"If Walt Disney was the first animator who taught me how to fly in my dreams, Chuck Jones was the first animator who made me laugh at them."Charles Martin "Chuck" Jones™note (September 21, 1912 – February 22, 2002) is one of the most revered animators, directors, and writers in the History of Animation. If Tex Avery, hypothetically speaking as the original cartoon gag man, was the Trope Maker, then Chuck Jones could well have been the Trope Codifier of much of what we consider cartoon comedy on the Western Animation side of the fence. During his tenure with Warner Bros., he directed an impressive 207 Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies shorts (220 if you count his Private Snafu work), four Looney Tunes TV specials, the feature-length compilation The Bugs Bunny/Road Runner Movie, and seven modern Looney Tunes shorts.During The Golden Age of Animation, Chuck began working as a cel washer for Ub Iwerks before working his way up the corporate ladder so to speak, being mentored by the likes of Tex Avery and Friz Freleng and animating for Bob Clampett. In 1938, he finally received a shot at directing a cartoon, inheriting the crew of the recently departed Frank Tashlin. His early work mirrored Walt Disney's Silly Symphonies in content and tone, heavy on childlike fantasy and completely lacking in comedy; many featured the ever-so-cute Sniffles the Mouse as the main character. After a few years at Warner Bros. he would eventually Grow the Beard and adopt the more humorous and zany style of his contemporaries at Warner. Sniffles would become a bit of a cute Screwy Squirrel with an uncontrollable Motor Mouth before Chuck ended his series and began writing for other characters, eventually inheriting Bugs, Daffy and the rest of the more famous Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies characters.Chuck's work as an animation director for WB in the 1950s took the elements Tex laid out and stretched them to their most logical (illogical?) extremes. On one hand, his most prolific original characters, the Road Runner and Wile E. Coyote, used next to no dialogue, instead relying on expertly timed facial expressions and slapstick that even The Three Stooges might have envied. On the other end of the spectrum, Jones' work with Bugs Bunny and Daffy Duck, while not discarding the slapstick, brought comedic wordplay to a level not seen in animation up to that point. In addition, he deepened their personalities such as making Bugs generally bedevil people only after they've threatened or mistreated him: a classic Karmic Trickster. Daffy is made an insecure pretender to Bugs' trickster throne.
— Steven Spielberg on Chuck Jones, in Chuck Amuck: The Life and Times of an Animated Cartoonist
- "In my dreams I am Bugs Bunny; when I wake up I find that I am Daffy Duck."
- The Miller's Daughter: First animation credit.
- Those Beautiful Dames
- Buddy of the Legion
- My Green Fedora
- Buddy Steps Out
- Hollywood Capers
- Gold-Diggers of '49: Animated for Tex Avery on the short.
- The Blow Out
- I Love to Singa
- Milk and Money
- Porky the Wrestler
- Picador Porky
- Ain't We Got Fun
- Porky & Gabby: Co-directed with Bob Clampett, although Ub Iwerks was credited for direction.
- Porky's Super Service: Same as above.
- Porky's Badtime Story
- Get Rich Quick Porky
- Rover's Rival
- Porky's Party
- Porky & Daffy: Animated the Pelican in the film, with rumor being that he based the pelican's flappy chin off of Clampett's own testicles.
- The Night Watchman: Directorial debut.
- Dog Gone Modern: Debut of the Curious Puppies characters.
- Robin Hood Makes Good
- Prest-o Change-o: Second appearance of the Bugs Bunny prototype. Second appearance of the Curious Puppies.
- Daffy Duck and the Dinosaur: Chuck's first experience with Daffy Duck. This short is interesting, as it shows Daffy as more calculating than he was at the time, possibly a foreshadowing of his later characterization, whereas during his time he was usually a Screwy Squirrel-type character.
- Naughty But Mice: Debut of Sniffles the Mouse.
- Old Glory: Probably the most un-Warner Bros.-like cartoon ever made. One of The 100 Greatest Looney Tunes.
- Snow Man's Land
- Little Brother Rat: Second Sniffles short.
- Little Lion Hunter: Debut of Inki.
- The Good Egg: Third Sniffles short.
- Sniffles and the Bookworm: Fourth Sniffles short. First appearance of The Bookworm.
