[[quoteright:300:http://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/dingodino_856.png]]
[[caption-width-right:300:Welcome to [[WesternAnimation/TheLandBeforeTime The Great]] UncannyValley.]]

->"''Rubbish!''"
-->--Many, many characters in these cartoons

[[http://www.dingo-pictures.de/en Dingo Pictures]] is a German low budget animation studio that has been in existence since the 1990s. Its movies are knockoffs of well known movies, many of them from the Franchise/DisneyAnimatedCanon, and in terms of production quality they are... not ''exactly'' on the same level as the films they're mockbusting, which leads to often humorous but sometimes [[UncannyValley nightmarish results]].

Unusually, when translated into English, its movies were sold as games, appearing on the [=PS1=] and [=PS2=] despite the only game portion being puzzle sections and a painting program. On the [=PS1=] these were published by Midas, and on [=PS2=] by Phoenix Games. The company does not appear to have made any movies for years, but its website is still in operation.

'''Some traits of Dingo Pictures cartoons:'''
* Animation that looks like a mix between MS Paint and water color paintings made by elementary school students.
* Most of them, in the English versions anyway, have only two voice actors - one male and one female. In some cartoons, there's only one voice actor. This is, however, strangely not the case in the French versions, which on the contrary have excellent voice acting.
* Numerous characters often start laughing randomly and silently. This is usually represented by two frames of animation of a head bobbing up and down. Yes, really.
* Dingo Pictures cartoons [[TheMockbuster are based on Disney or Pixar (or other famous) cartoons]] or public domain stories with which Disney has made adaptations.
* Most of the animal characters are recycled from cartoon to cartoon. Same to bases of human characters.
* They also recycle the backgrounds and background music a lot.
* [[AvoidTheDreadedGRating The words "rubbish", "hell",]] [[ObligatorySwearing and "damn" are very commonly used]].

See also Creator/VideoBrinquedo and Creator/SparkPlugEntertainment for their [[AllCGICartoon computer animation]] counterparts.

WebAnimation/TheFlashTub has parodied their style a [[http://www.somethingawful.com/d/flash-tub/dingo-pictures-cartoon.php number]] [[http://www.somethingawful.com/d/flash-tub/dingo-pictures-titanic.php of]] [[http://www.somethingawful.com/flash-tub/dingo-pictures-pokemon/ times.]]

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!!Their works include:

* [[Disney/{{Aladdin}} Aladin]]
* WesternAnimation/{{Anastasia}}
* [[Film/BedknobsAndBroomsticks Animal Soccer World]] (a movie that actually takes inspiration from ''several'' Disney movies)
* [[Disney/AtlantisTheLostEmpire Atlantis / Legend of Atlantis]]
* [[Anime/KikisDeliveryService Arisa, the Little Witch]]
* [[Disney/WinnieThePooh Countryside Bears]]
* [[Disney/OneHundredAndOneDalmatians In Search of the Dalmatians]]
* [[Disney/OneHundredAndOneDalmatians The Dalmatians]]
** Dalmatians 2 (remake of the above)
** Dalmatians 3 ([=PlayStation=] 2 port of the above)
** Dalmatians 4 (Wii port of the above)
* [[Disney/TheGreatMouseDetective Detective Mouse / Mouse Police]]
* [[WesternAnimation/TheLandBeforeTime Dinosaur Adventure / Dinosaurs]]
* [[Disney/{{Bambi}} Goldie]]
* Disney/{{Hercules}}
* [[Literature/CharlottesWeb Janis, the little piglet]]
* [[WesternAnimation/ToyStory Land of Toys / The Toys Room]]
* [[Disney/TheLionKing Lion]] [--and the--] [[Disney/TheLionKing King]] / [[Disney/TheLionKingIISimbasPride Son of the Lion King]]
* [[Disney/{{Tarzan}} Lord of the Jungle]]
* [[WesternAnimation/ThePrinceOfEgypt Moses: Prince of Egypt]]
* [[Disney/TheRescuers Mouse Police]]
* [[Disney/TheHunchbackOfNotreDame Notredame / Hunchback of Notredame]]
* [[Disney/TheAristocats Nice Cats]] /Lucy & Lionel
* Disney/{{Pocahontas}}
* [[Disney/TheSwordInTheStone Sword of Camelot]]
* [[Disney/TheJungleBook Wabuu, the Cheeky Raccoon]]

Another "Hercules" cartoon (Legend of Herkules), not made by Dingo Pictures, was released by Phoenix Games, as were the works "Mighty Mulan", "Peter Pan", "Cinderella", and "Snow White and the Seven Clever Boys".
