Important figures of Nazi Germany:
open/close all folders
- Adolf Hitler: Der Führer. Has his own page.
- Hermann Göring (usually rendered "Goering" in English): The Reich Marshal, Deputy Führer (second-in-command to Hitler) before Rudolf Hess and a former World War I Ace Pilot - he personally headed the World War II Luftwaffe (German air force). He was something of a fighting narcissist in his youth, and at the time he was considered handsome and was successful with the ladies. In later years, Göring was known for growing morbidly overweight and debauched, and lesser known for his physical degradation (got shot with bullet fragments and dislodged stone splinters in the genitals during the 1923 Beer Hall Putsch and suffered from bouts of pain which he treated with morphine afterwards); he owned several palaces where he lived like a Roman Emperor, had hunting and feasting parties, was addicted to morphine, and had many younger mistresses alongside his wives. In addition to piling on the pounds, Göring piled on title after title: along with Reichsmarschall and C-in-C of the ''Luftwaffe'', he was President of the Reichstag, President of the Prussian Council, director of the Four-Year-Plan (largely putting him in control of the economy until Speer took over in 1942), Reich Master of the Forest and Hunt, and countless other offices. He had a sadistic sense of humor (usually directed at Jews) and was the original founder of the Gestapo. Because of the complete failure of the Luftwaffe pilots in the Battle of Britain, he was gradually Kicked Upstairs for his incompetence after 1940. His political career ended with a bang when Hitler stripped him of his power at the end of the war after sending a telegram asking to take command of the Reich. Arrested by the Allies after the German surrender, he was sentenced to death at Nuremberg, but took a Cyanide Pill (that a guard most likely snuck to him) the night before his execution. He was diagnosed as a sociopath during the Nuremberg Trials, in contrast to most other Nazis who were mentally sound and Just Following Orders. Rumor has it that Sweden was spared from occupation (when neighboring states came under German military occupation) because his late wife was a Swedenote .
- During his youth, Göring's mother said that he would "grow up to be a great man or a great criminal".
- Göring's half-brother Albert (who was also likely half-Jewish) opposed Nazi ideals and was in the German Resistance. He was also the very definition of Crazy Awesome for the ways he helped Jews and dissidents, banking on his family connections. Goering was furious over it, but protected him nonetheless.
- Göring claimed just before the war that the Ruhr Metropolitan Area (Germany's largest single industrial center and the source of most of the 'coking' coal continental Europe used to make steel) would not be hit by a single bomb; if it did, he would change his name to Meier (saying you want "to be called Meier" is a German idiom to express that something is impossible) and also that he would eat his hat. After the United States entered the war, however, the Allies started attacking German cities with thousands of bombers that the Luftwaffe became increasingly unable to defend against. Göring made frequent tours of the devastated cities, where cynical civilians would call out "Hello, Mr. Meier! How's your hat?"
- Göring, being the head of the Luftwaffe that was the most visible manifestation of the Nazis to the British population due to the Blitz, was the major target of British propaganda and satire during the war. This concentrated mockery was so effective that Göring often remains thought of as a stupid, slapdash, incompetent Fat Bastard who couldn't tie his own shoelaces even today—it's often forgotten that prior to this propaganda offensive, he was widely feared as a dashing war hero and thought of as a strategic genius. He displayed an IQ of 138 during the psychological examinations prior to the Nuremberg Trial. In fact, the Allies decision to forcibly ween him from his drugs and force him to lose weight during the trial only resulted in him getting a clear mind for once and becoming even more competent at arranging his own defense and trying to make a mockery of the proceedings.
- The propaganda raised around him both by Anglophones and civilian Germans themselves (this was one of the few things over which the two peoples at war fully agreed) ran mostly around his "unmanly" or "diva-like" attitude (the decorations and titles of a Miles Gloriosus, his obsession for theatrical appearance, from his luxury cars to his tailored uniforms), but in practice he held tremendous power in the State structure. Beside his unique position as Deputy Führer, he also held absolute power over the greatest conglomerate of iron and steel industry in the Reich and possibly the largest company under a single leader in the entire world by 1941, the Hermann-Görings-Werke, and by absorption of the captured Czech and Soviet factories he became the greatest steel baron in history. Above the likes of Henry Clay Frick, Andrew Carnegie, Charles M. Schwab or any other business magnate in popular culture. He was not quite the man to be trifled with.
- Joseph Goebbels: Minister of Media and Public Enlightenment, he basically invented modern propaganda. The original spin-doctor, Goebbels was fanatically devoted to Hitler and was ultimately appointed his successor as head of government. He was obsessed with the "Aryan race" and envied them, since he was a short black-haired man who was unable to fight on the front lines as a youth because of his limp. He compensated for this with his charisma, and after the Red Army destroyed Army Group B and liberated Caucasia and eastern Ukraine, in early 1943 he whipped up Germany and occupied Europe both into a frenzy against the Soviets by playing upon anticommunist, anti-Slavic, and anti-Asian sentiment. Goebbels was known for his slick and charming personality (he dated several film stars), and for being among the few intellectuals in the Nazi Party (Alfred Rosenberg (see below) was another). He was also a devoted family man and model father. note After Hitler committed suicide in 1945, Goebbels succeeded him as Chancellor of Germany and reigned for thirty hours before he shot his wife and then himself. His wife had previously killed their six children, as they had agreed, despite several offers (including from Albert Speer) to take them to safety in the west beforehand.
- Of all the speeches he gave during his career, Goebbels' most famous one was the Sportpalast Speech. It was given on February 18, 1943, three weeks after the defeat in Stalingrad. This speech was the first acknowledgement by the Nazi leadership that Germany was facing serious problems on all fronts. Perhaps the most infamous bit about his speech was his asking "Wollt ihr den totalen Krieg?" (Do you want total war?) To which nearly everyone in the audience jumped to their feet, raised their arms in salute, and cheered. A common belief today is that all of the people in the audience during that speech were carefully selected by the Nazis. This probably isn't true, as people who were there have written about how scary it was being surrounded by people cheering for total war. Of course, this knowledge serves as even stronger Nightmare Fuel, because it wasn't propaganda. Goebbels actually did convince all those people that they wanted total war.
- During the late 1920s, he was to run against Hitler in the election for the presidency of the NSDAP and therefore might have become the Führer, but his wife (a fanatic admirer of Hitler) convinced him to retreat and leave Hitler to win.
- Goebbels's actual impact on the military side of things was rather small, however, besides a rant in the Fuehrerbunker that bullied Jodl and Krebs out of seeking surrender for another few hours. However, he did manage to suck 178,000 soldiers (i.e. almost 5% of the total, though many of these were of course logistics troops and the war was hopelessly lost anyway) away from the front lines when they were desperately needed in order to act as extras in his magnum opus propaganda film Kolberg (which can be seen on YouTube). He considered the movie so important to German morale that when Soviet troops captured Kolberg in real life, he ordered the news suppressed so as not to spoil Kolberg's release.
- Heinrich Himmler: Reichsführer of the SS and second-in-command to Hitler, he controlled the concentration camps, Gestapo, and the SS (Schutzstaffel). Hitler considered him his most loyal and competent henchman, and Himmler's decision to negotiate (unsuccessfully) with the Allies was one of the things that drove Hitler to consider suicide. One of the younger Nazis, he started out as a nerdy chicken breeder who carried the swastika flag during rallies. He has always been somewhat of a paradox for both historians and psychologists; despite damning millions to the gas chambers, and planning the further butchery and enslavement of tens if not hundreds of millions, Himmler hated the sight of blood - he repeatedly forced himself to watch recordings of the massacres he had ordered, and fainted in horror. However, despite this personal disgust for the realities of what he was ordering, he remained the key player of many of Nazi Germany's most evil crimes, in particular The Holocaust, painting the mass murders as "heroic" and "necessary" actions that would prove the heroism of the SS; he was also a highly intelligent bureaucrat and organizer, one of the reasons the SS was able to elevate itself into an elaborate and sophisticated State-Within-A-State, and helped to organize Nazi Party machinery in the twenties and thirties. Creepily enough, Himmler looked more like an amiable nerd than the head of the most terrifying armed forces in history. Captured in 1945, he killed himself before he could be questioned (an event witnessed firsthand by famed British cartoonist Carl Giles and Dutch comedian Rijk de Gooijer).
