[[quoteright:350:http://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/burro.jpg]]
[[caption-width-right:350:El Hombre Invisible]]

->''"Most of the trouble in this world has been caused by folks who can't mind their own business, because they have no business of their own to mind, any more than a smallpox virus has."''
-->-- William S. Burroughs

->''"[[ArcWords Nothing is true,]] [[Franchise/AssassinsCreed everything is permitted.]]"''
-->-- The Last Words of Hassan i Sabbah

One of the great innovators of the twentieth century and founding member of [[Creator/TheBeatGeneration the Beats]], William S. Burroughs (1914-1997) was the avant-garde author of over twenty books, ranging from straightforward and autobiographical (''Junky'', ''Queer'') to surreal and anarchic (''Naked Lunch'', and The Nova Trilogy) to nostalgic, solemn and elegiac (''The Wild Boys'' and The Red Night Trilogy). As the titles of his first two books imply, he was both a drug-addict and a [[strike:homosexual]] bisexual, something he had always been grimly unapologetic about.

His books contain graphic depictions of drug-usage and sodomy, which are still shocking, even by today's comparably cynical standards. But, subject matter aside, his prose was always inspirational and stunningly original, flowing like poetry even while depicting shit and ejaculation. Frequently taking RefugeInAudacity and always CrossingTheLineTwice, Burroughs was called the 'greatest satirical writer since Creator/JonathanSwift' (author of the misanthropic ''Literature/GulliversTravels'' and the baby-eating fun of ''Literature/AModestProposal'') by friend and fellow Beat writer, Creator/JackKerouac, and the controversy surrounding his opus, ''Literature/NakedLunch'', effectively ended literary censorship in America.

And rightly so. Burroughs's 'routines', as he called them, are the literary equivalent to a depraved vaudeville act, or by modern sensibility, a raunchy sketch show. Utilizing over-the-top characterization and hilariously opaque scenarios, Burroughs's fiction can change scenes at the drop of the hat, jumping from short, punchy hilarity to weird sex back to short, punchy hilarity. But, humor aside, he always had something completely serious to say. His experiences as a drug addict allowed him to see the complications of life reduced to a grimy skeleton, what he called 'The Algebra of Need'.

In fact, ''Junky'' reads more like an anthropological analysis of drug-addiction than a personal memoir and his follow up, ''Queer'', (which wasn't published until many years later) occupies a sort of middle ground. His habit of telling outrageous routines originates in the latter, growing outwards like a fungus, but it was written out of desperation, in the wake of a great personal tragedy, which has since become legend. Burroughs shot his wife, Joan Vollmer, in the head during a drunken game of 'William Tell'. While it was likely just a drunken accident, Burroughs couldn't help but think there was something in his subconscious that drove him to it, and later claimed he was possessed by 'The Ugly Spirit'.

Despite his personal troubles and the controversy surrounding his work, Burroughs became highly influential and respected by a wide variety of younger artists, most notably, the more famous beat writers Jack Kerouac and Creator/AllenGinsberg. After experimenting with the cut-up technique, he almost pioneered the graphic novel form (Creator/AlanMoore openly cites Burroughs as a prominent inspiration), but couldn't get the funds, because of the expenses of color copying. His works have also served as an important influence on CyberPunk and NewWaveScienceFiction (the ''Nova Trilogy'', as science fiction itself, is considered a sort of prototype of the New Wave). The actual {{punk}} scene owes a great deal to Burroughs, as well, with his return to America in 1974 being feted by a large number of punks and related artists (including Music/PattiSmith); the Godfather of Punk Music/IggyPop was such a big fan ("Lust for Life" is merely his most obvious example of Burroughs fandom) that when the BBC did a radio biography of Burroughs, he was chosen to present it. And of course, there's his literary heir, HunterSThompson, who was basically Burroughs [[DisSimile but straight, younger, a sportswriter, a gun nut, and focused more on nonfiction]]. Most Thompson fans have at least a liking for Burroughs, and vice versa.

Burroughs' use of the cut-up technique, surrealist satire and harsh criticism of society made him a countercultural figure starting in TheSeventies, and he began to be cited as a significant influence by numerous musicians, including [[{{Music/ThrobbingGristle}} Genesis P-Orridge]], [[Music/JoyDivision Ian Curtis]], [[Music/{{Ministry}} Al Jourgensen]], Music/TomWaits, Music/LouReed, Music/DavidBowie, Music/BrianEno, Music/KurtCobain, [[Music/PinkFloyd Roger Waters]], Music/LaurieAnderson (for whom he recorded a spoken-word guest vocal for an album), Music/PattiSmith, and others. Burroughs himself later embarked on a spoken word career, collaborating with Music/{{Ministry}}, Music/ThrobbingGristle, Music/TomWaits, Music/NickCave, Music/{{REM}}, Music/SonicYouth and Music/KurtCobain, among others. His last filmed performance was in the video for Music/{{U2}}'s "Last Night on Earth", in which he [[MundaneMadeAwesome pushes a shopping cart with a large spotlight on it]] and has an extreme closeup of his eyes at the end.