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!!These animations provide examples of:

* AbusiveParent: Most of Tio's dad's lines consist of yelling at or scolding Tio.
* AccentAdaptation: A dog with a Dutch accent in Animal Soccer World, for example.
** Rasputin in Anastasia has one of the thickest Russian accents you can find.
* AddedAlliterativeAppeal: "MAMMOTH MAYHEM!" from ''Dinosaur Adventure''.
* AlternateHistory: In ''Anastasia'', Communism is never established in Russia and a democratic republic is created instead. However, in a case of TropesAreNotGood, the whole thing seems to play out more like YouFailHistoryForever.
* AtlantisIsBoring: Their Atlantis cartoon. And that's gotta be one of the most boring depictions of Atlantis ever.
* AnthropomorphicShift: An interesting variation. Most (but not all) animal characters here usually walk on four legs except when doing certain tasks which humans do (e.g. play football) which makes them temporarily turn bipeds and get clothes. Oddly enough, when the shift occurs, the characters' legs do not change shape into that which supports bipedal motion, hence you have scenes like a black panther running with wildly flipping hind legs in Animal Soccer World.
* ArtisticLicenseBiology:
** The raccoon character (usually named Wabuu) moves around like a kangaroo. And the way in which he achieves kangaroo-like locomotion is the stuff of horror.
** The gopher and squirrel characters also hop like kangaroos.
** The T-Rex-ish ''thing'' in Dinosaur Adventures has a [[ArtisticLicensePaleontology red button nose]] and is apparently the child of [[CriticalResearchFailure two sauropods]]. In the same movie, [[spoiler:meat eating is treated as [[CarnivoreConfusion cannibalism]]]], which suffice to say is quite face-palming for everyone who even remotely knows what dinosaurs are. But AccidentallyAccurate in that [[spoiler:the ceratopsian like dinosaur is the one who suggests it, this movie having been made several years before the idea that ceratopsians were probably opportunistically omnivorous became mainstream]].
** Djali the goat from Hunchback of Notredame has a black, spherical nose which resembles that of a cartoonish dog's.
** The dolphins in Legend of Atlantis have nostrils (on their beaks) instead of blowholes.
* ArtisticLicenseHistory:
** Pocahontas is quite the MindScrew for anyone with any knowledge of these subjects.
** In Hunchback of Notredame, the Eiffel tower can be seen in one aerial shot, despite the story taking place in ''medieval'' Paris.
** In Sword Of Camelot, the medieval setting is disrupted by a small green dinosaur (or maybe it's meant to be a baby dragon) who hops around and laughs. Nevermind the millions of years between the existence of dinosaurs and humans, but the plot is serious otherwise. MoodDissonance to the extreme.
* AscendedToCarnivorism: Some herbivorous dinosaurs turn to eating meat after the eruption in ''Dinosaur Adventure''.
* AuthorAvatar: The crow in the Dalmatians series. However, he ends up doing more than most Author Avatars do by participating in a DeusExMachina near the end.
* BewareTheSillyOnes: Due to the [[StylisticSuck art style and dubbing,]] EVERYONE ends up looking and sounding goofy, regardless of how dark and family un-friendly the storylines tend to get. Played more straight with the Jack In the Box from Toys Room who, in between cracking jokes, [[NightmareFuel seriously contemplates using his spring to slice open the new toy's belly.]]
* BilingualBonus: Sort of. These start off in German but any German-language background jokes won't be corrected, so the "Julius Cheesar" statue at the end of Mouse Police might go unnoticed by some.
** The English dub of Animal Soccer World notably features the Musicians Of Bremen singing in Dutch, which is of great amusement to Dutch viewers.
** In a rare example of them doing this intentionally, Wabuu's name is designed to work alliteratively alongside 'Waschbär' (the German word for raccoon) and rhyme with 'Raccoon'.
* CameraAbuse: In ''Pocahontas'', Wabuu kicks the screen with his creepy feet just to emphasize he doesn't need a ''shoe'', making him even more of a [[TheScrappy Scrappy]].