- Curious Puppy: Third appearance of Jones' "Curious Puppies" characters.
- The Mighty Hunters
- Elmer's Candid Camera: Fourth appearance of the Bugs Bunny prototype. Jones personally loathed this cartoon and trashed it in his autobiography.
- Sniffles Takes A Trip: Fifth Sniffles short.
- Tom Thumb In Trouble
- The Egg Collector: Sixth Sniffles short.
- Ghost Wanted
- Stage Fright
- Good Night Elmer: A rare case of an Elmer Fudd solo cartoon.
- Bedtime for Sniffles: Seventh Sniffles short.
- Elmer's Pet Rabbit: Jones' first use of the officially named Bugs Bunny character – however, he still hadn't nailed Bugs's character, as he is portrayed as an extremely foul-tempered heckler here.
- Sniffles Bells the Cat: Eigth Sniffles short.
- Joe Glow, The Firefly
- Toy Trouble: Ninth Sniffles short.
- Porky's Ant
- Porky's Prize Pony
- Inki and the Lion: Second Inki cartoon.
- Snow Time For Comedy: Another appearance of Jones' Curious Puppies.
- Brave Little Bat: Tenth Sniffles short.
- Saddle Silly
- Porky's Midnight Matinee
- The Bird Came C.O.D.: Debut of Jones' short lived pantomime character Conrad Cat.
- Porky's Cafe
- Conrad the Sailor: A Daffy Duck short. Notable for Jones experimenting with Match Cuts.
- Dog Tired: Final appearance of Jones' Curious Puppies.
- The Draft Horse: A short that Jones considered a turning point in his career, when he started beginning to make funny cartoons.
- Hold the Lion, Please!: Second use of Bugs Bunny.
- The Squawkin' Hawk
- Fox Pop
- The Dover Boys: #49 of The 50 Greatest Cartoons, and one of The 100 Greatest Looney Tunes. Jones considered this the point where he found his voice, so to speak.
- My Favorite Duck
- Case of the Missing Hare: Third use of Bugs Bunny.
- To Duck or Not to Duck
- Flop Goes The Weasel
- The Unbearable Bear: 11th Sniffles short.
- The Aristo Cat: Debut of Hubie and Bertie and Claude Cat. One of The 100 Greatest Looney Tunes.
- Wackiki Wabbit
- Fin N' Catty
- Inki and the Mynah Bird: Third appearance of Inki. Animator Shamus Culhane contributed much animation to this short.
- Coming Snafu: A promo for the Private Snafu shorts.
- Spies: A Private Snafu short.
- Infantry Blues: A Private Snafu short.
- Tom Turk and Daffy
- Bugs Bunny and the Three Bears: Runner-up on The 50 Greatest Cartoons list.
- The Weakly Reporter
- Angel Puss: One of the Censored Eleven.
- From Hand to Mouse
- Lost and Foundling: 12th Sniffles short.
- Hell Bent For Election: A UPA short that Jones moonlighted on.
- Private Snafu Vs. Malaria Mike
- A Lecture on Camouflage: A Private Snafu short.
- Gas: A Private Snafu short.
- Outpost: A Private Snafu short.
- Odor-able Kitty: Debut of Pepe Le Pew.
- Trap Happy Porky
- Hare Conditioned
- Fresh Airedale
- Hare Tonic
- In the Aleutians-Isles of Enchantment
- It's Murder She Says
- Going Home: unreleased
- No Buddy Atoll: unreleased
- Seaman Tarfu in the Navy: unreleased
- Mop Up (How to get a Fat Jap out of a cave): A Private Snafu short that was planned, but never finished.
- Quentin Quail
- Hush My Mouse: 13th and last Sniffles the Mouse short.
- Hair-Raising Hare: One of The 100 Greatest Looney Tunes, runner-up on The 50 Greatest Cartoons list.
- The Eager Beaver
- Fair and Worm-er
- Roughly Squeaking
- Scent-imental Over You
- Inki and the Circus: Fourth Inki cartoon.
- A Pest in the House: One of The 100 Greatest Looney Tunes.
- Little Orphan Airedale
- A Feather in His Hare
- What's Brewin' Bruin?
- Rabbit Punch
- Haredevil Hare: Debut of Marvin the Martian.