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!!Works Include:

* ''And The Hippos Were Boiled In Their Tanks'': Early novel, a late-1940s collaboration with Creator/JackKerouac that, despite the title, was in fact based upon a real-life murder investigation they had experienced, recently dusted off and published nearly sixty years after being written.
* ''[=Junky=]'': originally published by American pulp fiction publisher Ace Books and credited to "William Lee".
* ''[=Queer=]'': Burroughs' second full-length solo novel, but due to content as well as the fact that it was left incomplete after the death of his wife (the mere act of reading the manuscript caused Burroughs incredible pain), it was withheld from publication for some 30 years.
* ''[=Interzone=]'': A collection of early routines that show Burroughs stylistic progression from his realistic works to the uncompromising surrealism of his later work. Sometimes referred to as an early version of Naked Lunch.
* ''The Yage Letters'': a hodgepodge of Burroughs routines and letters to and from his onetime boyfriend Creator/AllenGinsberg regarding the search for a plant with psychedelic properties.
* ''Literature/NakedLunch'': Burroughs most famous work, a collection of farcical sketches that unmask the horrors lurking beneath the calm veneer of modern life. To date the only Burroughs novel to be translated (albeit ''very'' loosely) into [[Film/NakedLunch a feature film]]. The book triggered a major court battle over literary censorship in America which is chronicled in most editions of the book.
* The Nova Trilogy (''The Soft Machine'', ''The Ticket That Exploded'', ''Nova Express''): A SpaceOpera about a group of extraterrestrial terrorists called the 'Nova Mob' who want to ignite the earth into an exploding supernova by creating insoluble conflicts. They can only be stopped by the Nova Police, who understand their methods and know that "Nobody, on any planet, wants to see a police officer". Thought to be [[TrueArtIsIncomprehensible nigh unreadable]] because of Burrough's extensive use of the 'cut-up' technique, which involves cutting up a page of text into four pieces and re-arranging them to create new text. Although contrary to the claims of bewildered skeptics, the observant reader, if patient, can see a fairly reliable pattern emerge. Usually, a chapter will start out fairly straightforward, with normal prose and everything, then after the bulk of the story is told, the reader will become aware that they're reading the same story, only "cut-up" and may become aware of new connotations and subtleties not noticed in the original. Passages will sometimes descend into strings of seemingly random cut-up images. If taken into account that this was Burroughs' attempt to introduce the montage technique of film into literature, some of the more incoherent passages will begin to make a lot more sense.
* ''Dead Fingers Talk'': Burroughs took the texts of the Nova Trilogy and combined bits and pieces to create a new narrative which was as hard to follow as the original books.
* ''The Wild Boys'': Homoerotic fantasy in which savage teenage boys in nothing but rainbow colored jockstraps and roller blades destroy western civilization. Notable for being Burroughs' first attempt to return to a straightforward narrative since 'Queer', while managing to retain several scenes of kaleidoscopic free-association free for all, in the 'Penny Arcade Peep Show' sections. That aside, it's actually quite accessible and a great way to experiences Burroughs' savage satire if ''Literature/NakedLunch'' is proving too difficult.
* ''The Third Mind'': a collaboration with poet/painter Bryon Gysin, a long-time friend, in which the cut-up technique is discussed at length.
* ''Ah Pook Is Here'': Burroughs and Malcolm [=McNeil=]'s early attempt to elevate the graphic novel into an art form, named after the Mayan God of Death. Although sadly it was never completed due to the costs of color copying at the time (a hindrance Burroughs and Brion Gysin earlier faced when trying to publish ''The Third Mind''), some unfinished panels can be viewed [[http://www.burroughsmcneillart.com/ here]] allowing us to all know ''exactly'' what we missed. A plan by Fantagraphics to publish the work a couple years ago fell through, sadly.
* Literature/TheRedNightTrilogy (''Cities of the Red Night'', ''The Place of Dead Roads'', ''The Western Lands''): Burroughs's last great work; a psychedelic journey through six irradiated cities from the past that were struck by an asteroid from a red sky. The first chronicles a dual narrative about a psychic detective and some gay pirates, both which tangle together in the first of the six titular cities, Tamaghis. The second book follows a time-traveling old-western shootist, which somehow sets up the third's odyssey through the Egyptian Land of the Dead, culminating in a satisfying conclusion to Burroughs's mythology. Contains frequent [[ContinuityNod references and homages]] to earlier works and some of the most delicious [[AuthorTract opinion pieces]] and [[TakeThat elderly scorn]] ever written, as well as (thankfully) conservative use of the cut-up technique, these last three books can be taken as Burrough's final thesis in regards to his entire career.
* ''The Cat Inside'': A sombre and somewhat quirky short novel that showcases a lighter, elderly Burroughs and his love of cats.
* ''My Education'': A collection of forty years' worth of dreams, this was Burroughs' last full-length novel, published as a postscript to the Red Night Trilogy.
* ''Exterminator!'': A collection of short stories ("The 'Priest' They Called Him") and poems ("Cold Lost Marbles," "My Legs Señor")
* ''Blade Runner: A Movie'', a novella from which the title of the film ''Film/BladeRunner'' was taken.
* ''Music/TheBlackRider'', a [[{{Deconstruction}} deconstructed]] PostModern RockOpera version of ''Theatre/DerFreischutz'' created by Robert Wilson. Burroughs wrote the lyrics for the songs, with music by Tom Waits.
* ''Last Words'': a collection of diary entries from the final few years of Burroughs' life.

