The Public Broadcasting Service
(PBS) is America's publicly-owned TV network, though its history dates back much further than the government's involvement with it. It is not so much a traditional network as a consortium of non-commercial, educational TV stations.
The NET era (1952 - 1970)
PBS' first incarnation was the Educational Television and Radio Center
in 1952, originally a private network set up by the Ford Foundation's Fund for Adult Education in order to serve as an educational television service complementing the entertainment programming of the commercial networks. Unique among American networks, content was produced not by the network itself, but by the individual stations — a model similar to that of the (then West
-) German public broadcasting
, which had been imposed on them at the end of World War II
by the Western Allies. This led to content that was very
in-depth in its subject matter, but also very dry, academic, low-budget and dull. As a result, ETRC floundered in its early years, earning the nickname "The University of the Air".
In 1958, ETRC changed its name to National Educational Television and Radio Center
(NETRC), and then to just National Educational Television
(NET) in 1963. Under new network president John F. White (formerly the station manager at WQED in Pittsburgh
), it tried to shake off its ultra-academic reputation and become America's "fourth network". It expanded from five hours of programming a day to 10, imported shows from The BBC
and other international networks to fill those hours, and became more centralized. It created a slew of programming, such as the adult drama program NET Playhouse
, the seminal children's show Mister Rogers' Neighborhood
, and a hard-hitting, controversial TV Documentary
series called NET Journal
that frequently explored social issues like poverty and prejudice. This last program outraged NET's more conservative affiliates, especially those in the Southern United States, and despite its critical acclaim would lead to the network's downfall once it became government-funded.
In 1967 the Ford Foundation, having invested over $130 million into a network that was still dependent on their contributions and grants, started to consider pulling its funding, causing many affiliate stations to consider turning to the federal government for financial assistance. As a result, the government passed the Public Broadcasting Act of 1967, creating the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, a semi-privatenote
corporation to fund NET. While it did this for a few years, it soon became clear that NET's documentary programming had not only alienated many of its affiliates, but also infuriated Richard Nixon
, who saw the documentaries as nothing more than propaganda against his administration. As a result, the CPB created the Public Broadcasting Service in 1969 as a new entity to take over network operations, and in 1970 NET was dissolved and merged into WNDT in Newark, New Jersey
(which became WNET), ending its existence as a formal network. NET's decentralized system was retained by PBS, largely because the existing commercial networks
and conservatives in Congress did not
want an American version of the BBC.
The PBS era (1970–present)
PBS has gone largely unchanged since then. Programming and the stations themselves are sponsored by donations from corporations, charitable foundations and Viewers Like You
. The federal government chips in, as well, by means of the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, which also funds NPR
and public-radio programs. Instead of interrupting programs with commercials, PBS stations run a sponsor tag at the start and end of each program, and hype their other programs during a five-minute break at the end of each show. For a week or two every however-many months, they also run a pledge drive
, during which viewers are asked to donate money to help the station stay on the air. This is usually when they drag out their highest quality programs, such as concerts by the Grateful Dead
and David Gilmour
, and performances from the Austin City Limits festival, though this is also where you'll see endless self-help and financial gurus; it's just a matter of getting through the lengthy pledge breaks or predicting when they will end and put up the next show. Some stations take off programming for a few days to air an auction of products, services and trips where funding goes to the station, or "friends" of the station, a concept where an outside third party or an board is the one who makes programming purchase and scheduling decisions rather than station personnel.
In 2011, PBS launched a UK cable and satellite channel, carrying a broad cross section of its U.S. programming.
Each PBS station sets its own schedule with a mix of local productions, national programs and foreign imports, but they tend to follow a rough pattern with their scheduling:
- Children's shows in the daytime. Over the years, this block, known as PBS Kids since 1993, has included Sesame Street, Mister Rogers' Neighborhood, Reading Rainbow, WordGirl, Bill Nye the Science Guy, The Magic School Bus, Arthur, Dragon Tales, Barney & Friends and Teletubbies. PBS has generally placed a strong emphasis on education and Aesops with its kids' shows, even when children's programming on other networks started getting more geared towards selling toys. People who grew up before children's programming started proliferating on cable (or even after, if they had parents who objected to the Merchandise-Driven nature of many Saturday morning cartoons) were probably raised on PBS.
- News in the early evening. Their main news programs are the PBS NewsHour nightly newscastnote and the award-winning Frontline documentary series (not to be confused with the Australian series). Nearly all stations also run the Nightly Business Report. Some stations also air BBC World News America, and a few stations might air local news broadcasts, such as WNET in NYC, which, as a result of being licensed to Newark, NJ, must air semi-sister station NJTV's nightly news broadcasts.
