Anton Pavlovich Chekhov was a Russian short-story writer, playwright and physician in the turn of the previous century. He's best known for his dramatic works, and especially his four major plays: The Seagull
, Three Sisters
, Uncle Vanya
and The Cherry Orchard
. His plays seem to be nearly-plotless character studies. Although they're often about how depressed people are with the lives they lead, Chekhov referred to his plays as Comedies (aside from Three Sisters
). His main objective with his work was to get people to see the pain in their lives and make a change. He worked as a doctor most of his life, and there are many doctors as characters in his work. His plays were not well-received initially, and he almost gave up writing after the first production of The Seagull
was a bomb... and then it was revived four years later by the Moscow Art Theater and was a huge smash hit.
He had some the greatest last words ever: "It has been a long time since I tasted champagne," right after his last sip.
He is strongly associated with Stanislavski (the father of Method acting), who considered himself the
expert on Chekhov's plays. Chekov disagreed, as Stanislavski insisted on playing Chekov's comedies completely straight.
He is also the Trope Namer
for the ubiquitous-on-this-site Chekhov's Gun
His works on the wiki: