Hammer Horror, Hammer Horror - won't leave it alone
The first time in my life I keep the lights on to ease my soul...
The Hammer Horror films were a series of Gothic Horror
movies made by the British company Hammer Film Productions between the 1950s and the early '70s. The name is sometimes applied to similar films from the same era made by other small (often British) companies.
Most were distributed by Universal
Pictures. The films mostly re-invented the 'classic' horror movie characters previously given form by Universal themselves
in the 1930s and '40s (Dracula
, Frankenstein's Monster
, The Werewolf
, The Mummy
, Jekyll & Hyde
), putting them into colour (often very lurid colour) and adding some new twists. The reinventions were so popular that the public image of many of these characters has some Hammer elements. For example, the popular conception
, as seen in so many cartoons, wears full evening dress and talks with a Hungarian accent, like Bela Lugosi
's portrayal for Universal, but he is also over six feet tall and lean with red eyes
, long fangs and a widow's peak
, which more closely resembles Christopher Lee
's Hammer Dracula.
The Hammer films included a "stable" of regular actors, one or two of whom (at least) would appear in each major performance. The most famous of the stable were Christopher Lee
, Peter Cushing
and Oliver Reed
. The style was well plotted but still reassuringly predictable. As Terry Pratchett
put it, "You knew just what you were going to get." Just to add to the confusion, other Brithorror studios— notably Amicus Productions
and Tigon British Film Productions
— borrowed actors from Hammer (as well as other staff such as cinematographer/director Freddie Francis).
A common assumption was that Vincent Price
did Hammer Horror as well. In fact his films were for other studios (such as his popular Edgar Allan Poe
adaptations, made for Roger Corman
and American International Pictures
), though he did star alongside Lee and Cushing in many other films, and was good friends with them.note
Price did do a few British horror films, notably Witchfinder General
, and Scream and Scream Again
(a Tigon/AIP co-production).Terry Pratchett
's love of Hammer films was a source of much inspiration for the Discworld
country of Überwald
, where every count is a vampire, every baron a werewolf, and every doctor is a Mad Scientist
, and each of them is served by a specimen of The Igor
clan. You can also see many of the old clichés lovingly spoofed in Aardman's animated Wallace and Gromit: The Curse of the Were-Rabbit
. One of the most fondly regarded periods of Doctor Who
is the "gothic
" period of Season 12-14 (with Tom Baker), which swiped Hammer Horror tropes and monsters and Doctorised them. Guillermo del Toro, who is planning on directing his own version of Frankenstein
, has cited Christopher Lee
's as his favourite interpretation of the Monster. His version will star Doug Jones
. Steve Coogan
, a horror nerd, created the Dr. Terrible's House of Horrible
Hammer films, as well as similar ones by their rival Amicus Productions
Early films in the series were basic, Universal-type horror stories done in colour, but as time went on the studio found themselves in greater competition with American studios who had bigger budgets and better special effects. Hammer retaliated by increasing the sex content of their films so that starting in the late '60s and continuing into the mid '70s Hammer films had more nudity than most horror films even today. The contrast can be seen in their two adaptations of Dennis Wheatley
black magic tales. In The Devil Rides Out
(written 1963, released 1968, based on Dennis Wheatley
's 1934 horror thriller) the satanic orgy features characters robed from neck to ankle dancing in a manner no wilder than teenagers at a modern nightclub, To the Devil, a Daughter
(1976) features full-frontal nudity, sex scenes and a gory birth scene, all in an attempt to win back an audience who had seen Rosemary's Baby
, The Exorcist
and The Texas Chainsaw Massacre
and wouldn't be impressed by counts in coffins any more. It didn't really work. Hammer stopped making movies after that and went on to their two '80s TV series'. Hammer House of Horror
and Hammer House of Mystery and Suspense
Another cute feature of the series was that they never just numbered the sequels
, instead they thought of an ever more lurid title
: Horror of Dracula
was followed by The Brides of Dracula
, Dracula: Prince of Darkness
, Dracula Has Risen from the Grave
, Taste the Blood of Dracula
, The Satanic Rites of Dracula
, etc.Hammer Horror Has Risen from The Grave
Like its most famous character, you can't keep a movie studio dead. A new Hammer horror has been produced
, to briefly see the light of day in 2011. They also produced Let Me In
, a remake of Let the Right One In
In 2012, they released a film adaptation of The Woman in Black
, starring Daniel Radcliffe
. Other projects from the new Hammer include The Resident
(which features Hammer alumnus Christopher Lee
in a supporting role) and Wake Wood
. In 2014, they produced The Quiet Ones.
For horror with actual hammers, see Drop the Hammer
List of Hammer horror films with pages on this wiki:
The films contained examples of such tropes as:
- Absolute Cleavage: Shows up frequently, as in Dracula A.D. 1972. Cleavage in general is a Hammer staple.
- When Steve Coogan set out to lovingly parody the Hammer style for Dr. Terrible's House of Horrible, in the beautifully titled episode "Lesbian Vampire Lovers Of Lust", said title appears over a shot of generous cleavage generously spattered with drops of blood. It was probably that, or show a shot of an actual hammer.
- Affably Evil: Baron Frankenstein can be quite charming when necessary.
- Artistic License – Paleontology: Dinosaurs and man alongside each other in One Million Years BC and When Dinosaurs Ruled the Earth. Creatures the World Forgot shows why the trope is necessary — if you think being slightly more realistic makes it better than the others, seek medication.
- Badass Normal: Peter Cushing is the reason that Dr. Van Helsing is now thought of as The Hunter, instead of the weird old Dutch physician he was in the book.
- Back from the Dead: Again and again and again...
- Behind the Black: In The Kiss of the Vampire, Marianne is running along a deserted road in the countryside in broad daylight. As the camera follows her, she suddenly screams as she runs into a man standing there, even though she could not possibly have failed to see him before.
- Black Magic: The Devil Rides Out, Taste the Blood of Dracula, The Satanic Rites of Dracula and several other films.
- Blood Bath: Countess Dracula was about the Trope Maker, Elizabeth Bathory, bathing in blood.
- Bloodier and Gorier: Compared to the Universal Horrors, at any rate. Tame though they look now, contemporary critics were taken aback.
- Break the Cutie: Anna in Frankenstein Must Be Destroyed.
- Breaking and Bloodsucking: A staple of the vampire films and perhaps a major contribution to the trope becoming cliche. Also a great opportunity for a Lingerie Scene.
- Dracula (1958) / Horror of Dracula, as usual, Dracula attacks Lucy. She is awake in bed, watching as Dracula appears on the balcony and waits for him to come to her.
- Dracula Has Risen from the Grave, Maria is standing at her balcony door when Dracula comes for her and she slowly retreats to her bed
- Satanic Rites of Dracula, Jane was kidnapped by the cult and locked in a bedroom at their hideout. She was terrified by his ominous, unseen approach, but when the door flies open and he enters the room she welcomes him to her bed.
- Briefer Than They Think: The classic image from Hammer horror was Peter Cushing’s Professor Van Helsing battling Christopher Lee’s Dracula in Victorian-era Europe, but that particular combination occurred only twice (out of sixteen vampire movies the studio produced), in Horror of Dracula and briefly at the beginning of Dracula A.D. 1972. For the rest of the latter movie, and its sequel, The Satanic Rites of Dracula, Cushing plays Van Helsing’s 70s-era Identical Grandson, Lorrimer. Other films had one or the other character, or sometimes neither. (The Legend of the 7 Golden Vampires was the only movie to have one of the two characters not played by those actors; Cushing’s Van Helsing fought a Dracula played by John Forbes-Robertson.)
- Broad Strokes: The Evil of Frankenstein follows the basic idea of The Curse of Frankenstein and The Revenge of Frankenstein, that the baron has created monsters and is now on the run, but alters many of the details. The rest of the movies seem to continue on from Evil normally. Dracula A.D. 1972 uses the premise that Van Helsing and Dracula fought in the 1800s like in Horror of Dracula but changes the date and place and ignores the numerous sequels to Horror.
- Brother-Sister Incest: Demons of the Mind. We only actually see kissing, but Emil and Elizabeth are obsessed with each other, and their father is willing to do anything to keep them apart (up to and including killing them).
- Burn the Witch!: Twins of Evil.
- But He Sounds Handsome: In the thriller Cash on Demand, a man posing as a representative of an insurance company, supposedly checking the bank's security, tells one of the workers that it would take a "very clever fellow to rob this bank," even as he himself is secretly robbing it.
- Chekhov's Gun: When listing the ways vampires can be defeated in The Satanic Rites of Dracula , Lorrimer Van Helsing mentions that they are vulnerable to hawthorne, from which Christ's crown of thorns was made. Later on he uses this particular thing, unmentioned in any movie before this, to get the better of Dracula.
- Christianity Is Catholic: The Dracula films.
- Circus of Fear: Vampire Circus.
- Cobweb Jungle: Many of the sets.
- Darker and Edgier:
- Compare The sophisticated Count of Bela Lugosi with the barely controlled feral madness of Lee's.
- Cushing's Baron Frankenstein is far more arrogant and murderous than his counterpart in the Universal Horror films.
- The Dulcinea Effect: Gender-flipped in Lust for a Vampire, in which Richard is in love with Mircalla, but Janet has noticed that everyone who gets close to Mircalla ends up dead. Janet tries to get Richard to stay away from Mircalla. When he asks why she cares, she says she's in love with him — even though they've barely spoken in the movie before then, and most of their conversations seem to consist of him blowing off her concerns.
- Evil Is Petty: Baron Frankenstein, who goes out of his way to demean and order around those he considers his inferiors, especially in Frankenstein Must Be Destroyed.
- Evil Sounds Deep: Count Dracula and other villains played by Christopher Lee.
- Fictionary: A primitive language was designed for When Dinosaurs Ruled the Earth.
- Final Girl: Rather uncommon; Hammer females tended more towards Screaming Woman and Damsel in Distress roles, although they are frequently plucky. Margaret in Blood from the Mummy's Tomb got to outlive all the men, though.
- Foreign Remake: Many of their more famous films are remakes of American horror films.
- The Fundamentalist: Mrs. Trefoile, of Die! Die! My Darling!, is a fanatically extreme example. In fact, the film's original UK title is Fanatic.
- Genre Shift: Occasionally, they did non-supernatural psych thrillers like Paranoiac and Nightmare. Despite the title, Night Creatures was more of a 1790s crime thriller than a horror movie.
- One of the most bizarre examples was The Legend of the 7 Golden Vampires (also called The 7 Brothers meet Dracula), a film that attempted to combine Hammer's standard Gothic horror with the Wuxia genre. This resulted in a plot where Dracula joins forces with a tribe of Chinese vampires who all know martial arts, and Van Helsing must team up with a family of Chinese martial artists to stop him.
- They also made several science fiction films, including "space western" Moon Zero Two and the Quatermass series.
- Good Shepherd: Most of the priests in the Dracula films.
- Gorgeous Period Dress
- Hair of Gold, Heart of Gold: The caveman epics often differentiate between tribes by hair color, and the blondes will generally be nicer and smarter than the brutish brunettes.
- Generally speaking, the more virtuous a Hammer heroine, the more likely she will be blonde.
- Handicapped Badass: Harry in The Devil-Ship Pirates.
- Hero Antagonist: Professor Van Helsing in most of Dracula films, and Father Sandor in Dracula: Prince of Darkness.
- Hollywood Acid: Often on hand to dispose of inconvenient corpses and body parts, as in The Curse of Frankenstein and Scars of Dracula.
- Hollywood Darkness: You never saw such night-time visibility!
- Hollywood Voodoo: Plague of the Zombies.
- Hotter and Sexier: The sexual attraction between Dracula and his female victims is clearer than it was in earlier films.
- The Horror of Frankenstein remade The Curse of Frankenstein with a greater emphasis on the Baron's love life.
- Also the whole series of movies were Hotter and Sexier than most of the Gothic Horror films that came before them.
- Kensington Gore
- The Kindnapper: Die! Die! My Darling!
- Kill 'em All: Almost nobody makes it to the end of The Viking Queen or Vampire Circus alive.
- Ditto for Frankenstein Must Be Destroyed.
- Large Ham: Oliver Reed could get pretty over-the-top at times, especially in Curse of the Werewolf.
- Lesbian Vampire: This trope was employed a number of times in the The Seventies, most famously in The Vampire Lovers.
- Locked Room Mystery: The Snorkel, though it has the slight variance in that the audience is shown in the opening sequence exactly how the murder is executed and disguised as a suicide (and who does it). Only one character, the victim's daughter, Candy, suspects what really happened, and the suspense comes from whether or not she'll be able to figure out the method before the killer targets her.
- Madwoman in the Attic: Count Meinster in The Brides of Dracula fits this trope pretty well, even though he's not outwardly deformed (and is male).
- Mad Scientist: Usually played straight, but deconstructed in The Evil of Frankenstein, along with the idea that Science Is Bad.
- Mood Lighting: Why else would there be bright green electric light inside an ancient Egyptian tomb?
- Ms. Fanservice: Yvonne Romain, who made Jessica Alba look like Wayne Knight.
- The Hammer Hotties list at horrorstars.net names a full 79 candidates.
- Special mention must go to Raquel Welch; the image of her in a Fur Bikini from One Million Years B.C. is arguably more famous than Hammer Studios itself.
- Mummy: The Mummy (1959), Curse Of The Mummys Tomb, The Mummy's Shroud.