'''William S. Burroughs in popular culture'''
* He can be seen on the album cover of Music/TheBeatles' ''Music/SgtPeppersLonelyHeartsClubBand''.
* The band Music/SteelyDan was named after a dildo in ''Literature/NakedLunch''.
* Music/SoftMachine took its name from Burroughs' novel "Soft Machine".
* The term HeavyMetal first appeared in "Soft Machine", where a character is described as "Uranian Willy, the Heavy Metal Kid". In "Nova Express" the word "heavy metal" is used as a metaphor for addictive drugs.
* The title of ''Film/BladeRunner'' was inspired by a 1979 story by him.
* Music/IggyPop's ''Music/LustForLife'' is inspired by the experimental novel "The Ticket That Exploded", most notably by mentions of “Johnny Yen” (described by Burroughs as “The Boy-Girl Other Half strip tease God of sexual frustration”) and “hypnotizing chickens”.
* Music/PattiSmith dedicated her album ''Music/{{Wave}}'' (1979) to him in the liner notes.
* He has a cameo in Creator/GusVanSant's ''Film/DrugstoreCowboy'' and ''Film/EvenCowgirlsGetTheBlues''.
* Music/SonicYouth, Music/JohnCale, and others provided musical back-up to Burroughs' 1990 SpokenWordInMusic album "Dead City Radio".
* ''Music/TheBlackRider'' by Music/TomWaits was written in collaboration with Burroughs, who also has a spoken word track on the album: "It Ain't No Sin".
* He appears in the music video of "Last Night On Earth" by Music/{{U2}}.
* He recites the spoken word piece "Sharkey's Night" on Music/LaurieAnderson's "Mister Heartbreak" (1984).
* On "Seven Souls (1989)" by Music/BillLaswell's band Material he recites passages from his novel "The Western Lands".
* "Quick Fix" (1992) was a collaboration with Music/{{Ministry}}.
* Music/KurtCobain created layers of guitar feedback and distortion to accompany ""The Priest" They Called Him", where Burroughs reads his own eponymous short story on record. The author also introduced Cobain to Music/{{Leadbelly}}, which inspired Cobain to sing "Where Did You Sleep Last Night", a cover of Leadbelly's "In The Pines", on ''Music/MTVUnpluggedInNewYork''.
* The album "Stoned Immaculate" (2000) has a track where Burroughs reads poetry by Music/TheDoors frontman Jim Morrison, accompanied by the singer yelping and groaning in the background. Both Morrison and Burroughs were dead by the time this album was released.
* ''WesternAnimation/{{Archer}}'' reveals Woodhouse was the one who shot Burroughs' wife in Mexico while high on heroin. Malory mentions she paid 100,000 pesos in bribes and contracted some kind of stomach virus to extract Woodhouse.
* Music/JohnZorn's "Interzone" (2010) and "Dreamachines" (2013) pay tribute to Creator/WilliamSBurroughs and Creator/BrionGysin. "Nova Express" (2011) is also inspired by Burroughs' prose.
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