* CannibalClan: In ''Dinosaur Adventure'', the main characters come across some of the dinosaurs who'd survived the eruption. As there isn't enough grass and leaves to eat (as the area was destroyed by a volcano), the dinos have resorted to eating meat. The leader Argh says that they get stronger every day eating meat, much to the good guys' horror.
* CaptainErsatz: Almost all the characters are ripped-off from Disney, Creator/DonBluth, or Creator/DreamWorks cartoons, some more obscure than others. In a lot of cases, the design of the characters will look ''exactly the same'' as the ripped-off original. In the case of ''Lion and the King'', the King Lion is adult Simba and his son is ''young Simba''. (Not a case of TalkingToYourself, but pretty damn close...)
* CaptainObvious: In ''Anastasia'' : "Nobody has survived. They must all be dead!"
* CarnivoreConfusion: In ''Lion and the King'', the King scolds his son for hunting other animals. You know, the thing lions are supposed to do.
* CartoonBomb: Rasputin does that in ''Anastasia''; the first time, it destroys the tsar's palace. The second time, it [[spoiler: kills him, but oddly, not Sasha, the dog.]]
* ChocolateBaby: In ''Dinosaur Adventure'', the main character's parents resemble ornithopods. But the main character looks more like a [[spoiler: ''Tyrannosaurus rex'']].
* ConspicuouslyLightPatch: Especially conspicuous since the backgrounds appear to have been done ''in crayon''.
* CoversAlwaysLie: The box art and title screens often depict characters that don't appear in the cartoon... or characters with a different role than they actually have.
* DeadGuyJunior: In ''Dinosaur Adventure'', once the characters go to the place where the rest of the dinosaurs fled, Tio finds their parents had a second son, who was named Tio II, after his "deceased" brother. With a bit of FridgeLogic applied, this means that a horrifying time paradox exists where despite 'Tio II' being an elder brother, having died before the original Tio hatched, he is somehow the second generation, meaning that Tio II is both Tio's elder and younger brother.
* DeathGlare: Tio gives one to Fa when she's explaining volcanoes to him after his lazy attempt at describing one to Oro.
* DepartmentOfRedundancyDepartment: In Son of the Lion King, Robin asks Black Panther's son "Your father the Black Panther is your father?" It was probably meant to have been two separate sentences, but it sounds rushed.
* DetailHoggingCover: Dingo Pictures' covers look ''a lot'' better than the actual movies.
* DownerEnding: ''The Toys Room'', which ends with the implication that none of the toys will ever be loved again.
** ''Hunchback of Notredame'' actually manages the rare feat of having an ending ''more'' cynical and depressing than [[Literature/TheHunchbackOfNotreDame the original]], as it [[spoiler: leaves Esmeralda alive, [[JerkAss abandoning Quasimodo to rot in a jail cell after murdering Frollo over her]].]]
* DubInducedPlothole : The musician characters in Animal Soccer World are reused from Dingo's version of The Musicians Of Bremen, a fairy tale that is only widely known in Germany, and thus it was only released there.
* DubNameChange:
** "Nice Cats", which was known as "Lucy And Lionel" in the original German version (and is still referred to as such on the English version of Dingo's site).
** Wuschel the squirrel's name was changed to Putte and Pjuske in the Swedish dubs of ''Goldie'' and ''Wabuu - the cheeky raccoon''.
* {{Expy}}: Most notably in ''Animal Soccer World''. Expies of CaptainErsatz.
* ExtraExtraReadAllAboutIt: Happens a few times (e.g., in ''Mouse Police''), and proves why this trope is [[DeadHorseTrope dead]] elsewhere.
* GenreShift: The Toys Room has a different art style, has a different, better English speaking narrator, and is not a copy of Disney, but a sort of combination of Toy Story and The Brave Little Toaster. It is much darker than their other work, and cutesy artwork aside, is devoid of any happy moments.
* GentleGiant: Butcher is this in Animal Soccer World. The biggest, strongest dog in town. [[WeaksauceWeakness absolutely terrified of getting hit with a soccer ball.]] He ends up using his status as a desirable player to help snag [[ButtMonkey Grommel]] a spot on the team.