- Also despite being one of the primary ideological driving forces of the Third Reich's crimes, whose belief in the paramount divinity of "Germanic" blood led him to justify the genocide and enslavement of tens of millions of innocents (as well as the planned total enslavement and eventual genocide of the entire population of Poland, Russia and pretty much all of Eastern Europe) in an effort to "protect" this blood, he was one of the first individuals to throw these ideals out the window the moment it suited him. For example, when the war started to go downhill for Germany, he justified and even applauded the enlistment of Slavs, Asians, Muslims and even Indians in the SS, despite all four being very much part of the "untermensch" to the Nazis, his view of loyalty to the Fuhrer being an ultimate virtue was abandoned when it became clear Hitler would not give in, thus Himmler abandoned ship and tried to negotiate for peace and his own protection with the British, and finally in what must be the most sickening display of cowardice he tried to better his position during these "negotiations" by cheerfully telling a representative of the World Jewish Congress that after everything he had done, he wanted to "bury the hatchet" with the Jews by trading the lives of thousands of concentration camp inmates for guarantees he would be spared. In short, the death, misery, and suffering he had knowingly inflicted had all been for a delusional ideology which he cared about less than saving his own neck.
- There is some evidence that even he thought The Holocaust was taking things too far (though he favoured deporting the Jews to Madagascar, which if it were even possible would probably have resulted in a famine that hundreds of thousands, if not millions, would have died in) and compared the early instances of mass murder by SS death squads to the excesses of Bolshevik Russia (ie. "barbaric" and "uncivilised"). Of course, Himmler dealt with Hitler pushing it forward by throwing himself into planning the Final Solution and engaging in Double Speak with his underlings and himself, and basically trying to justify his actions with Insane Troll Logic and extreme Necessarily Evil arguments. By the end of the war, this self-inflicted madness along with every country on Earth wanting him, personally, to hang (since, as the architect of The Holocaust, he was arguably the most hated Nazi of all, even more than Hitler), his crazy behaviour towards the end (apart from the above crazy deals, there are- admittedly unproven- testaments that he kept furniture made from human flesh- maybe or not from Jewish Holocaust victims- in his attic) might be best understood as a lengthy Villainous B.S.O.D..
- By the beginning of 1945, it was clear to much of the Nazi inner circle that the war had been lost. Here, Himmler determined that he would be in a better position to negotiate with the Allies, thinking (very misguidedly) that the Allies intended to keep the Nazi state and the SS intact in order to preserve order. He attempted to surrender on behalf of Nazi Germany to the Western Allies, but keep fighting the Soviets. Naturally, General Eisenhower and the SHAEF wanted nothing to do with him. Once Hitler learned of this betrayal, he ordered Himmler stripped of all his offices. Nevertheless, after Hitler's death, Himmler showed up to offer his services to Admiral Dönitz and the new government. They naturally turned him away. Now labelled a wanted war criminal, Himmler wandered around the defeated German countryside until he was picked up by a British patrol and placed in an internment camp with other German soldiers, where he soon committed suicide.
- Despite his nerdy appearance and manners throughout his adult life, he was an amateur boxer during his late teenage years. For a man rejected from World War I combat service for being too frail and non-athletic, it was a rather weird choice...
- Ernst Röhm: Leader of the SA (Sturmabteilung), known as the Brownshirts and a key assistant in Hitler's takeover. He was big and fat, a tough ex-military man who liked young boys. Hitler and Röhm had been extremely close prior to the Nazi seizure of power (so much so that Röhm was the only top-Nazi who openly and freely addressed Hitler by his first name Adolf, rather than his title of Führer), but they fell out soon afterwards. Röhm advocated a "second revolution" to purge Germany of its traditional power structures, and grew disillusioned with Hitler for courting military and industrial leaders instead. It didn't help that Röhm showed an discomforting independent streak... he openly criticized Hitler, clashed with Himmler and Göring and demanded the SA remain independent of government control - unless Hitler consolidated the SA, SS and Wehrmacht into a single Defense Ministry under his command. Attempting to compromise, Hitler made Röhm a Minister Without Portfolio,note , an arrangement which only increased acrimony on both sides.
Though Hitler considered Röhm's rhetoric a nuisance and his homosexuality an embarrassment to the party and his conservative allies often implored him in strong language to get the SA under control, he still refrained for quite some time to move against Röhm, because he still held their old friendship in high regard, strained as it might have been. It was first when Göring, Goebbels, Himmler, and Heydrich allied to get of Röhm, who they all saw as their most dangerous rival, and through several meetings where they presented evidence, quite a bit of it fabricated, to Hitler that Röhm and the rest of the SA leadership were planning to overthrow him, they managed to convince him that he had to act. This resulted in the Night of the Long Knives in 1934, were Hitler personally ordered Röhm arrested and executed along with much of the SA leadership. In a last gesture pertaining to their old friendship, Hitler offered Röhm the option of suicide instead of execution, but Röhm's response to that offer was to defiantly challenge Hitler to personally come to his cell and finish the work himself. He was then shot by SS-officers Eicke and Lippert (both to raise to General rank during WWII). His successor, Viktor Lutze, was an obsequious Yes-Man under whom the SA became marginalized.
- Albert Speer: Hitler's only real friend and the Anti-Villain of Nazi Germany, at least according to Speer himself, and for for a number of reasons his claims need to be scrutinized a lot more than they traditionally have been. Supposedly, he was drawn to the Nazi regime because of his friendship with Hitler, and not because he was a fanatical racist like the others. He was also known as "the Nazi who apologized", and many saw him as the only sane man in the Nazi inner circle - In fact, according to some surviving documents, he was the only member of Hitler's government that was going to keep his Minister position had Operation Valkyrie succeeded in overthrowing Hitler. The fact that his name was followed by a question mark and a note saying that he would only be approached after Hitler's death was what saved his life. Incredibly efficient at what he did (and some, including Speer's own sons, say there was Ho Yay between him and Hitler), Speer rose in power during World War II and became first the chief architect - his grand plans for the future monuments for a remade Berlin ("Welthauptstadt Germania") appealed greatly to Hitler - and later Minister of Armaments. Speer's ministry replaced Todt's Organisation Todt but in doing so only ended up controlling about half the armaments industry - the Four Year Plan Organisation (subordinated to the Luftwaffe) controlled the other after but saw the wisdom of cooperating with Speer. Speer has often been credit with incredible managerial feats in increasing armaments and ammunition production, but in reality he mostly reaped the benefits of a decade-long series of programmes to gear the Germany economy to War Production. In the end, he refused to carry out Hitler's order to raze Germany's infrastructure and industries countryside so nothing would be left for the Allies — or, for that matter, the Germans — so he abandoned him. Hitler let him live. While most historians agree that he almost certainly knew about The Holocaust and figured where not to look and what not to ask, Speer was responsible for exploiting French and Soviet POW and French workers by employing them as slave labor in his factories, many of whom died due to less-than-pleasant working conditions. He did try to ensure the workers at at least one such factory (Mittlewerk) were in good enough shape to perform the labor by ordering better conditions for the workers and the construction of the above-ground Dora camp. In spite of these changes, half of the workers at Mittelwerk eventually died. Following Nuremberg, he served a twenty year long prison sentence in Spandau, then was released. He died of a stroke while finishing up a post-war interview (and heading to another one) in 1981.