- You Were Never Duckier
- House-Hunting Mice
- Daffy Dilly
- My Bunny Lies Over the Sea
- Scaredy Cat: One of The 100 Greatest Looney Tunes, runner-up on The 50 Greatest Cartoons.
- The Awful Orphan
- Mississippi Hare
- Mouse Wreckers
- The Bee-Deviled Bruin
- Long-Haired Hare: One of The 100 Greatest Looney Tunes.
- Often an Orphan
- Fast and Furry-ous: Debut of Wile E. Coyote and the Road Runner. One of The 100 Greatest Looney Tunes, runner-up on The 50 Greatest Cartoons.
- Frigid Hare
- For Scent-imental Reasons: Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film.
- Bear Feat
- Rabbit Hood: Runner-up on The 50 Greatest Cartoons.
- The Scarlet Pumpernickel: #31 of The 50 Greatest Cartoons, one of The 100 Greatest Looney Tunes.
- Homeless Hare
- The Hypo-chondri-cat: One of The 100 Greatest Looney Tunes.
- Eight Ball Bunny: one of The 100 Greatest Looney Tunes.
- Dog Gone South: One of The 100 Greatest Looney Tunes.
- The Ducksters
- Caveman Inki: Final Inki cartoon.
- Rabbit of Seville: #12 of The 50 Greatest Cartoons, one of The 100 Greatest Looney Tunes.
- Two's A Crowd
- Bunny Hugged: One of The 100 Greatest Looney Tunes.
- Scent-imental Romeo
- A Hound for Trouble
- Rabbit Fire: One of the most iconic Bugs Bunny shorts. One of The 100 Greatest Looney Tunes.
- Chow Hound: One of The 100 Greatest Looney Tunes.
- The Wearing of the Grin
- Cheese Chasers
- A Bear for Punishment: one of The 100 Greatest Looney Tunes.
- Drip Along Daffy: One of The 100 Greatest Looney Tunes.
- Operation: Rabbit: One of The 100 Greatest Looney Tunes.
- Feed the Kitty: No. 36 on The 50 Greatest Cartoons list, one of The 100 Greatest Looney Tunes.
- Little Beau Pepe
- Water, Water Every Hare
- Beep, Beep
- The Hasty Hare
- Going! Going! Gosh!
- Mouse Warming
- Rabbit Seasoning: Second of the Duck Season, Rabbit Season trilogy. #30 of The 50 Greatest Cartoons, one of The 100 Greatest Looney Tunes.
- Terrier Stricken
- Don't Give Up The Sheep
- Forward March Hare
- Kiss Me Cat
- Duck Amuck: #2 of The 50 Greatest Cartoons, one of The 100 Greatest Looney Tunes.
- Much Ado About Nutting: Ranked #59 in The 100 Greatest Looney Tunes.
- Wild Over You
- Duck Dodgers in the 24˝th Century: One of The 50 Greatest Cartoons, and one of The 100 Greatest Looney Tunes.
- Bully for Bugs: One of The 100 Greatest Looney Tunes.
- Zipping Along
- Duck! Rabbit! Duck!!: Third of the Duck Season, Rabbit Season trilogy. One of The 100 Greatest Looney Tunes.
- French Trunk
- Feline Frame-Up
- No Barking
- Cat's Bah
- Claws For Alarm
- Bewitched Bunny: Debut of Witch Hazel.
- Stop, Look and Hasten
- From A to Z-Z-Z-Z: One of The 100 Greatest Looney Tunes.
- Lumber Jack-Rabbit: The only 3-D Warner Bros. cartoon.
- My Little Duckaroo: Remake of "Dripalong Daffy".
- Sheep Ahoy
- Baby Buggy Bunny
- Beanstalk Bunny
- Ready, Set, Zoom!
- Past Perfumance
- Rabbit Rampage: A sequel to Duck Amuck, but with Bugs Bunny being the victim.
- Double or Mutton
- Jumpin' Jupiter
- Knight-Mare Hare
- Two Scents Worth
- Guided Muscle: One of The 100 Greatest Looney Tunes.
- One Froggy Evening: #5 of The 50 Greatest Cartoons, one of The 100 Greatest Looney Tunes.
- Bugs Bonnets
- Broom-Stick Bunny
- Rocket Squad
- Heaven Scent
- Gee Whiz-z-z-z
- Barbary Coast Bunny: Only Bugs Bunny short where he appears with Nasty Canasta.