* GoodBadTranslation: Sometimes played straight and sometimes averted entirely for not translating a few parts.
** For an example, in Legend of Pocahontas, Pocahontas yells "NEIN! NEIN!" when an old man [[spoiler: shoots Quickspear while having three arms.]]
** Signs and other things in the background aren't translated at all. That's why even in the English versions, there are "polizei" (police) cars or signs in front of an animal shelter that read "tierheim" (animal home).
** In Mouse Police, there is a character called 'Frau Munchen', the male mouse makes a directly translated 'limburger' related pun that doesn't work in English, and the villain character of the movie wants to send cheese from Germany (where it is said they are) to Italy. In fairness, Mouse Police is one of the few Dingo movies where they seem aware of their own shortcomings and just decided to roll with them.
** When any of the characters start to sing, you can hear the original language in the background.
*** In the English dub of Animal Soccer World, the football anthem is sung in Dutch over the original German.
*** In the English dub of Aladin, they didn't even bother dubbing over the intro song, and just left it in German. If this wasn't weird enough, the voice actors speak in genuinely broken English - "Can you image India?" - and part of their words are cut off to fit the frames. Furthermore the voice actors in this are obviously Dutch or German kids who learned English at school, and not professional voice actors, which just goes to show how much Dingo didn't care.
* HongKongDub: Just watch the lip sync in these animations! Often it's so off that sometimes one voice may play over other character. Often, the lip sync is wrong even in the original German!
* [[ImAHumanitarian I'm A Dinotarian]]: In ''Dinosaur Adventure'', some of the dinosaurs that survived the eruption couldn't find plants, so they resorted to ''eating other dinosaurs''.
* InNameOnly: Some of their cartoons which have only the title, character appearance, and box art looking similar to what they're ripping off, have a markedly different plot from the (usually) Disney source material. For example, Countryside Bears (a sort of ripoff of Franchise/WinnieThePooh) has a plot altogether different than what you'd expect, and is even packaged with an altogether different work (Wabuu's eponymous story).
* InterspeciesAdoption: Apparently in "Lion and the King" Mew Mew/Keno's parents consist of The Black Panther and a female Gorilla.
* ItsAllAboutMe: in "The Countryside Bears" whenever something happens, Grumpy's main concern is how he'll be affected or inconvenienced.
* JerkAss:
** Wabuu, ''especially'' in his eponymous short.
** Esmeralda from ''Hunchback of Notredame'' also counts, due to her actions at the ending.
*** The two nuns who find Quasimodo on the doorstep of the church when he's a baby. They waste no time in loudly expressing their disgust in his appearance and say he "belongs on a great, big '''''FIIIIIRRRRRRE!''''''"
*** Everyone in ''Hunchback of Notredame'' besides Pierre and Quasimodo fits this trope.
** Grumpy Bear in the Countryside Bears
** Peek from ''Dinosaur Adventure'', especially towards Tio. Even when Tio almost dies from his fall and [[spoiler: [[DespairEventHorizon almost gives up on trying to find his parents upon seeing his new brother]] ]], Peek teases him about it. Oro rightfully calls him out on this.
--> ''"PEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEK! Don't be such rubbish! [[spoiler:We all have siblings, and out parents love us more!]]"''
** Also from "Dinosaur Adventure" we have Kree, who seems to be able to get away with repeatedly insulting the other dinosaurs, threatening to assault Peek the next time he's in a dark corner and being really...creepy towards the younger characters.
* LargeHam:
** Oro, the professor dinosaur in Dinosaur Adventure.
-->"''''Ooouhhh''' Arg, you're as stupid as you ''always were!'' Haven't you LEARNED ANYTHING?! SCIENCE HAS MADE PROGRESS! One day we'll all be able to '''fly!'''"
** Also:
--> "''You're in the '''waaaaay''', Peeeeeeeeek! Move over to the '''siiiiiiiiiiide'''!''"
** Both Harry and the crows in Animal Soccer World. Especially once the game starts.
--> "Oh man, such a bad decision! One of the worst decisions in Soccer all time!"
--> "What's this, ladies and gentlemen!? CHAOS, '''ANARCHY!!'''"
* LarynxDissonance:
** It's incredibly obvious that Fa's UNCLE Ak (Argh?) in ''Dinosaur Adventure" is voiced by a woman.
** Also from ''Dinosaur Adventure'', the alpha-male of the gorillas is voiced by the same woman using a ''very'' goofy voice.