- Never Trust a Title: Guess who doesn't appear in The Brides of Dracula.
- Nubile Savage: Found frequently in She, Vengeance of She, One Million Years B.C. Prehistoric Women, When Dinosaurs Ruled the Earth, The Viking Queen, and Creatures the World Forgot.
- One Million BC: Hammer made a trilogy of films that may be the Trope Codifier, One Million Years BC (a remake of a 1940 film), When Dinosaurs Ruled the Earth, and Creatures the World Forgot.
- One Steve Limit: Dracula Has Risen from the Grave, Taste the Blood of Dracula, and Scars of Dracula all had major characters named Paul; supposedly, writer Anthony Hinds found this name easy to type.
- Only Sane Man: Karl in Demons of the Mind, quite possibly Hammer's strangest movie. Pretty much everyone else in the story is completely nuts.
- Our Vampires Are Different: The rules seemed to change in each film, even ones with the same character!
- Our Werewolves Are Different: In Curse of the Werewolf, the moon doesn't always trigger a transformation, feelings like rage, hatred, or stress can trigger it. Inversely, emotions like happiness, kindness, and most importantly, love can stop a transformation and possibly even cure a werewolf.
- Plucky Girl: Candy in The Snorkel, who resolves to prove the guilt of her mother's murderer.
- The Hammer heroines in general are as plucky as they are beautiful.
- Polar Opposite Twins: In Twins of Evil, Maria (Mary Collinson) is kind and sweet-natured, while Freida (Madeleine Collinson) is mean and cares only about herself and her own pleasures.
- The Power of Blood: Blood revives Dracula in several of the sequels.
- Pyrrhic Victory: To the Devil... A Daughter, the last film in Hammer's original period, actually did very well at the box office, but because all the profits went to the movie's German backers, Hammer was forced to close its doors shortly thereafter.
- Rape as Drama: Leon's mother in The Curse of the Werewolf by the Marques, Anna by the Baron in Frankenstein Must Be Destroyed.
- In the latter example, the scene was added after shooting was nearly complete and at the last minute by studio head Sir James Carreras, who thought the film was lacking in "sex". Peter Cushing deplored the inclusion of the scene and even apologized to Anna's actress Veronica Carlson.note The director, Terence Fisher, filmed the sequence under protest. Ironically, the scene comes across as horrific instead of titillating and ends up contributing strongly to theme of the Baron's moral descent in this film as well as the deterioration of Anna's mental state.
- Red Eyes, Take Warning: When Dracula was really in bloodlust mode his eyes would get extremely bloodshot.
- Religion of Evil: The Devil Rides Out, To the Devil a Daughter and The Satanic Rites of Dracula .
- Same Content, Different Rating: The explicitly gory Dracula Has Risen From the Grave was given a G rating in the U.S., and this was around the same time the MPAA rating system was established and before the G rating was truly codified as "kids stuff".
- Screaming Woman: Too many to count. Hammer generally let the men handle all the action, which the left the job of being terrified to the women.
- Sequel Escalation: The Frankenstein and Dracula films became gorier and more sexually explicit over time.
- Sex Equals Death: The more promiscuous a character is, the less likely he or she is to survive until the end credits.
- Sexy Soaked Shirt: The Viking Queen, made just before real nudity started to show up, has a scene where the title character, wearing a white top, falls in a lake.
- Smug Snake: Baron Frankenstein.
- Starts with Their Funeral: The Lost Continent. It's not initially clear whose funeral, though.
- Topless From The Back: Common in earlier Hammer films, such as Rasputin the Mad Monk, along with Dress Hits Floor.
- Triads and Tongs: The Terror of the Tongs.
- Überwald / Ruritania: Even when it was stated to be Transylvania, the setting was just Generic Central Europe.
- Villain Protagonist: The Baron in the Frankenstein series, though sometimes he crosses into Anti-Hero. Also Count Dracula.
- Wanting Is Better Than Having: No matter what hot ass vampire chick Dracula already has under his thrall, there's always some other maiden he wants more.
- Wham Line: Scream of Fear.( "Mrs. Appleby, surely you must know your stepdaughter Miss Penelope Appleby committed suicide three weeks ago in Switzerland.")
- Wolf Man: Curse of the Werewolf.
- Wrongful Accusation Insurance: In Maniac, the main character helps his new girlfriend spring her husband from an insane asylum, and another man is killed in the process. Once he realizes his girlfriend is playing him, he helps the police get the goods on her. This apparently exonerates him for his earlier crimes, even though he was most decidedly not innocent of them.