- All that's left of Speer's work today are some lampposts, a few concrete cylinders (built to test if the marshy terrain of Berlin can support the weight of Hitler's proposed Volkshalle—it can't), and the plans for the reconstruction of bombed German cities in case of defeat (the man had the foresight to realize that post-WWII cities would be automobile-based, and planned accordingly—which would explain why German cities are much more car-friendly than those of the countries around it).
- Speer was a bit more liberal than the rest of the Nazi leadership. In 1943, after taking over as Armaments Minister, he proposed that Germany could ease its home manpower shortages by employing women in factories, something the Allies (especially the Americans) had already done. The Nazis refused, believing the role of "Kinder, Küche, Kirche" (children, kitchen, church)note .
- Rudolf Hess: The first Deputy Führer and one of the original Nazis. Even though he was originally meant to be Hitler's successor, he gradually faded away as more ambitious men like Goering and Himmler took his place. Hess was an oddball of a Nazi who was obsessed with astronomy, astrology, organic gardening and animal welfare. Unfortunately, he was also the proponent of aggressive German expansion eastwards at the expense of the Slavs - it was actually him who introduced the idea to Hitler. He had the strange idea of flying a fighter plane on his own to the UK to try and negotiate peace with the British in 1941. The British weren't interested in this at all and kept him in solitary confinement for the rest of the war. The other Nazis claimed he had gone completely off his rocker (which was true)note After the war, he spent the rest of his life at Spandau Prison, where he remained alone for last 21 years of his life after the release or death of everyone else (at that point, most of the guards took pity on "the Loneliest Man on Earth" and let him have free access to the entire prison and even took him outside to dinner). Committed suicide in 1987 at the ripe old age of 93. His relatives have advanced the conspiracy theory that he was in fact murdered by the SAS, which has almost no evidence behind it. His gravesite in the town of Wunsiedel became a Mecca for Neo-Nazis, so in 2011 the Wunsiedel authorities refused to extend the lease on the plot. With the consent of his relatives, his body was exhumed, cremated, scattered at sea, and the gravestone destroyed.
- Fun fact: you wouldn't think it by looking at him, but the guy fought bravely in World War I, won the Iron Cross 2nd class and was wounded several times. He even briefly served as a fighter pilot, but never saw combat.
- Martin Bormann: Private secretary of Hitler and unofficially one of the most powerful men in the Third Reich. He controlled all access to Hitler and oversaw all information that came to and from the Führerbunker, giving him enormous power. He was widely feared and hated amongst other leading Nazis, since Hitler had generally given him the role of keeping their ambitions and power-grabbing in check. Strangely, even the SS leaders were scared of the bullying Bormann; he once had a good rant at Himmler down the phone for accidentally hinting that the Jews were not merely being "transported" (Himmler phoned Bormann to report that 40,000 Jews had been exterminated; Bormann proceeded to rebuke (shout and scream publicly over the phone at) Himmler for using the word "exterminated" and, after forcing an apology out of the guy, told Himmler to never phone him on the matter again and to use couriers to report on the Final Solution in future). As the war reached its end, Bormann had near-total control over Hitler, but fled after his boss's suicide and disappeared. He was sentenced to death in absentia at the Nuremberg Trials. It was rumored for many years that he had successfully escaped to South America, but in 1998 a skull found in Berlin was confirmed as his. Reputedly, Bormann was an awful and boorish character (very much unlike stiff and proud Prussian officers or arrogant Nazi politicians) the kind who whistled like one does after a dog to summon his wife (who had borne him 10 children).
- Joachim von Ribbentrop: The Foreign Minister. He acted as an ambassador to London before the war, intending to steer them towards opposing the Soviet Union rather than scrutinizing German territorial disputes. Lots of Brits were outraged when he gave the Nazi salute to George VI. Because Ribbentrop was ambassador to Britain, the news media of the time tended to portray him as one of the major faces of Nazi Germany (as opposed to one of the generals in Germany no one had ever heard of, who were actively building up the Nazi state). In reality, Ribbentrop was little more than a mouthpiece for Hitler, and incredibly unskilled as a diplomat. Every notable person who ever worked with Ribbentrop - from the Allies, the Nazi command staff, even his own subordinates - each gave the same description of Ribbentrop with alarming consistency: pompous, conceitednote , erratic, and surprisingly dumb. When The BBC interviewed surviving diplomats from the era for their program The Nazis: A Warning from History, without exception, every single interviewee expressed a passionate and undiminished-by-the-years loathing of him.
- The Nuremberg trials were also when whatever previous assumptions the Allies had about Ribbentrop's intelligence wore off. One oft-quoted exchange was when the prosecution accused Ribbentrop that he had aggressively threatened Czechoslovakia during the Munich Agreement, which he flatly denied. The prosecutor asked what further pressure he could possibly have put on the head of a country beyond threatening to march in the German army in overwhelming strength, and bomb their capital with the Luftwaffe. Ribbentrop's actual reply was "war, for instance". The prosecution was so baffled by Ribbentrop's overall stupidity that they openly questioned his subordinates how such an obviously unqualified man was made a high official, to which they explained that he was little more than a rubber stamp for foreign policy Hitler himself actually drafted. Ironically, according to an army psychologist present at Nuremberg, his IQ was 129 - one point higher than Speer's.
- Justice Robert H. Jackson, the American Chief Prosecutor, asked Mr. Ribbentrop if he would take responsibility for the foreign policy of the Third Reich during his tenure. Mr. Ribbentrop responded by saying that he didn't know what the foreign policy was. To be fair to Ribbentrop, the reason for this is that the Third Reich didn't really have a foreign policy- or rather, the foreign policy was basically whatever Hitler wanted it to be. Hitler was a lazy dictator in most respects, but he took personal command of this particular area and didn't always let others know what he was planning, to the extent that he was planning anything, and at least liked to appear moderate when it suited him at times- he didn't exactly want to advertise to his military advisors (not to the sane ones, anyway) that he was hoping to set off a major European war- at least when Germany was strong enough to win one- because he thought War Is Glorious, plus he knew that a level of secrecy give him the aura of a genius thinking on a different level than everybody else, and that was something he tried to cultivate.
- One of his biggest blunders was when he nearly hit King George V: he made the "Heil, Hitler!" salute as the king walked forward to shake his hand. He compounded the damage by insisting that, henceforward, all German diplomats were to greet foreign heads of state with the fascist salute, and the latter would have to return it. It wasn't until Hitler was pointed out that, according to those rules, he would have to return the Communist clenched fist salute if the Soviet Ambassador gave it, that the crisis was solved.