** The grandpa in Atlantis is also played by this lady.
* LoadsAndLoadsOfCharacters: Animal Soccer World features reappearances from virtually every animal character who was in a previous Dingo Pictures movie. Only now, some of them have very strong Dutch accents. It also means, whilst it appears to be set in Africa, it also features obviously incongruous animals like seals, penguins, bears and of course, [[CreatorsPet Wabuu the raccoon ]]. This only adds to the SoBadItsGood quality of the movie.
* LoveAtFirstSight:
** In their ''Pocahontas'' cartoon, this trope was taken to the extreme, accompanied by a horrible song.
** As well as in ''Aladdin''. First, Aladdin falls in love with Soraya after seeing her singing in a balneary. Later, Aladdin tells his Genie to take Soraya to his place, and a few ''seconds'' after seeing him ''for the first time'' they sing a duet about having many children.
* LimitedAnimation: [[UpToEleven And that's putting it lightly.]] This makes {{Creator/Filmation}} look like Creator/{{Disney}}.
* LongHairedPrettyBoy: Pierre from ''Hunchback of Notredame'', but this is mostly because he's just Esmerelda with facial hair.
* MisplacedWildlife:
** Hyenas in ''Pocahontas'' for one. Apes in ''Dinosaur Adventure'' for another. The toucan who appears in most of them, regardless of whether its set in a forest or jungle. Wabuu the raccoon seems to be the creator's favorite character, and often appears regardless of whether he's appropriate for the story.
** In ''Animal Soccer World'', they seem to have thrown together all animal characters they have, regardless to their natural habitat. Lions, dogs, seals, squirrels and panthers are just a few examples.
* MissingEpisode: "The Musicians Of Bremen" was never released outside of Germany. This is partly because the story is mostly known in Germany, and partly because it features a human narrator and it would have been time consuming to hire other actors for the other dubs. It would be little known to many fans were it not for the fact that it is mentioned on Dingo's website, and that the characters make an appearance in Animal Soccer World.
* MoodDissonance: The look of utter revulsion and horror on Hercules' face when he falls in LoveAtFirstSight.
* MouthFlaps: In all of their works, most obviously in Animal Soccer World.
* TheMockbuster: Almost all of its animations.
* NarratingTheObvious: Some of their films are narrated as if they were books on tape rather than cartoons.
* NonDubbedGrunts: Obvious at some points.
* NonFatalExplosions: Played with. At the end of ''Anastasia'', [[spoiler: Rasputin manages to [[HoistByHisOwnPetard get killed by his own]] CartoonBomb but the dog simply got covered in ashes.]]
* NothingExcitingEverHappensHere: Harry the "reporter" in Animal Soccer World.
* ObligatorySwearing: A few examples, possibly due to ValuesDissonance:
** "WHAT THE HELL IS GOING ON HERE?!" - Tio's Dad in Dinosaur Adventure
** "Oh, damn! I'm much too little for that!" - Tio in Dinosaur Adventure
** "Oh, just wait until I catch you in a dark corner, you'll get a '''''damn''''' good beating!" - Kree in Dinosaur Adventure
** "I can't find my damn hairbrush!" - Lucy
** "...Smart-ass." - Unnamed gangster in Mouse Police
** "Shit. Not a word of what I just said, that must be him." - Police Rat in Mouse Police.
** "Damn." - Lucy in Dalmatians 3
** "I'll be damned. A one legged man chasing me on two legs? - Pierre in Hunchback of Notredame
** "Damn you both!" - Frolo in Hunchback of Notredame
** "DAMN YOU, gypsy woman!" - An old lady in Hunchback of Notredame
* OffModel:
** In Pocahontas, one of the characters has 3 arms when firing a gun.
** A recurring goat has three tails. RuleOfThree?
** Tree branches float in midair and a camel's neck is not connected to its body.
** In ''The Hunchback of Notre Dame'', Quasimodo has 6 fingers in one scene.
* PerpetualSmiler: Peek from ''Dinosaur Adventure'' only ever frowns once. Even after surviving a heavy volcano eruption that turns half of the survivors into (Basically) cannibals, he's still smiling.
