A-LAWS is an acronym like SEAL, "Autonomous- Land Air Water Space."
Speaking of weird acronyms, the communistic Human Reform League seems like it should be "People's Reform League", and the official translation comes off as a bit Engrish-y. This actually makes sense, as not only do none of the HRL's member states have a significant English-speaking population, they are actively hostile to most if not all of the countries that do.
At the end of Season 1, the announcement of the Federation has over 300 nations supporting the initiative. There are roughly 200 nations today, so serious political separatism would have been necessary to create that many countries during the wars before Celestial Being.