- Alfred Rosenberg: One of the few intellectual Nazis, and the author of many of Hitler's infamous creeds. Notably, he rejected Christianity and conspired to replace it with "Positive Christianity", which was intended to be transitional to a Nazi-Pagan-ish faith. Rosenberg became Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories following the invasion of Russia, directing the creation of Nazi slave colonies on Soviet soil. Not only violently anti-communist, he was responsible for the racial categorization in the Reich. Nowadays, his mostly rational approach to the Reich's ideology made him something of a Forgotten Trope, when it comes to Nazi racial philosophy modern popular culture is far more interested in the ramblings of Julius Streicher and when it comes to actual running of things in, like, his own province, occupation of the Russian lands, far more interested in the terror over civilians and partisans performed by the SS and Wehrmacht. The more politically-minded and opportunistic Hitler dismissed Rosenberg's works as "nonsense" and they probably weren't widely read (widely sold, but not widely read), but Rosenberg's philosophy definitely had a much bigger impact on Nazi ideology (and, early on, Hitler himself- when he first started orating, Hitler was regarded by some as basically a mouthpiece for Rosenberg's views, and there is evidence that this was true) than Hitler either admitted or, perhaps, realized. Captured by the Allies as the war ended, he was found guilty of crimes against peace and initiating wars of aggression, and hanged. He and Hermann Göring were born on the same day (12 January 1893), and if Göring hadn't committed suicide before his execution, they would have died the same day too. Despite his Jewish-sounding name, his family were Baltic-Germans of Estonian and Latvian stock.
- Christian Weber: A former friend and bodyguard of Hitler himself during the turbulent 1920s, who began his career as a humble stable-boy, worked lowly jobs like tavern guard and later achieved a comfortable situation as a horse trader. Raised by the Party to the dignity of Chairman of Munich City Council and practically dictator of Munich after 1933, used the job to enrich himself by appropriating hotels, transport companies, gas stations and horse breeding stables. Quite the opposite of the common image of ruthless, efficient and robotic Nazi officials, he was a jolly, tremendously fat man in the 350lbs range, a Big Eater and just as good a drinker of beer and wine and passionate womanizer. He also shocked the Bavarian conservative public by mounting ever since 1937 a colourful carnival named "The Night Of The Amazons", complete with parades, floats and nude dancers quite like the modern Rio Carnival, but maybe not so appropriate for people 3 generations back.
- Hermann Rauschning: Conservative politician and World War I veteran, he denounced the newly-formed Republic of Poland and its persecution of Ethnic Germans and later joined the NSDAP and raised to power in 1933 as President of the Danzig Senate (as Danzig was not 100% part of either Germany of Poland, this made him the de facto head of state). Later took part in political in-fighting among the furiously anti-Polish Nazis and "constitutionalist" Philo-Polish people and was forced to emigrate by 1936 to save himself from Nazi revenge. Although his political power was minor and provincial, he gained worldwide notoriety as an anti-Hitler mouthpiece by his writings (most renowned being Conversations With Hitler) in which he claimed to have heard from Hitler himself the plans for European conquest and domination, not very credible for someone who was not part of the inner circle of power. Gained US citizenship in 1941 and become a farmer for the next 40 years. Oft-quoted by pre-1990 historians and even more by former Communist state historians as a key witness to Nazi policies, despite his dubious credibility.
The Wehrmacht was the armed forces of the Reich created in 1935 to replace the Reichswehr of Weimar Germany. Its components were:
- the Heer (land forces)
- the Luftwaffe (air forces)
- the Kriegsmarine (sea forces)
- Franz Halder: Colonel-General, Chief of the General Staff, and responsible for the planning and supply of all Nazi Germany's military operations until 1942. Very, very bad at his job. Supplies some of the best/worst material for the 'Real Life' folder of Easy Logistics. A devoted Nazi, he basically ensured that Wehrmacht planning and logistics conformed completely with Hitler ideological expectations - up to and including the 'Commissar', 'Commando', and 'Foraging' regulations. These caused a certain amount of death for enemy civilians and POW such as the half million of the besieged city of Leningrad. Unfortunately for him, there could be no concealing his failure in Operation Typhoon given the tactical defeats and unprecedented strategic setback that laid them bare. After the stillbirth of operation Nordlicht and the stalling of operation Blau, Hitler removed him from his position in late 1942. Halder flirted with the German resistance and so ended up in Dachau concentration camp at the end of the war. Halder was protected from prosecution by the US Army, who hired him to head a team of former Wehrmacht officers who critiqued the US Army's 1952 iteration of tactical doctrine. Halder also worked for their historical research division and helped West Germany found the Bundeswehr in 1955.
- Walther von Brauchitsch: Field Marsall, Head of the Heer, and responsible for the planning and conduct of all Nazi Germany's military operations until 1942. Good at his job when he used his brain, but as a late convert to Nazism (in late 1940, after The Battle Of France) he didn't where it conflicted with what Hitler told him on account of the Führer principle meaning that Hitler was always right (even when he wasn't). Consistently tried to steer the course of Operation Typhoon towards Moscow, which brought him into conflict with Hitler. Dismissed by him when he was given a crack at it and failed spectacularly, having critically misjudged the strengh of both the Red Army and the Heer. Was not tried by the British in the postwar period as A) Britain's War office opposed all trials of military personnel for actions taken against civilians (this would set a precedent for their own indictment), B) the War Crimes against POW and civilians the German Army committed on his orders were not committed against any British nationals, and C) he was ill and expected to die soon anyway.
- Wilhelm Keitel: Field Marshal and head of the German High Command, and essentially a walking, talking rubber stamp for Hitler. He was called "the Chuckler" by other Nazis since his main task was to chuckle at Hitler's witty comments. He had the nickname of "Lakeitel", a play on the German word for "lackey" and also a reference to a children's toy: a donkey whose head, when its string was pulled, would bob up and down. He rarely opposed the Führer in his dealings with the military, though in his defence Germany's military situation was so poor after 1943 that it barely mattered whether he or anyone else did or not. He didn't even have the dignity to try and stand up for himself after the war; Albert Speer recorded in his memoirs that he overheard Keitel groveling before Grand Admiral Dönitz the exact same way he had before Hitler. He was sentenced to death by hanging at the Nuremberg trials, after being denied a request to be shot by firing squad (like a soldier).
- Alfred Jodl: General and Chief of Operations for the Wehrmacht. Poor Jodl had to deal with Hitler's attempts to micro-manage military operations as a way of countering the lack of operational 'vision' of mid-level commanders in the military heirarchy. These were not always successful, not least when Jodl made concerted (and sometimes successful) efforts to head off his more questionable ideas. English-speakers best known him as 'that guy who eagerly anticipated "the final German victory over England"' in mid-1940, only to be sorely disappointed. Among those injured in the July 20 bomb plot, he complained that no one had been more badly hurt than himself, yet Hitler still received more sympathy from party loyalists. He was executed at Nuremberg, then posthumously acquitted, then re-found guilty. His death penalty is still considered controversial, given that his counterparts in the airforce and navy managed to avoid it, but on the other hand as operations chief he did bear some measure of responsibility for ground troops' extrajudicial killings of partisans, civilians, and POW.
- Erwin Rommel: The original Magnificent Bastard and the Worthy Opponent of the British in World War II. He may only have been in the top twenty of Germany's best tactical commanders, all the rest of whom had been employed in Barbarossa. But he was undoubtedly the Wehrmacht's best human being in a senior command position. He was one of the less enthusiastic supporters of the Nazis regime and was not of Blue Blood, two reasons for which the Generals of the Army High Command weren't keen on him. Later on he became very critical of the Nazi regime and disillusioned with Hitler. Although he was incredibly loyal to Germany he refused all orders to kill prisoners of war and treated them fairly. Nobody from his Afrika Korps was ever accused of war crimes, probably because of his influence. Orders to kill any Jews on sight in all theaters of his command were defiantly ignored. He did, however, even after becoming disillusioned, work very hard to make the coast of France deadly to the invading Allies. He was forced to commit suicide in 1944 after being implicated in a plot to assassinate Hitler. The general consensus among many historians is that he at least knew of it, even if he had no direct involvement. His reputation as a general was probably inflated as a consequence of the trope America Won World War II, however, as he was the most famous German general to consistently fight the non-Soviet Allied troops. He was never actually a member of the Nazi party and is remembered positively in Germany and the rest of the world, and there was a German destroyer named after him (which was decommissioned after 30 years of service). In addition, Rommel is the only German field marshal of the war to have a museum dedicated to him, along with his own page. Note that members of the Wehrmacht weren't allowed to affiliate with a political party, so it's not at all unusual he wasn't a member of the Nazi party. Of course, that did not stop soldiers who did believe in Nazi ideology from joining. Rommel, however, was critical of Hitler's policies.
- Heinz Guderian: The British Army Captain Basil Liddel Hart played a key role in 'rehabilitating' many senior Wehrmacht personnel after the war, Guderian and von Manstein being the most prominent of these. In Heinz Guderian's post-war memoirs, which were promoted by Captain Hart, he portrayed himself as a tactical genius who had used Captain Hart's pre-war academic papers and worked with von Manstein to invent 'Blitzkrieg'. In reality Guderian had been a very minor figure before the war and his Operational performance was in fact extremely dubious. Moreover Hart's work was merely taken into consideration alongside Tukhachevsky's and Leclerc's rather than being used wholesale like J.F.C. Fuller's theories were. Before the war Fuller had been Britain's great pioneer of motorised warfare, but Hart's self-promotion and praise from Guderian and Manstein caused him to be regarded as 'the British Guderian' in the 1950s. That said, Guderian really did provide useful insights into how tanks could be used more efficiently in combat. Most importantly this included an appreciation of truck-towed artillery, which JFC Fuller had wanted to discard in favour of self-propelled pieces.
During the war itself Guderian proved a decent battlefield commander but was soon promoted to a position above his talents by seeking both glory and Hitler's approval. He performed poorly as a mid-level commander when commanding c.200,000 troops in the Central Front (Army Group Middle) of the Eastern Theatre, his Panzer Army taking the worst losses in the whole theatre during Operation Barbarossa and Operation Typhoon. Had a very thorny relationship with his peers because of his constant attempts to make himself look good at the expense of both his own men and those of his fellow commanders. He had joined the German Army back when it meant working for the Kaiser but was a career-minded officer who remained loyal to Germany and his most senior superiors, whoever they were. Many traditional Prussian generals disobeyed orders on a regular basis; Guderian disobeyed them snidely and with worse-than-average results for the conduct of German military operationsnote . Having continued trying to advance long after his superiors (von Bock, Halder) had ordered him to stop during Operation Typhoon, in December 1941 he ordered his ill-clothed troops to retreat through fierce blizzards in defiance of Hitler's direct order for them to seek shelter in captured villages (the 'Stand Fast' order, which saved Army Group Centre from making a doomed-to-fail attempt to retreat and thus being annihilated during the Soviet Winter Counter-Offensive). Hitler removed him from field command for doing so, but because Hitler liked Guderian so much he gave the man an important position on the General Staff instead.
Guderian opposed assassination attempts against Hitler (or at least, he later claimed, ones that wouldn't go all the way and root out the rest of the Nazi leadership) and presided over the trials of conspirators who actually did try to kill Hitler in the 20th July (1944) Assassination Plot, finding them guilty of treason and sentencing them to death. Despite taking great care to appear competent and agreeable to Hitler he later claimed that he openly argued with Hitler on many occasions, claiming that he had once made his points so passionately that the Führer nearly struck him. Albert Speer's account of that meeting is very different, with Guderian being about to strike (Speer and Guderian were friends, so Speer wasn't out to make Guderian look bad by saying that in his own memoirs). At Nuremberg, the Poles and Soviets wanted Guderian put on trial for ordering his troops to indirectly kill POW and civilians (by stealing their clothes, food, and shelter and leaving them to die), but the US declared that he had only acted professionally and released him with no charges; upon his release in 1953, NATO immediately employed him to advise on the re-armament of West Germany. The official NATO line was that the dropping of all charges against him and their desire to create a German military were entirely co-incidental, but East Germany played the release and employment of Guderian and Manstein to the hilt when portraying The West as being in-league with the Nazis.
- Guderian's son, Heinz-Günther, was a junior officer in the Wehrmacht and went on to a long and distinguished service in the Bundeswehr (retiring with the rank of major-general).
- Erich von Manstein: If Guderian was one of Germany's top five most influential motorised warfare theorists and Rommel one of Germany's top twenty tactical geniuses, then Manstein was one of Germany's top five Masters of Operations/Campaigns. He developed his own plan for the Ardennes offensive which was chosen for further development and implementation by Hitler, which knocked France out of the war in 6 weeks. He served as a Corps Commander with the Fourth Panzer Army, as part of Army Group North, and so helped besiege the city of Leningrad in September 1941. Having lost most of his tanks, his corps was incorporated into the 11th Infantry Army and given Super-Heavy Artillery to break the Siege of Sevastopol. Having done so, in August 1942 he was posted back to Army Group North to attempt to cut Leningrad's lifeline through Lake Ladoga in Operation Nordlicht. After the encirclement of Paulus' 6th Army at Stalingrad in November 1942, Manstein was charged with releiving them using the forces of the newly created Army Group Don and failed, largely due to the weakness of the scratch-forces at hand and the strength of Vatutin's defenses around the pocket. He later stabilised the chaotic and fleeing southern front of the eastern theatre, preventing the Soviets from reaching the western Ukraine by having panzer forces diverted from Army Groups Centre and North to launch a counter-offensive concurrently alongside Hermann Hoth's Third Panzer Army in northern Ukraine.
Manstein went on to take charge of half the forces employed in the July 1943 Zitadelle offensive, again alongside Hoth, which failed and together with Hoth played a prominent role in damage control during the Soviet Summer-Fall Offensives. Though he advocated and implemented sacrifices of territory for time and German lives, including the implementation of scorched-earth retreats, Germany's economic needs compelled his forces to attempt to hold central Ukraine despite their questionable ability to do so. He was ultimately outfoxed by Konstantin Rokossovsky, and in February-April 1944 almost all of his troops were trapped in two pockets around Korsun and Uman in the Dnepr Bend of the central Ukraine. Though some succeeded in breaking out, the panzerwaffe never recovered and Manstein was fired by Hitler. This had apparently been a long time coming given just how fiercely the two had argued about the merits of 'sacrificing space for time' versus 'holding vital economic assets', but it also worked to Manstein's personal advantage as he could not be associated with any more defeats.
In December 1941, Field Marshal Keitel offered his resignation from the position of Chief of the Armed Forces General Staff (OKW) under the condition of being replaced by nobody else than Manstein. Hitler declined. Keitel insisted two more times. In 1944, both Field Marshals Gunther von Kluge and Erwin Rommel said to Manstein "I am (also) Prepared to serve under your orders" and Field Marshal Fedor von Bock said that Manstein was Germany's last hope (seven days before Germany surrendered). In fact, high officers, such as Colonel General (later Field Marshal) Wolfram von Richthofen wanted him to be in charge of every Eastern Front. That so many distinguished generals would be happy to serve under him should serve as a testament to his ruthlessness and skill; Hitler's mistrust of any military man's ability to appreciate Germany's vital economic priorities meant that neither Manstein nor anyone else was ever given full control over German operations in The Eastern Theatre, perhaps speeding up Soviet victory by weeks or even months.