* ProtagonistCenteredMorality: In Dinosaur Adventure, all of Tio's friends and relatives survive. Everyone else is killed by the volcano, becomes a carnivore, or is eaten by the carnivores.
* RascallyRaccoon: Wabuu. The creator intended him to be cheeky, but he's sociopathic.
* RecurringCharacter: So many. Lots of dogs (including Dalmatians, a Spaniel), a cat with a red bow, blue birds, three vultures who are always sitting on a branch and found always together, an alligator, Wabuu himself, and many more.
* RecurringRiff: There are about a dozen or little more pieces of background music used frequently in their different cartoons. One of the more infamous pieces is the ominous "jungle" music featured in Animal Soccer World, which plays for almost the entirety of the movie even when other pieces of music play over it.
* ReplacementGoldfish: In ''Dinosaur Adventure'', it's revealed that Tio's parents gave up on finding out if Tio was alive or not and had another child who they named Tio the Second.
* ReusedCharacterDesign: Protagonists of one film will often be recycled as extras in another. Aladin is even recycled in ''his own film''.
* RhymesOnADime: Peek, one of the characters in ''Dinosaur Adventure'', has this as his only character trait.
* SayMyName: Happens twice in ''Dinosaur Adventure''.
** First time, when Tio's father sees his son almost die from a fall.
--> "''TIOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO!''"
** Second, when Oro hears Peek teasing Tio about [[spoiler: his parents possibly abandoning him]].
--> "''PEEEEEEEEEEEEEK! Don't be such rubbish!''"
* SchizoTech: In ''Legend of Atlantis'' the Atlanteans have robots and computers while the rest of the world is in the Classical Era.
* SlasherSmile: A side effect of the lazy artwork and animation.
* SomewhereAPaleontologistIsCrying: Everything about Dinosaur Adventure. ''Everything.'' With her (?) cartoon dog nose and round ears, Fa looks more like a reject from WesternAnimation/PBAndJOtter. Then there's Peek, who looks like one of those cheap plastic dinosaurs made in China that you get in a bag at the dollar store. Kree is supposed to be a [[PteroSoarer pterosaur]], but he looks more like mutant bird-bat thing. And just what ''is'' that orange frog thing supposed to be?
** Ironically, the theropod-looking dinosaur Oro appears to have fuzzy integument analogous to feathers.
* SoundtrackDissonance: There are tons of examples of it.
** Most notable is the English dub of Animal Soccer World where ominous jungle music NEVER. STOPS. Even when other songs start in ''Animal Soccer World'', the jungle music continues underneath them.
** Or some parts in Moses: The Prince of Egypt where punk rock music plays.
** In Animal Soccer World, a band is practicing a soccer song. Background music consists of cheap MIDI with a banjo, 3 types of drums, and a violin. But the band is playing a violin, one drum, a cello, and a saxophone! And to put the icing on the cake, a donkey tells the violinist that "only the guitar solo, it is still a problem".
** Dinosaur Adventure starts with an industrial electronica track, which is about the most inexplicable music choice you could have in a movie involving dinosaurs.
* SparedByTheAdaptation: Quasimodo and Esmeralda, but unlike most adaptations which also spared them, this is not a positive thing.
* SpellMyNameWithAThe: Wabuu refers to himself as "The Wabuu" is his theme song, but this trope is more common in German.
* SssssnakeTalk: Snake in Son of the Lion King and Moses: Prince of Egypt.
* StockFootage: The same parts of the film are often played over and over. Sometimes even the same backgrounds are used ''in different cartoons''.
* SurpriseCreepy:
** Wabuu's story in Countryside Bears.
** ''Dinosaur Adventure''. People watching it expecting a stupid film to laugh at (and Yee) may be surprised by the dark plot involving the dinosaurs' homeland being destroyed by a volcanic eruption, with several dinosaurs explicitly dying as a result. Those who survive are not better: the main characters meet some former friends, who have resorted to cannibalism to survive, and the possibility of dying of thirst or starvation is a threat for a sizable part of the movie.
* ThatRemindsMeOfASong: Wabuu's song in every animation he's been in qualifies. As do the songs in Pocahontas and Aladin.
* ToiletHumor: In ''Wabuu The Cheeky Raccoon'', two birds are ''shitting'' on Wabuu in the face, to take revenge on him because he always pranks the other animals.----