- Rocket-Bye Baby: One of The 100 Greatest Looney Tunes.
- Deduce, You Say: One of The 100 Greatest Looney Tunes.
- There They Go-Go-Go
- To Hare is Human
- Scrambled Aches
- Ali Baba Bunny: One of The 50 Greatest Cartoons, and one of The 100 Greatest Looney Tunes.
- Go Fly A Kit
- Boyhood Daze
- Steal Wool: One of The 100 Greatest Looney Tunes.
- What's Opera, Doc?: #1 on The 50 Greatest Cartoons list, and one of The 100 Greatest Looney Tunes.
- Zoom and Bored
- Touche and Go
- Robin Hood Daffy: One of The 100 Greatest Looney Tunes.
- Hare Way to the Stars
- Whoa, Be Gone!
- To Itch His Own
- Hook, Line and Stinker
- Hip Hip—Hurry
- Cat Feud
- Baton Bunny: Co-directed by Abe Levitow.
- Hot Rod and Reel
- Really Scent
- Wild About Hurry
- The Fastest with the Mostest
- Who Scent You?
- Rabbit's Feat
- Ready Woolen and Able
- Hopalong Casualty
- High Note: One of The 100 Greatest Looney Tunes.
- Zip 'N' Snort
- The Mouse on 57th Street
- The Abominable Snow Rabbit: From here on out, Maurice Noble would frequently get co-director status.
- Lickety Splat
- A Scent of the Matterhorn
- Compressed Hare
- Beep Prepared
- Nelly's Folly
- A Sheep in the Deep
- Zoom at the Top
- Louvre Come Back to Me
- Martian Through Georgia: Co-directed by Abe Levitow.
- I Was A Teenage Thumb
- Now Hear This
- Hare-Breadth Hurry
- Mad as a Mars Hare
- Transylvania 6-5000
- To Beep or Not to Beep
- Pent-House Mouse: First short produced in the newly-formed Sib Tower 12 studio. Also his first Tom & Jerry short.
- War and Pieces: Last short for the original Warner Bros. animation studio.
- The Cat Above, the Mouse Below
- Is There a Doctor in the Mouse?
- Much Ado About Mousing
- Snowbody Loves Me
- Unshrinkable Jerry Mouse
- The Dot And The Line
- Ah-Sweet Mouse Story of Life
- Tom-ic Energy
- Bad Day at Cat Rock
- The Brothers Carry-Mouse-Off
- Haunted Mouse
- I'm Just Wild About Jerry
- Of Feline Bondage
- Tom Thump
- The Year of the Mouse
- The Cat's Me-Ouch
- Jerry Go-Round
- Duel Personality
- Jerry Jerry Quite Contrary
- Love Me, Love My Mouse
- How the Grinch Stole Christmas!
- The Bear That Wasn't: The final MGM short of the golden age of animation.
- Cat and Duplicat
- Cannery Rodent
- Gillette Commercial
- A Christmas Carol: Executive producer of this special.
- The Phantom Tollbooth: The Live Action/Animation Film
- Horton Hears A Who
- The Pogo Family Birthday Special
- Curiosity Shop
- The Cricket in Times Square
- A Very Merry Cricket
- Yankee Doodle Cricket
- The White Seal
- Carnival of the Animals
- Mowgli's Brorthers
- Bugs Bunny in King Arthur's Court
- Raggedy Ann and Andy in: The Great Santa Claus Caper
- The Bugs Bunny/Road Runner Movie
- Daffy Duck's Thanks-For-Giving Special
- Bugs Bunny's Looney Christmas Tales
- Raggedy Ann and Andy In: The Pumpkin Who Couldn't Smile
- Soup or Sonic
- Bugs Bunny's Bustin' Out all Over
- Duck Dodgers and the Return of the 24 1/2 Century
- Heineken commercial
- Warner Bros. Golden Jubilee: Animation producer on it.
- Who Framed Roger Rabbit: Storyboarded the original idea for the "Dueling Pianos" sequence with Richard Williams.
- Chariots of Fur
- Another Froggy Evening
- Superior Duck
- From Hare to Eternity
Tropes Associated With Chuck Jones:
- Abusive Parents: Pa Bear in the Three Bears shorts.