After the war the help Manstein gave to the SS in killing Jews and his troops' mistreatment of POW and civilians (which was par for the course in the Eastern Theatre and nothing especially nefarious by the standards of the Ostheer, it should be noted) came back to haunt him. Initially he was only called as a witness for the defense at Nuremberg, but the British decided to try him themselves after the Soviets demanded that he be put on trial for War crimes. Many British and Americans liked him and some actually contributed money to his defence fund. He was only found guilty of two and held accountable for seven of 17 charges, and sentenced to 12 years in jail. In 1953, when NATO finally agreed on the re-armament of West Germany given the ongoing costs of occupying that territory themselves and the (manpower) demands of the Korean War, he was released after only four years in prison and immediately employed by NATO to advise on the creation of the West German military (the Bundeswehr). Just two years later he shot to fame when Captain Sir Basil Liddel Hart promoted the English-language translation of Manstein's memoirs, which firmly established Manstein in the public mind as an honourable soldier and strategic genius who could have won the war for Germany if only Hitler had listened to his infallible advice. In East Germany he was demonised as an unrepentant Nazi who demonstrated The West's utter moral bankruptcy given its willingness to release Nazis from prison and make them rich and powerful in the name of stopping Communism. Manstein did not help counter this impression in West Germany or The West by his refusal to condemn or criticise Nazism in any way, not even The Holocaust - which often taken as a sign that Manstein truly was an unrepentant Nazi in all but name. Manstein is utterly controversial to this day in Germany: he is condemned for committing War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity, whilst at the same time revered for his abilities and his role in the creation of the Bundeswehr. He is seen as the 'Grandfather' of the modern German Bundeswehr.
- Regarding his politics, Manstein was very similar to his fellow generals. He was not particularly anti-Semitic (although he did associate Jews with Communists) but was anti-communist, anti-democratic, militaristic, and despite dabbling in politics he liked to think himself 'apolitical' (General Reichenau was disliked by many for joining the Nazi party before 1944). Like every Eastern Theatre generals bar one (General von Arnim) he helped SS Einsatgruppen and District Police and SS SSP Fs with all the information, transport, ammunition, food, and occasionally spare troops they needed to kill Jews and partisans - which the Army considered synonymous ("The Partisan is the Jew; the Jew is the Partisan", proclaimed Army Group Center's Rear-Area Security Chief). Manstein denied his involvement in War Crimes but executed 'anti-partisan' campaigns, executed Communist Party Officials and NKVD Commissars, and helped the Einsatzgruppen kill Jews just like every other General of his rank and position (except von Arnim). He thought of Hitler as a good politician, but barely passable in military matters and disliked Hitler's 'interference' in insisting that Manstein hold certain vital economic objectives. He was against assassination of Hitlernote , but received many visitors who suggested Manstein help with the coup and was generally polite towards them.
- Gerd von Rundstedt: Arguably Germany's best Operational-level commander, and certainly in the top five. The oldest man to serve in a senior command position during the war, von Runstedt was born into the ranks of Prussian aristocracy in 1875. In his late sixties during WWII, von Runstedt had been in German Army since 1892 (or more precisely, before Hitler was even in preschool). In his youth, Rundstedt was accepted to Germany's elite Kriegsakademie, an institution where only 160 new students were accepted annually and became part of the one of the mere four students who would actually graduate in his class. In 1940 he led the army into Southern Poland, with the SS close on his heels to massacre the 200,000 cripples and mentally ill people in Poland's asylums, and half-a-year later had his Crowning Moment of Awesome: leading the largest amount of German armour through the Ardennes forest to knock out France. After Operation Sea Lion was called off (where he would have had command of the lead forces), Rundstedt was put in charge of the occupation forces in France. The pinnacle of Rundstedt's career was undoubtedly his appointment to head Army Group South for Operation Barbarossa, a command with nearly a million combat troops and the mission of occupying Donbass within the month. Upon his appointment in early 1941, he scored major points by insisting that all communists, not just the Commisars attached to military units, were to be killed by his troops. Due to its insufficient strength and strong Soviet resistance (spearheaded by commanders such as Vatutin and Rokossovsky, then in junior command positions), Army Group South suffered the worst losses and made the least headway of the three Army Groups until Guderian's forces crawled south from Army Group Centre and turned the tide in the Kiev Offensive. Horribly weakened after four months of bloody combat, Rundstedt was ordered to use his mobile forces to try to take the Donbass in October 1941's Operation Typhoon. They took the chief city of Rostov-of-Don, but were soon surrounded by Soviet forces and threatened with annihilation. In defiance of Hitler's orders to hold the Donbass, and a heart attack, Rundstedt shepherded what was left of his Panzer divisions through a break-out and retreat. Despite admiring his abilities, Hitler had Rundstedt recalled for his insubordination (to what extent he was genuinely mad with Rundstedt versus merely having an image to uphold is anyone's guess) and given the relatively cushy job of building fortifications along the French coastline.
In his politics Runstedt was every bit the Prussian aristocrat. He was a proud nationalist and militarist, virulently anti-communist, and had contempt for Slavs and Jews and the usual menagerie of Inferior Races (Indians, Asians, Blacks, etcetc). He pushed the commanders of Army Group South's four German Armies (1st Panzer, 6th, 11th, 17th) to go well beyond the requirements mandated by the Commissar Order (killing NKVD Commissars and Communist Party officials) and kill all Communists of every description. The SS and Order Police were rather disappointed with his lack of progress, and so were right behind his forces at all times - the Jewish population of Kiev (40,000) was massacred just days after the city was taken (29-30 September). That said, the generally desperate supply situation of Army Group South meant that anti-Jewish action seems to have been confined to the major cities until early 1942 - well after Runstedt had been fired. Despite agreeing with Hitler and the Nazis on most political issues he was openly critical of some of Germany's strategic choices. In mid-1944 Runstedt was appointed to 'Commander-in-Chief West' (i.e. France) with Rommel as his subordinate, and Keitel asked Rundsedt what he could do to stop the Allied invasion of France - everyone but Runstedt and Rommel believed the real invasion would come at Calais and thus forbade the redeployment of German forces to Normandy. Rundstedt's response to Army Headquarters was "Make peace, you idiots!" After being forcibly retired just a month later and brought back again to command the western forces a couple of months after that, Rundstedt managed to pull off one last victory by repelling the Brits' late 1944 Operation Market Garden before he was relieved of command in March 1945. Still, he managed a last snark when his Soviet interrogators asked what he thought was the most decisive battle of the war; they apparently expected him to say "Blau/Stalingrad", but he replied "the Battle of Britain" - supposedly causing them to walk out.
- Albert Kesselring: Field Marshal of the Luftwaffe. Known as "Smiling Albert", he had his start in the air force as a balloon observer in the First World War. A somewhat overlooked general, he commanded Luftwaffe forces in the invasions of Poland, France, and was second to Goering in the Battle of Britain. A Combined-Arms warfare theorist, he had long held that speed was the key to victory, holding that battle-damaged tanks or aircraft should be abandoned in the field if waiting for their repair would result in delays. He was later appointed Commander-in-Chief South, putting him in charge of the entire Mediterranean Theater (making him Rommel's boss). After the fall of North Africa, Kesselring was charged with the defense of Italy. Creating a series of fortified lines across the hilly peninsula, and constantly enslaving or killing civilians in retaliation for partisan attacks in accordance with standard procedure (50:1 for every wounded and 100:1 for every dead German soldier), his forces were inexorably pushed northward but never shattered until the very end of the war. After his surrendernote , the Italians insisted that he be tried for his retaliatory killings of Italian Civilians - even though he had usually fulfilled his quotas through enslavement and not killing (killing only being standard procedure in Germany's eastern empire). Despite a firm commitment to not trying German War Criminals for actions taken against people other than British military personnel, Italian diplomatic pressure was too strong to be denied and so the British were effectively forced to try him. Kesselring defended himself by noting the killing of civilians had been entirely legal under Wehrmacht law at the time (which he was acting in accordance with, no less), and even claimed that it had been morally justified. During his time in prison he was even elected head of the Wehrmacht Veterans' Association as a form of protest against the trial of German military personnel for 'militarily/morally justifiable' actions (generally the killing of civilians, Undesirables, and POW) branded 'war crimes' (which historians agree did constitute war crimes) by non-Germans! Kesselring was convicted and sentenced to death by firing squad, note whereupon Winston Churchill and other people sympathetic to the German military lined up to praise "his honourable conduct against British soldiers" and denounce his sentence. The Italians had also just abolished the death penalty, regarding it as yet another horrid legacy of Mussolini's, and so refused to execute him. Shortly thereafter his sentence was commuted to life, and in 1952 the British (illegally) let him wander off during his unsupervised medical treatment (for throat cancer) and made no attempt to take him back into custody. This was an important step in strengthening the ties between the British and German military establishments, also generating no small amount of goodwill for Britain among Germany's hardcore nationalists and militarists in general.
