Euripides was a playwright of AncientGreece (5th century BC), one of three great tragedians whose works have survived to the present day (the earlier two are Creator/{{Aeschylus}} and Creator/{{Sophocles}}). A whopping eighteen of his plays have survived complete (many via a remarkably-preserved 800-year-old copy of The Complete Works of Euripides -- Volume 2: Eta-Kappa, although the Theta plays remain lost), along with fragments of many others. One of these, ''The Cyclops'', is a SatyrPlay about Polyphemus.

His works are noted for having subtler and more realistic characterization than his predecessors, having women as major characters with the complexity and subtlety far superior than his predecessors and fellow writers[[note]]To the point there is a saying that if the work doesn't have a major female character, it can't be from Euripides.[[/note]] and for playing with the established tropes of Greek tragedy. On the other hand, Creator/FriedrichNietzsche condemns Euripides for being in thrall to Creator/{{Socrates}}' philosophy, saying that Euripides "killed" tragedy by infusing it with reason and philosophical ideas.

Any discussion of Euripides has to make note of the fact that he had a LoveItOrHateIt reputation during his day. Euripides was well aware of the constraints placed upon playwrights at the time, and many of his plays attempted to subvert at least one of the established theatrical conventions. Today, however, some scholars regard him as the best of the three surviving Greek playwrights and several regard him as the Shakespeare of Athens.

Extant works include:

* ''Theatre/{{Alcestis}}''
* ''Andromache''
* ''Theatre/{{Bacchae}}''
* ''Cyclops'' - The only surviving SatyrPlay.
* ''Electra''
* ''Hecuba''
* ''Helen''
* ''Heracleidae''
* ''Heracles''
* ''Theatre/{{Hippolytus}}''
* ''Ion''
* ''Iphigenia at Aulis''
* ''Iphigenia among the Taurians'' - Euripides' FixFic because ancient fan boys hated what happened to the eponymous Iphigenia.
* ''Theatre/{{Medea}}''
* ''Orestes''
* ''Phoenician Women''
* ''Rhesus''[[note]]Though the authorship is questioned with the most often cited reason is the lack of woman in a major role[[/note]]
* ''The Suppliants''
* ''Theatre/TheTrojanWomen''

!!Works by Euripides with their own trope pages:

* ''Theatre/{{Alcestis}}''
* ''Theatre/{{Bacchae}}''
* ''Theatre/{{Hippolytus}}''
* ''Theatre/{{Medea}}''
* ''Theatre/TheTrojanWomen''

!!Other works by Euripides provide examples of:

* AllThereInTheManual: We have enough of Greek mythology to give the background to some of these plays, as well as to know the storylines of many of the {{Missing Episode}}s.
* AuthorTract: ''Iphigenia in Tauris'', against HumanSacrifice..
* {{Bowdlerize}}: It is impossible to clean ''Cyclops'' up, for [[SatyrPlay obvious reasons]], but some translations phrase things so that it ''doesn't'' sound like the satyrs are talking about gang-raping Helen.
* CharacterFilibuster: An atheistic one survives from ''[[SatyrPlay Sisyphus]]''. It's the title character giving it...
* {{Deconstruction}}: ''The Trojan Women'' plays up the tragedies which befall the people of Troy after their city fell rather than focusing on the heroics of the main characters. And this isn't the only example--TheOtherWiki has noted that Euripides's plays tended to use and adjust old myths and lore to explore the quandaries of contemporary Athenian culture. Which, of course, ''used'' those old myths' baseline forms to define and justify its culture.
* DeusExMachina : Aristotle and Aristophanes chided him for making use of this obvious devices. Later generations of literary critics especially in the 20th Century, now regard Euripides' as a StealthParody or an UnbuiltTrope of a GainaxEnding, especially after the likes of Creator/BertoltBrecht realized that these kinds of endings could be useful for {{Irony}} and pastische.
* DrivesLikeCrazy: ''Phaëton'' is lost, but it's a given that this trope featured big time.
* EyeScream: Inflicted in ''Hecuba'' and ''Cyclops''.
* GreekChorus: Although Creator/{{Aristotle}} complained in ''Literature/{{Poetics}}'' that the choruses lost touch with the play.
* ImpoverishedPatrician: Discussed and[=/=]or conversed in a surviving fragment of ''Stheneboea''.
* MamasBabyPapasMaybe: In ''Ion'', Apollo exploits it; Ion is in fact Creusa's son after Apollo raped her, but the oracle tells Creusa's husband that he is his son. Genetically, since Xuthus is one of Apollo's many half-brothers, he's Ion's uncle.
* MissingEpisode: Ancient sources credit him with writing 95 plays. We've only got 19.
* MoodWhiplash: ''Heracles'' begins with the father, wife, and three sons of Heracles (a.k.a. Hercules) about to be executed by the tyrant, Lycus. At the last moment, Heracles returns and saves his family. Hooray! Then they go to make a sacrifice, [[spoiler:only for Heracles to be driven mad and murder his wife and sons]].
** In general this is the greatness of Euripides, his ability to mix tones from tragedy to comedy and satire which many critics realize was something that he, alone among ancient dramatists, would share with Shakespeare. ''Alcestis'' is another great example.
* PaterFamilicide: The drama of Heracles deals with the situation that led to the protagonist killing his wife and children.
* PayEvilUntoEvil: Hecuba's revenge in the play of the same name. When the war first broke out, she and Priam had entrusted Polymestor with their youngest son, as well as the dough to keep him going, but when Troy fell Polymestor killed the kid for the gold. Hecuba lures him to the tent with his two sons, then she kills them and [[EyeScream pokes their father's eyes out]].
* PunchClockVillain: Copreus in ''Heracleidae''.
* RapePillageAndBurn: ''Trojan Women''
* SacredHospitality[=/=]EvenEvilHasStandards: In ''Hecuba'', even war criminal Agamemnon was horrified to learn that Polymestor had murdered a guest.
* SatyrPlay: His ''Cyclops'' is the only one surviving today.
* TheNewRockAndRoll: There was some kind of major musical change in Athens in the fifth century, and it's possible that Euripides, unlike most tragedians, made use of 'new music'. This is one of the things that earned him his LoveItOrHateIt reputation.
* SparedByTheAdaptation: According to contemporary sources, Antigone and Haemon in the now-MissingEpisode ''Antigone''. Fragments of ''Phaëton'' suggest the title character of that one was, too.
* {{Tragedy}}
* UnfortunateNames: Copreus in ''Heracleidae''. Imagine naming your kid "Shitman". Bit of a FreudianExcuse for his PunchClockVillain status.
* VirginSacrifice
* WarIsHell: A common interpretation of ''Trojan Women'' is as a criticism of Athenian atrocities during the Pelopenesian War.
* WhosOnFirst: A ForegoneConclusion in ''Cyclops''.
* WickedStepmother