- Acme Products: Jones was the originator of this Running Gag.
- Amusing Injuries: His characters are often injured, but always for one temporary gag.
- Animated Adaptation: Some of his cartoons are based on pre-existing stories, mainly in his later works:
- The Mighty Hunters, a 1940 Merrie Melodies short he directed, is based on James Swinnerton's Canyon Kiddies picture stories for Heart's Good Housekeeping magazine.
- Tom Thumb in Trouble, another 1940 short, is based on the English Folklore of Tom Thumb from The History of Tom Thumb (1621).
- The Dot and the Line is based on the 1963 Norton Juster book The Dot and the Line: A Romance in Lower Mathematics.
- The Bear That Wasn't is based on the 1946 childrens book by Frank Tashlin.
- How the Grinch Stole Christmas!, a made-for-TV adaptation of the classic Dr. Seuss story.
- The Pogo Special Birthday Special, a made-for-TV special based on Walt Kelly's Pogo comic strip.
- Horton Hears a Who!: Another made-for-TV adaptation of a Dr Seuss story.
- The Phantom Tollbooth, a feature length adaptation of the 1961 book by Norton Juster.
- He was also the Executive Producer of the 1971 Richard Williams adaptation of A Christmas Carol.
- A Cricket in Times Square is a made-for-TV adaptation of the 1960 George Selden book The Cricket in Times Square.
- His studio also did three made-for-TV adaptations of stories from Rudyard Kipling's The Jungle Book; Rikki-Tikki-Tavi (1975), The White Seal (1975) and Mowgli's Brothers (1976)
- His studio did two made-for-TV specials inspired by Johnny Gruelle's Raggedy Ann books: The Great Santa Claus Caper (1978) and The Pumpkin Who Couldn't Smile (1979).
- He also did a cartoon adaptation of Peter and the Wolf in 1995.
- Aside Glance: A subset of his frequent fourth-wall-breaking, Jones was the absolute master of the animated slow burn.
- Author Appeal: He was a big fan of classic literature, particularly the stories of Mark Twain, and it frequently shows in his works, especially in his later cartoons.
- Art Evolution: While always having a strong visual style, Jones' cartoons looked strikingly different depending on the era: His early cartoons (1938-1942) had a strong Disney influence, especially prominent in Old Glory and Kiddie Hunters, the latter having backgrounds painted by cartoonist/illustrator Jimmy Swinnerton. Between 1942 and 1948 he took a more modernistic approach, predating the UPA style by a few years. After 1948 he began to develop what would become his signature style, once again drawing inspiration from Disney, which in turn had changed its style to resemble that of the Looney Tunes.
- Black Comedy: Jones's shorts are often quite cynical and jaded in their humor; he was quite fond of portraying characters as hapless Chew Toys (such as Wile E. Coyote) and/or more nasty and flawed than the other directors (such as his iconic Straw Loser take on Daffy Duck, turning Bugs into a more vengeful, passive aggressive trickster with somewhat less playfulness, creating Marvin, an alien villain who wants to destroy the earth for blocking his view of Venus, etc.). Some of his one-shots, like "Fresh Airedale" and "Chow Hound" are some of the darkest cartoons in the Looney Tunes series.
"Human beings will line up for miles to buy a bucket of catastrophes, but don't try selling sunshine and light — you'll go broke."
- Some of this was undoubtedly due to the input of Mike Maltese, who was the primary writer for Jones's unit from the mid-'40s through the late '50s. Following Maltese's departure, Jones's cartoons became considerably lighter and sometimes even sentimental in tone. However, Jones himself was quite a pessimist—in his biography, he quipped the following;
- Book Ends: His first cartoon, "The Night Watchman" (1938) has the opening titles set to the overture to Tannhäuser. Almost two decades later, "What's Opera, Doc?" (1957), which he and many consider to be his greatest film, ends with the exact same music cue from the Tannhauser overture.
- Breaking the Fourth Wall: Happens regularly in his work, most notably in "Duck Amuck".
- Disney Owns This Trope: Chuck trademarked his own name, so that he could use it as a brand in his later years when he formed his own studio, Sib Tower 12.
- Early Installment Weirdness: Everyone knows and loves Jones late 40's and 50's shorts which got him his reputation, but take a gander at his pre-'42 shorts and you'll be shocked to find those were directed by the same guy who made gems like "What's Opera, Doc?". To elaborate, Jones was going in a very different direction from Tex Avery and Bob Clampett by doing Disney-esque cartoons. While well drawn and animated, they also suffered from sluggish pacing and from being overbearingly cute. Jones even said himself that, if he could, he'd get rid of everything he made before 1948, as everything prior to that was not considered his best work.
- Excuse Plot: In his biography Chuck Amuck, he says he believed in using this, saying characters were more important than a story for its own sake."An idea has no worth at all without believable characters to implement it; a plot without characters is like a tennis court without players. Daffy Duck is to a Buck Rogers story what John McEnroe was to tennis. Personality. That is the key, the drum, the fife. Forget the plot. Can you remember, or care to remember, the plot of any great comedy? Chaplin? Woody Allen? The Marx Brothers?"
- Facial Dialogue: Compared with many classic animators Jones' cartoon characters have very subtle facial expressions that sometimes tell you more than actual dialogue.
- Friendly Rivalry: With his fellow WB animation directors, most notably Bob Clampett.
- Fandom Rivalry: Fans of Clampett find Jones's work too controlled, while fans of Jones find Clampett's to be too anarchistic.
- The rivalry with Clampett became decidedly less friendly when the two had a personal falling-out in the late '70s, after Clampett gave an interview claiming to be the sole creator of Bugs Bunny.
- Jones clearly regarded Walt Disney highly, being influenced by the man and working at Disney Animation and Sleeping Beauty for four months before he was convinced to return to Warner; he would work with Disney a second time on the famous "Dueling Pianos" sequence in Who Framed Roger Rabbit, though he was far from fond of this result. Disney also appointed him as one of the 12 founding heads of the Alumni Association at CalArts in 1965.
- Lets See You Do Better: Jones apparently created the Road Runner series as an Affectionate Parody of chase cartoons such as Tom and Jerry, mocking the simplistic formula and slapstick. A couple decades later, MGM actually hired Jones to work on the T&J series itself, which he admitted was more complex to get down pat than he had expected.
- Lighter and Softer: His pre-Dover Boys shorts compared to the cartoons Tex Avery and Bob Clampett were making around the same time. His later cartoons downplayed the Black Comedy present in his 40s and 50s cartoons, and tended to be much more sentimental in tone.
- Pun-Based Title: Several cartoons have puns in their titles.
- Ridiculously Cute Critter: Quite a few, including Pussyfoot the kitten, Playboy Penguin, Kotick the white seal pup, Cindy-Lou Who, and more.
- Screwy Squirrel: Jones had a very vocal hatred for such characters, but nevertheless used them a lot during the 40s, and even created recurring examples such as Hubie and Bertie. As his work refined during the early 50s they were phased out, in particular Jones was a large pivot in evolving Bugs and Daffy out of such roles.
- Strictly Formula: Was notable for making iconic formulas for many recurring characters who had previously interchanged into endless random scenarios and personas throughout their evolution. He was largely responsible for reinventing Bugs as a Karmic Trickster who brought fantastic retribution to a foe bullying him at the start of each short, while reinventing Daffy as a hero wannabe who walked into endless beatings against an obviously outmatching foe. His Road Runner shorts perhaps exist as the most formulaic cartoon series ever made, to the point you could interchange gags and scenes between shorts with little effect on the story whatsoever (with Art Evolution and Animation Bump as the only way you can tell the cartoons apart, if you're an especially eagle-eyed cartoon viewer).
- Talking with Signs: A frequent way of communication in the Road Runner cartoons.
- Unsympathetic Comedy Protagonist: Many of his characters are greedy, egotistical, rude, often bring forth their own downfall, and are drop-dead hilarious. Wile E. Coyote, Pa Bear, and Claude Cat are fine examples, but his reinvention of Daffy Duck (partially based upon himself) is one of the greatest instances of this trope in fiction.
- Wild Take: His cartoons very rarely use them. Chuck admitted in his biography that he only allowed himself to draw one wild take per year, on his birthday.
- The 50 Greatest Cartoons: He dominates the list, having directed ten of them overall, four of the top five, five of the runners-up, and numero uno itself, What's Opera, Doc?.