- Erich Raeder: Grand Admiral, the first head of the Kriegsmarine. He served in combat posts during the First World War, taking part in the Battles of Doggy Bank and Jutland. In the meantime, dismissed Reinhard Heydrich from the Navy in 1931. When a second war was approaching, Hitler made him the first Grand Admiral since Alfred von Tirpitz. However, by midway through the war, his career had fallen apart. Hitler failed to comprehend how vital a large well-equipped fleet was in order to compete with the Royal Navy, and Raeder had only a fraction of the ships he needed when the war started (Hitler assured him there would not be a major war until 1945). The Kriegsmarine lost half the ships it committed to the invasion of Denmark and Norway and the following year, the Germans lost their prized flagship Bismarck on its maiden voyage. The surface fleet slowly withered away before being restricted to their homeports and moreover, was overshadowed by the success of the U-boat Force. In 1943, soon after the catastrophic defeat at Stalingrad, Raeder resigned from the Kriegsmarine.
- Karl Dönitz: Grand Admiral, master of the Kriegsmarine (his micro-management of the submarine campaign led to its failure because of the amount of traffic that the ULTRA people could decrypt) and eventually the last Nazi leader at the end of the war - Hitler passed on the office of President to Dönitz, while Josef Goebbels became Chancellor and Martin Bormann became Party Minister. This was not due to any great political success on Dönitz's part, but because Hitler believed that the Army, Air Force, and the SS had all betrayed him; the Navy held much less political power and consequently Dönitz received the position by default. After both Hitler and Goebbels had killed themselves and Bormann had fled (actually he died trying to flee Berlin, but this wasn't discovered for years), Dönitz signed the unconditional surrender. Received the mild sentence of 10 years in prison when Admiral Nimitz pointed out the Americans had also practiced unrestricted submarine warfare (against Japan), and even then quite a few Allied officers protested it. He remained a staunch racist until he died.
- Admiral Wilhelm Canaris: Head of the Abwehr, or German military intelligence, until 1944 when he was arrested, and shortly thereafter executed for his suspected involvement in the July Plot - he was, but he was already under house arrest when it was carried out. The Gestapo then uncovered details of numerous other plots he had masterminded but had failed, or were only on paper. Nicknamed "the Little Greek" due to his very short 5ft 3in stature and his (mistaken) claim he descended from Greek hero and Prime Minister Admiral Constantine Canaris. Of aristocratic and Catholic stock, he turned increasingly to his faith after the rise of Nazism, and had several contacts in the Vatican. Canaris held most of the typical Conservative prejudices to be expected of a man of his background (such as hardline anti-Marxism), but in the main held Hitler and his cronies in utter contempt, although he helped mastermind sabotage campaigns against Austria, Czechoslovakia and to a lesser extent, Poland as he still wished to restore Germany to greatness. He found himself in a unique position when he was placed in charge of German intelligence, and he was quick to fill its upper ranks with anti-Nazi sympathisers and members of the Resistance. Agents in the know were instructed to sabotage their own operations and made contacts with British intelligence and other Western agencies, with whom he shared vital information. Canaris was also responsible for encouraging Franco to act like a dick to Hitler, helping to keep Spain out of the war. Canaris may even helped foil an alleged plot by Hitler to kidnap The Pope, in retaliation for the arrest of Mussolini. His activities brought him into rivalry and conflict with Heydrich, who ran his own intelligence network... and who was a close personal friend of Canaris, whom he regarded both as a mentor and as the only Navy officer Heydrich did not dislike. The hypercompetent Heydrich was aware of what Canaris was up to but bided his time, while Canaris was increasingly horrified by Heydrich's callous, calculated brutality. Heydrich's assassination may have been done in part to preserve Canaris' position.
- Walter Model: One of Germany's top five Operational/Campaign-level commanders, Model was a hard-driving, antisocial, committed Nazi. A panzer commander in the early days of the Eastern Front, Model was promoted to general and later field marshal for his skill in blunting Soviet (and to a lesser extent, Western Allied) offensives - repeatedly turning potentially devastating defeats into mere ordinary ones. He became known as the Wehrmacht's best defensive tactician, earning the nickname "Hitler's Fireman" for being the Fuhrer's go-to general for trying to counter the Soviets' operational prowess. Most famously he was called upon to 'save' Army Group Center from Operation Bagration, but so devastatingly clever was Rokossovsky's operational plan that there was literally nothing that Model could do (with the few scraps of the Army Group that had survived the first phase) to stop him once it was underway. He was also known for being crude, blunt, to the point, and yet a notorious micromanager. Unwilling to delegate tasks as much as he should have, his bypassing of the military's bureaucracy and constant belittling of officers who didn't meet his 'standards' made him well-liked with his troops but limited his actual effectiveness as a leader. It also caused him to be despised by his subordinates and staff. This earned him the mixed compliment/insult of "Frontline Pig"note . Although all the top Wehrmacht Generals were fairly cozy with the Nazis, Model was even more so than most as he had personnel ties with the top leadership and including Hitler himself. Many who knew him insisted he was a zealous Nazi, and the SS units operating in his areas seem to have gotten a fair amount of help from his own units - though we can't say for sure how much help his troops gave them. He definitely had a close personal relationship with Hitler, though this relationship became strained at times (he once asked him "Mein Führer, who commands Ninth Army, you or I?"). He was considered by Hitler to be his best field marshal, and the only one he ever fully trusted. Consequently Hitler didn't countermand his command decisions as he did with other generals. Model, in turn, never objected to or interfered with massacres, deportations, and other atrocities committed by the SS in areas under his command and - as we mentioned - helped them out to some extent. Faced with total defeat, and indicted by the Soviets for war crimes, he committed suicide on April 21, 1945.
- Colonel-Count Claus von Stauffenberg: Leader of the July 20 Plot. A member of the aristocracy and a devout Catholic, he was initially enthusiastic about the Nazi regime, especially when Germany defeated France in under six weeks. However, his love for Germany started to override his support of Hitler once he started to become aware of the atrocities being committed on the Eastern Front. For speaking against Hitler, he was transferred to Tunisia (just a few months before the North Africa campaign ended) and was wounded in an air strike, after which he was brought back to Germany. In the following year, he made connections with Colonel Henning von Tresckow and other officers who sought to remove Hitler from power. Unlike the others, Stauffenberg knew it wasn't so much as removing Hitler from power that was the problem, but removing the entirety of the Nazi regime. He proposed using Operation Valkyrie, which was intended to maintain order in the event of a decapitation of government or a slave uprising (they carefully reworded it so that they could allow for the arrest of Nazi officials when implemented, a change which Hitler did not read). On July 20, 1944, Stauffenberg arrived in Hitler's Wolfschanze headquarters with a bomb in his briefcase. However, bad luck and bad timing doomed the operation and at the end of the day, Stauffenberg and many of the plotters were summarily executed. Today, they are proudly remembered as heroes in Germany for their brave effort to save Germany from total destruction.
