"There is a road filled with pain, struggling and endurance..."* Left: Alyss Baraen. Right: Makoto Yoshio
“Enter through the narrow gate. For wide is the gate and broad is the road that leads to destruction, and many enter through it. But small is the gate and narrow the road that leads to life, and only a few find it."
The Ace: Subverted by Alyss and Paul. Despite how impressive they appear to Makoto in their heroicism, both constantly admit they aren't perfect people and have made some mistakes before, particularly the latter, who in his previous naivety, attacked Gensokyo in the Shanghai War. Makoto doesn't listen to any of this, though...
All There in the Manual: Averted. The entire series makes sure to introduce every important stated detail of each of the characters and the various incidents, most particularly the Shanghai War. Subverted with Etoile's backstory, as you have to check out an prior side-story, Windmill of Hatred, for the details.
Anti-Hero: The story portrays Anti-Heroism as a more 'realistic' form of heroism, on the basis that Anti-Heroes KNOW they have to deal with many hardships, but press on anyway, adapting to their surroundings; a far cry from Makoto's actions. See Sliding Scale of Anti-Heroes for a breakdown.
Good Is Not Dumb: ALYSS. Despite being a Mr. Vice Guy for her over-assertiveness, she genuinely wants Makoto to change his ways and help the rest of Gensokyo while still kicking lots of ass. Kurisu lampshades this early in the story and, being the Knight in Sour Armor he is, claims she needs to learn the hard way.
Good Is Not Nice: Assassin Miki may be for good of getting rid of criminals, but she's a total grump and jerk towards others, even Makoto.
Heroic Wannabe: Makoto being this is the moving force of the ENTIRE story.
Hijacked by Jesus: Thanks to Author Appeal, Alyss and several other characters are Christians, the former being one of the most prominent to speak about her faith openly. Thankfully, this is not shoehorned forcefully.
Knight in Sour Armor: Kurisu Youseikyo. Being just a decade younger than Yukari, he's Seen It All and is a severe cynic, completely unamused with Makoto's effervescent optimism. Being a survivor of the Youkai-Lunari War has further soured his opinion of blind heroism. It takes a LOT for an Outside World human to impress him, and so far only Alyss has managed that. Makoto actually comes very close early on, but when the boy goes Glory Seeker, it costs him Kurisu's initial respect.