Film / I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang

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"I steal!"

Hailed as one of the most influential films of the 20th century, I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang is a 1932 drama/crime film released by Warner Bros., directed by Mervyn LeRoy and starring Paul Muni.

Muni plays Sergeant James Allen, who on his return home from World War I knows he is now a changed man, and leaves home to go work in construction. However, along the way, he manages to talk to the wrong man at the wrong time, and on a trip to go get a bite to eat he is caught up in a robbery. Held at gunpoint, Allen is forced to steal 5 dollars from the restaurant (that's about 85 dollars today,) and when the man holding the gun at him dies, he takes the money and runs. He is soon caught, and sentenced to serve ten years on a Deep South chain gang.

Allen decides he's had enough, and with the help of two other men he is able to escape to Chicago. He becomes a success in the construction business under the name Allen James, but when femme fatale Marie Woods discovers he is an escapee, she blackmails him into marriage for his money. However, it's clear that they are not in love in the slightest; 'Allen' cheats on her for the beautiful and kind Helen. When Allen asks Marie for a divorce, she is so outraged she tells the authorities that Allen James is James Allen, and he is caught once more.

Allen is told that if he turns himself in, he will be out of the chain gang in 90 days, but after the 90 days he learns this was just a ruse to get him behind bars, and he must now serve the 9 years he missed. Brutally upset, he manages to escape once more, and is able to find Helen again in the shadows before he tells her he can never see her again, and will be on the run for the rest of his life. (Director Mervyn LeRoy claimed that the final scene was an idea that came to him after a fuse blew on the set, plunging it into darkness, but in fact that was always part of the script.)

Based on the true story of Robert Elliott Burns, and with the help of this movie Burns — who was still on the run at the time this was made — was pardoned in 1945, and lived free until his death ten years later. (Burns would later be the subject of a 1987 made-for-TV biopic called The Man Who Broke 1,000 Chains, in which he's played by Val Kilmer).


This film contains the following tropes:

