Act" for the Patients' Bill of Rights. (The Republicans agreed to discuss changing the name back.)
King Arthur (son of Pendragon and Ygerne) and Anna of Tintagel (daughter of Gorlay and Ygerne) always correct anybody calling them either brother/sister with "half-brother/half-sister". They once said it simultaneously. As her husband Loth can attest, Anna can get violent if you forget the "half-" part.
Also, during the whole "Livre V", as Arthur has renounced the throne, he keeps correcting anybody calling him "Sire".
Topher: He seemed to be having a kind of... man-reaction. Claire: Victor had an erection? Topher: I prefer man-reaction.
In Stargate SG-1, Senator Robert Kinsey tries to smugly comment on Thor's presence and refers to him as "Commander," only for Thor to restate that he is Supreme Commander of the Asgard Fleet. Kinsey does it again when he meets Bra'tac, referring to him as "mister," whereupon SG1 explains that it is Master Bra'tac.
On Veronica Mars Cassidy Casablancas is always referred to as 'Beaver', in the s2 finale he finally snaps, yelling "MY NAME IS CASSIDY!"
Lampshaded since Veronica Mars calls him Cassidy (and whenever she calls him Beaver, she corrects herself).
In Sherlock, Holmes is not a psychopath. He's a high-functioning sociopath. Do your research!
Also qualifying would be John's repeated insistence that he is "not gay!"
In one episode of Special Unit 2 they were trying to catch a djinn before she could grant her 3000th wish and be free. To do this, their resident gearhead created a capturing device:
Jonathan [describes the device, using terms involving sucking and a storage bag] O'Malley: So you created a vacuum cleaner. Jonathan: It's not a vacuum cleaner. Captain:(enters scene) Have you finished briefing Benson and O'Malley on the vacuum cleaner?
Barney from How I Met Your Mother is constantly insisting to others (including Ted) that he is Ted's best friend instead of Marshall.
Sheldon is not a rocket scientist. He's a theoretical physicist! Also, Sheldon takes great pains to point out that his team t-shirt spells "The Wesley Crushers" (Those Who Crush Wesley) and not "The Wesley Crushers" (Multiple People Named Wesley Crusher). Dr. Sheldon Cooper would also have you know that he's not crazy; his mother had him tested. She later confirms this (...though she should have followed-up with that specialist in Houston).
Repeated reminders that Howard does not have a doctorate
Also Howard would like to point out that he does not live with his mother. She lives with him.
On Everybody Loves Raymond, Robert is gored by a bull, and a Running Gag is made of his insisting that he was injured in the "upper thigh." This finally snaps when he confronts the bull again. "You chased me down, and you gored me. RIGHT IN THE ASS!"
In the Batman TV series, everyone always refers to 'stately Wayne Manor', owned by 'millionaire Bruce Wayne' and his 'youthful ward Dick Grayson'.
On Mystery Science Theater 3000, one of these (see Real Life below) was used as a running gag in seasons 3-4: Whenever Joel referred to "comic books" the bots would take offense and insist on the term "graphic novels."
In Criminal Minds, Dr. Spencer Reid would like you to know that he has an *eidetic* memory, not a photographic memory. Also, during the first few seasons, some of his team members are very insistent that he be referred to as "doctor", although that had more to do with the fact that he was his early 20's and looked fifteen at the time than with anything else.
In the early seasons of Law & Order, EADA Ben Stone insisted on calling people "sir" or "ma'am". The more he disliked you, the more polite he got.
Ian O'Connell: May I ask you a question, sir? How with the map of Donegal on your mug did you ever end up with a name like Stone?
Stone: Happenstance, sir. Same way you ended up with the name of a real Irish patriot.
In Get Smart, when Max calls the Chinese ultra-villian 'The Craw', the villian corrects him in a proper Chinese ultra-villian accent, "No, not da Craw, da Craw!"
In Mad Dogs, Rick is NOT an accountant; he's a Financial Consultant.
On Cheers, when Sam finally reveals to Carla the deep, dark secret that he's losing his hair, he quickly corrects her; he's not wearing a wig, he's using a "hair replacement system".
Hank from Breaking Bad is not collecting rocks, he's collecting minerals (geology pendantry Rocks are aggregations of minerals. Hank could be collecting large single-mineral crystals, such as are found in geodes) And Walt isn't a meth dealer, he's a meth manufacturer.
On Leverage, Eliot — for whom food is very much Serious Business — gets quite upset when Hardison keeps referring to the "culinary institute" they're infiltrating as a "cooking school."