- Prime Time brings entertainment for mature viewers, such as Masterpiece and Antiques Roadshow, along with science documentaries such as NOVA and Nature.
- Saturdays and Sundays usually bring out content meant for older audiences, such as repeats of The Lawrence Welk Show and BritComs such as Are You Being Served? and Keeping Up Appearances that have been run so much by the stations that the tape is probably nearly worn out by this point.
Some local PBS stations create their own content, but most buy content produced by others. The largest content producer in the country is Boston
's WGBH, which has produced shows like the science documentary series Nova
and the edutainment
. And while we're on the subject, WGBH's ident
(which has remained unchanged since 1977
) happens to be pure Nightmare Fuel
(as were some of PBS's own early logos
). WQED in Pittsburgh was historically another major provider, but it gradually petered out (with the end of the Neighborhood
in 2001, it ceased to produce nationally-distributed programming). Similarly, WTTW of Chicago's output has dwindled in recent years; in the past it provided Siskel & Ebert
their first TV series, The Frugal Gourmet
, and Lamb-Chop's Play Along
; it still co-produces The Mc Laughlin Group
for both PBS and network stations. WNET of New York also contributes major programming, including Frontline
, Great Performances
, American Masters
, co-producing the PBS NewsHour
, and a large amount of PBS Kids programming. Some noteworthy programs broadcast throughout PBS' history include many of Ken Burns' documentaries and the controversial show An American Family
in 1973, which is now viewed as the Ur Example
for the entire genre of reality television
. (The irony
of a network with a reputation as highbrow as PBS inventing the Reality Show
is not lost on some of us.) Some PBS affiliates also let other companies use their studios for filming non-PBS programs. An example is Philadelphia's WHYY, who had among other things, Nickelodeon
's quintessential game show, Double Dare
, as well as sister series Finders Keepers
, and Think Fast
, taped at their facilities until Nick moved to Orlando in 1990.
Many PBS stations also rely on content from the BBC, leading to a joke claiming that the network's acronym stood for "Primarily British Series
." For many years during its original run, PBS was the U.S. distributor of Doctor Who
. Two other popular British imports are Monty Python's Flying Circus
and Are You Being Served?
, which have been airing on a PBS station somewhere or other since they first acquired the programs in the mid-1970s. The sci-fi sitcom Red Dwarf
was also broadcast on some PBS stations, on occasion being the focus of the aforementioned pledge drives. Finally, the long-running Masterpiece Theatre
(now known simply as Masterpiece
) consists mostly of British productions (including some from ITV
and Channel Four
), the most popular of which currently are Downton Abbey
and the revival of Upstairs Downstairs
, which have been among the biggest hits
the network's had in its history.
As a government-run television network, PBS has been subjected to fights within the government over funding as far back as The Sixties
(Fred Rogers' speech to the Senate
in defense of the young network may just be his Crowning Moment of Awesome
). The usual cry of public television's opponents is that PBS was created in a time
when there were only three television networks
in the United States as opposed to over a hundred, and that the public need for it no longer exists in today's world of cable and satellite TV. Supporters, meanwhile, argue that PBS is essential for rural viewers and those who can't afford cable or satellite, that it provides things like science documentaries, hard-hitting investigative journalism and educational children's programming that would never last a day on commercial television, and that commercial educational channels are vulnerable to Network Decay
The large degree of control given to local affiliates is also a point of contention, with some people arguing that this is an outmoded, inefficient structure that should be replaced with something more centralized, and others saying that it's necessary for the community involvement for which PBS stations are known. Also, despite the Public Broadcasting Act of 1967 prohibiting political bias in PBS broadcasting, it has been accused of such by both sides over the years (and let's just leave it at that
). On at least one occasion, the reverse has happened: In 1982, Congress asked PBS to abandon its official neutral position in order to air the program Let Poland Be Poland
, which criticized the Soviet-enforced declaration of martial law in Poland in 1981.
Currently, they have branched out to the Internet, creating a well-received, informative Web Video
series on YouTube
, The PBS Idea Channel
. Other TV ventures include several diginets, including World
, offering PBS' current affairs library 24/7, V-Me
, focusing on Spanish-language programming, and Create
, focusing on DIY-type and cooking shows; these digi-nets are not operated by PBS, by by close ally American Public Television, which syndicates various programs to PBS stations.
The radio equivalent is NPR
Shows aired on PBS include:
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Live-Action TV — Documentary
Live-Action TV — Fiction
Live-Action TV — Other