  • All Crimes Are Equal: Allen is staying the same amount of time, doing the same labor, and living in the same conditions as hardened murderers (most notably mentioned is a man who killed his mother, wife, and sister-in-law, which makes Allen reasonably unwilling to say he's only in for stealing five dollars at gunpoint).
  • And Now You Must Marry Me: Allen's wife demands that he marry her, or she'll turn him in.
  • Based on a True Story: The only two big differences are that in the film, Robert Burns was changed to James Allen, and in real life Burns stole the money on his own, he wasn't held at gunpoint.
  • Caper Rationalization: Unlike the book's author, the protagonist in this adaptation is coerced at gunpoint into stealing the money, so as to not lose any sympathy with the audience through Moral Dissonance.
  • Chekhov's Gunman: Allen's buddy mentions that one of the prisoners is an expert with a sledgehammer, never missing his target. That's the guy that Allen gets to take whacks at the shackles around his legs.
  • Conveniently Cellmates: When James returns to prison after several years, he ends up in the same quarter with the old prisoner who helped him out the first time around. Guess what the two are planning next.
  • Downer Ending: Allen is left living a life of petty crime and desperation, with no hope for the future.
  • Driving a Desk: Most obvious during Allen and Bomber's flight from the guards.
  • Emerging from the Shadows: Allen when he seeks out Helen one more time. He goes back into them.
  • Exploding Calendar: Probably the Trope Codifier with its extensive use of this trope. Months fly off a calendar several times, like when Allen is waiting out the months during his second stint on a chain gang.
  • Fade to Black: Happens in the final scene, as Allen retreats into the darkness. When the final line is uttered, the film is completely black.
  • Fantasy-Forbidding Father: Jim's father doesn't want him to pursue his dream of working in Engineering but stay with the clerk job in town.
  • The Film of the Book: I Am a Fugitive from a Georgia Chain Gang by Robert Burns. The book, and the film, were released while he was still in hiding after his second escape (hence the present tense in the title).
  • Had to Come to Prison to Be a Crook: This is the point of the novel AND the movie. After escaping twice he is forced into hiding, and in the film's memorable final scene, bids farewell to his former fiancee.
    Helen: Oh, Jim. It was all going to be so different.
    Jim: It is different. They've made it different. I've gotta go.
    Helen: I can't let you go like this!
    Jim: I've got to.
    Helen: Can't you tell me where you're going? [Jim shakes his head] Will you write? [Jim shakes his head again] Do you need any money? [Jim shakes his head again] But you must, Jim. How will you live?
    Jim: [whispers] I steal!
  • Hellhole Prison: The film doesn't sugarcoat the novel writer's ordeal in prison. 15 hours of backbreaking labor 6 days a week, a diet of pig fat with a dough ball made of flour and lard, and of course lashes with the strap if the guards think you didn't work hard enough.
  • Hollywood Law: Averted - the practices you see in this movie were lawful until the 1950s. This movie helped bring them to an end.
  • Hooker with a Heart of Gold: Linda takes good care of James on his first night after his initial escape. That likely would not have played out that way had the film been made after The Hays Code went into effect in 1934.
  • I Want My Beloved to Be Happy: In a reverse Shoo the Dog, Jim leaves Helen forever, cutting her from him permanently, so she won't be caught up in his wrecked life.
  • Idiot Ball: James' brother who, in a letter to his brother, reveals his identity as a fugitive. No writing in code, just spill it all out about the police still looking for him.
  • Institutional Apparel: The prison outfits with prominent black and white horizontal stripes.
  • Irony: Jim's second escape is very symbolic the man who dreamed of building bridges blows one up to get away from the police.
  • Karma Houdini: Marie is a Gold Digger who blackmails James into an unhappy marriage, cheats on him shamelessly, betrays him to the police the first time he (nicely) asks her for a divorce, and reads her tenants' mail. We never see her again after she turns James in; for all we know, she gets off scot-free for all the misery she caused him.
  • Male Gaze: When James musters the hooker being sent to his room, the camera pans down her figure, simulating James Eating the Eye Candy.
  • The Man Is Sticking It to the Man: One of Warner Bros.' anti-establishment films of the 1930s, which were making them a pretty tidy income.
  • Miscarriage of Justice: First James is imprisoned for 10 years for a crime he was forced into committing. Then the verbal promise concerning the pardon is broken twice.
  • Moving the Goalposts: First they let James work for 3 month, then 1 year but it becomes apparent they'd never let him go.
  • Nice Hat: Why the hell did they let James keep his hat, anyway?
  • No Communities Were Harmed: The film is based on the autobiographical book by Robert E. Burns entitled "I Am a Fugitive from the Georgia Chain Gang", published in 1930. The title was changed so as not to offend anyone from Georgia. Still, the film outraged the Georgia authorities so much that they refused to pardon the book's author until 1945.
  • Poverty Food: The prison inmates get a disgusting dish of grease, fried dough, pig fat and sorghum to eat, day in and day out, which Jim has a hard time adjusting to.
  • Pursue the Dream Job: Jim wants to be an engineer instead of clerk and he works hard to achieve that goal.
  • Reed Snorkel: This is how James gets away from the guards the first time.
  • Returning War Vet: James fought in World War I, and not far into the film, he's riding the rails looking for any kind of employment. It often gets overshadowed by the film's penal reform themes, but this movie also deals with how American war vets had been abandoned by the government.
  • Scary Black Man: The big intimidating black inmate who turns out to be quite helpful.
  • Shadow Discretion Shot: The warden's whipping the prisoners' backs is depicted in shadow on a wall.
  • She Is All Grown Up: James notices this about Linda when he returns to his home town.
  • Star-Crossed Lovers: James and Helen, who part forever at the end.
  • Sdrawkcab Alias: Or a version of it, anyway. Allen just switches his first and last names around.
  • Spinning Paper: There is a newspaper headline montage with the publics' reaction to James facing extradition.
  • A Taste of the Lash: Prisoners are routinely whipped for getting out of line or not working hard enough.
  • Too Dumb to Live: The old inmate who James escapes with. He leans out of the truck to observe the pursuers who are wildly shooting at them. Of course he gets hit by a bullet.
  • Travelling Salesman Montage: Around the beginning, there's a montage of James travelling America looking for a job.
  • Wham Line: "I steal."
  • What Are You in For?: James is asked this by a fellow inmate but refuses to answer.
  • Where the Hell Is Springfield?: While Robert Elliott Burns' real-life incarceration took place in Georgia, and his book (on which the film was based) was titled I Am a Fugitive from a Georgia Chain Gang, the state is never named in the film. This did not stop numerous lawsuits being filed against the filmmakers by various Georgia prison officials, the film being banned in Georgia, or the studio head and the director of the film being threatened with firsthand experience on a chain gang if they ever set foot in Georgia.
  • Woman Scorned: Allen's wife takes a terrible revenge.
  • Working on the Chain Gang: The Movie.

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