Where is Ledo getting the materials for the Ocarinas he's always making?
They're Hideauze spines.
The implication being, of course, that he's killed a shit-ton of Hideauze.
Aren't they teeth? Anyway, are we sure he hasn't been working on one for several episodes. The only time I can recall seeing him switch to an entirely new tooth is after he has been attacked by the whalesquid...
It shouldn't take him that long to carve a single one given it takes a few seconds to punch a single hole. Also, I'm pretty sure an earlier ocarina had like half-dozen holes carved into, but a later one had only two or so. I think he's been making multiple ones. (And this is before he meets a whalesquid).
The first episode shows that his suit has pockets that are like bags of holding. He probably has several Hideauze teeth in at least one of them.
He has one before landing on Earth (it's seen floating in the cockpit when he's awakened, and he grabs hold of it before going in to battle). He later picks up a tooth (really, given how squid/octopus-like the Hideauze are, it's more like a beak) off the ground next to Chamber after leaving the cockpit in the first episode. A third 'tooth' is acquired after being attacked by the whalesquid in episode 6.
How does Chamber translate "reproduction with one's mother" if the concept of family is unknown to those in the Galactic Alliance?
Comparing them to archived texts from long ago ages, probably.
The concept of family might be lost, but technically anyone that gives birth to someone is a 'mother' in a biological definition sense. Even if it's artificial or strictly procreational.
Yeah, the concept of maternity might not have been lost even if "motherhood" has. Although I personally think it's more likely that it was an oversight by the writers.
When Amy confuses Ledo with the concept of "family" in a later episode, Chamber displays some knowledge of the subject, suggesting that the GA does have records of when they lived in family units. Ledo, as a soldier, has simply never read those records. They're unnecessary for his job.
How does the Alliance have no understanding of the term peaceful coexistance? They're an Alliance and judging by Chamber's comments in the first episode, have more than once taken 'wandering tribes' into their ranks. And frankly, as long as you have two humans working together and no trying to kill each other, they're peacefully coexisting.
Because it's a moral and ethical opposition that goes back possibly thousands of years. They were once an alliance of states that opposed the Evolvers, and because of Tradition and the rigid nature of the society, they never changed it.
You can look further into it: The Alliance had their start in going to war with the Evolvers because they were breaking the most important laws and evidence suggested the Evolvers were all inhumane as hell. This is fairly acceptable morally, but the act doomed the human race to perpetual war. The alternative was going for peaceful coexistence (which despite everything was the Evolvers' aim) and living with the knowledge that they enabled the world's most egregious mass ethics violations. The alliance made its choice and stuck with it, a decision so big that they learned to justify it by hating the Evolvers and by extention the concept of peaceful coexistence.
You have to ask, though, if all the Evolvers were volunteers, and they are certainly presented that way, then what ethical guidelines did they break? They gave up the human form to ensure their survival, but one's body shape is hardly a question of morality.
We don't know for sure if the Evolvers only used willing volunteers or how some of their other experiments turned out. The most of the video we see of them appears to be propaganda clips. It's very possible that the Evlovers did some terrible experiments to figure out how to merge two species together or used less than willing subjects. There also are so many things that can go wrong with that kind of science that even if you have eager volunteers what happens to them in the process and afterwards could have a lot of people going You Monster! whether they were on the up and up or not.
Additionally, the cocktail that those volunteers we saw getting was likely the finished product. This is a procedure that rapidly alters the body's structure. The initial research for that kind of treatment would probably be something like inducing tumor growth as fast as possible in living organisms. One can only imagine how many living bodies they had to desecrate in creative and painful ways to get distill the process into something useable.
Given that Elaine Matsumoto is strongly implied if not outright stated to have been recruited and transformed as a young girl. This is assuming that she is the same girl who asks her mother if they'll ever see her dad again - given that said father was Ryan Matsumoto, the evidence points to a girl who is clearly not mature enough to make such an important decision being transformed. Not that she seems unhappy, as she's smiling later on, but it's clear that she's too young to understand what's happened to her.
Just how much water does the Earth in Gargantia contain, if it ostensibly causes all land to become submerged when the frozen reserves are all thawed? Moreover, just how hot has it become on Gargantia's Earth if the ice caps are all melted?
The Earth has been entirely covered by water in the past, evidenced by the fact that sea-dwelling fossils have been found on every inch of the planet. A comment from the last episode also implies that something happened to flatten the terrain.
Incorrect, at most only 90% of the Earth has been covered by water at any time. Also, claiming that sea-dwelling fossils have been found on every inch is an outright lie.
Ledo served for 16 years (145,000 hours), and he's about 16 himself... does the Alliance use toddler soldiers? I heard about child soldiers, but this is absurd!
When Ledo sees some unnattended children on Gargantia, he wonders why they are not drill training and where is their instructor. Also, there are no such thing is family. So, yeah, people of Alliance are on active duty since birth.
Active duty since birth? How are they supposed to be on active duty when they're 2 months old? Child soldiers is one thing, but toddler soldiers?!
The Alliance probably takes suitable children soon after birth for military service and their training and rearing is likely considered to be part of their duty.
If it takes 16 years of service to gain limited reproduction rights, it means that reproduction is somewhat of a luxury in the alliance. You'd expect reproduction to be encouraged. How do they replenish their numbers, given all the casualties of this bloody war?
The Alliance is implied to have extremely limited resources, due to living without a planet. Living under a war economy (eg, having the majority of the population acting as soldiers rather then explorers, builders, etc) wouldn't help matters.
Killing all children unfit to be soldiers is inefficient. Don't they need scientists and researchers to advanced technologically. Those people can't be capable warriors, but they must exist for the Alliance not to stagnate tech wise.
The Alliance doesn't kill all children "unfit to be soldiers". It kills all children "unable to contribute". Researchers and scientists would be able to contribute to the war in a big way, so children with a good aptitude for such ventures would not be killed. It's children that are born with physical and mental defects that the Alliance kills, or those that are judged to have aptitudes that would not be useful in warfare.