- Friedrich Paulus: Commander of the Sixth Army during the Battle of Stalingrad. A somewhat weak-willed veteran of World War I (and served in the same infantry regiment as Erwin Rommel) turned committed Nazi he was particularly hampered during Case Blue by Hitler's orders. These changed the direction of the campaign, throwing his supply train into disarray and meaning that he was unable to properly concentrate his forces to bear on the Red Army. After the Soviets thought his forces had been lured sufficiently deeply into the city, they launched a counter-offensive and encircled his Sixth Army in a pocket centred upon it. He requested permission to break out, which his superiors were right to think would have been a chancy endeavour likely to fail, but Hitler refused and opted for a plan proposed by Göring to supply the Sixth Army by air while Field Marshal Manstein tried to punch a hole through to Paulus. While Manstein was competent, his improvised relief force was very weak and Vatutin's forces were able to throw them back without too much trouble. The Luftwaffe was also unable to give Paulus' forces subsistence-level supplies from the air, and when Vatutin launched another offensive operation to take the airfields they were using to supply Paulus the trickle of supplies dried up entirely. The Red Army approached Paulus twice with relatively good terms of surrender: medical care for his men, allowing them to keep their personal affects, and normal food rations. But Paulus refused to disobey Hitler's order to hold to the last man. On January 30, 1943 Hitler promoted Paulus to Field Marshal - a message to encourage him to commit suicide or die fighting with honour. Saying he would never kill himself (quoted to have added "for that Bohemian corporal!"), but still refusing to surrender, Paulus let his men be rooted out of their cellars one man at a time until his own bunker was assaulted, whereupon he gave himself up. His stubbornness came at a price: his men were so weakened by malnutrition and disease (particular the lice-spread disease Typhus, which was endemic in the crowded conditions of the bunkers) that most of them were dead within a month of being taken captive. He later became a member of the communist committee for a Free Germany.
- Ferdinand Schörner: A veteran of World War One, during which he won the Pour le merite medal, Germany's highest honor, Schörner began WWII as a Colonel in Poland and ended up the last Field Marshal created by Hitler, and the last Field Marshal of Germany. How did he get there, one might ask? By being a complete and utter psychopath. His troops nicknamed "Bloody Ferdinand" and "Schörner the Bloody", and he had well earned those nicknames, being even more enthusiastic than Hitler in his executions of deserters and enemy partisans. A committed Nazi, he rose to several high-ranking positions towards the end of the war (despite some rather notable fuckups, such as evacuating Sevastopol too late) and was named overall commander of the German Army in Hitler's political testament. His Army Group Centre was the last corps-sized German force to surrender in WWII, after he deserted his command and tried to flee to Austria. He was put on trial in West Germany and sentenced to just four and half years jail. He died in Munich in 1973, outliving Erich von Manstein by 23 days.
The Schutzstaffel, created in 1925 as Hitler's bodyguards, take more importance after the Night of the Long Knives and was the body tasked with keeping the concentration camps and exterminating the Jews. Had a military wing called the Waffen-SS.The Reichsfuehrer-SSnote was Heinrich Himmler during nearly all its existence.
- Reinhard Heydrich: Obergruppenführer and second-in-command in the SS and Deputy Governor ("Reich-Protector") of Bohemia and Moravia, he gave the order for the Final Solution and masterminded The Holocaust. He was also known as "The Hangman of Europe". Since his childhood, he was said to excel at anything he put his mind to—fencing, boxing, skiing, charming women, playing the violin, piloting airplanes, and organizing genocide. A total sociopath interested in only his own power, he was amazingly successful at elevating himself but whether he actually accomplished anything for the war effort is unclear; he was too busy raising his status. Supposedly part-Jewish despite being a blue-eyed and blond man (pretty much the only one in the Nazi leadership who looked anything like the "Aryan ideal"). He also had an unpleasant high-pitched voice, for which he was frequently bullied in his early years. He headed the Wannsee Conference, where he decided that all Jews in Europe were to be killed. When he was appointed Governor of Bohemia, he made plans for "Germanizing" parts of the Czech population and the ethnic cleansing of the remainder (medical teams were sent to all Czech schools, disguising the race tests as medical check-ups). In the war effort, Heydrich's sheer intelligence was so dangerous that the Allies made a huge effort to assassinate him; he was the only one of Hitler's murderous ministers they made an attempt to specifically kill. Heydrich never lived to see the full extent of his The Holocaust—his car was bombed by two Czech assassins with British training and assistance in 1942, and he died of blood poisoning in the hospital afterwards. Even on his deathbed, he was incapable of feeling empathy.
- Hitler openly called the dying Heydrich a moron for driving around without any protection whatsoever. The assassination of Heydrich took place in Prague, whose civilian population was punished. A letter, supposedly from one of the assassins was found in Lidice, which was later proven to be sent by a mere factory worker. But Karl Hermann Frank, Heydrich's successor, wanted brutal revenge on the Czech people and ordered the destruction of Lidice, and the village was burned down. The men were shot immediately; the women were shipped off to a concentration camp to slave in the brothels. Ten children considered as "Aryans" were sent into German families to be reeducated, the others were sent to the gas ovens of Chelmno. Only 17 of them survived.
- Heydrich despised everything amounting to ideology in the Reich and in 1942 he said to Walther Schellenberg: "This Jew extermination is pure stupidity, useless, and with more bad consequences for us than benefits, specially in times of war. Everybody keeps saying I am an evil monster, but this Jewish Final Solution was never my idea after all! And I personally never had any hatred for the Jews." He truly did not give a damn about anything, as long as he saw his power quest fulfilled.
- Heydrich gained the Ace Pilot title (which meant nothing in the perspective of a country where the top-scoring ace, Erich Hartmann, held 352 air kills) in an obsolete Bf 110 as a Major der Reserve of the Luftwaffe, strictly for fun. None of his military duties required him to fly combat missions. Only the direct written order of the Führer himself managed to retire him from frontline flying.
- A lesser known fact, from William Stevenson's A Man Called Intrepid: Heydrich had been trained since the mid-1920s as a signals (and cipher) officer in the Navy, knew a lot about cryptography and one of his assignments in the 1930s after being drawn in the SS was to improve the technology of the Enigma cipher machines. He and a team of military cryptographers did it by 1938.
- He never respected any man who did not live up to his very high standards, but held a particular respect for Admiral Wilhelm Canaris (who hated and undermined him all the time) and SS-Brigadier-General Walter Schellenberg, a very intelligent man whom he thought to be his equal.
- Canaris liked Heydrich well enough himself; he only came to fear and loath him after he came to realize what a monster he was dealing with (eg. in one case, finding out that Heydrich was dropping names to Josef Stalin round about the time of The Purge- names the Nazi's didn't like; Heydrich was trying to get Stalin to kill people for them). For his part, Heydrich knew fine and well that Canaris was secretly a leader of La Résistance and was quietly building a case against him at the time of his death (said case was one other reason Heydrich was assassinated), and didn't let the fact that he liked the man get in the way of plotting his death.
- Heydrich was noted for having an unusually high-pitched voice and a very distinctive laugh. Both traits was said to be a frequent source of embarrassment for him. Notably, he often went out of his way to avoid speaking publicly out of fear of becoming a laughing stock because of his voice. It probably didn't help that his strange way of laughing, combined with the fact that he was slightly cross-eyed, had earned him the unofficial and not very flattering nickname "The Goat" in his youth.
- Dr. Josef Mengele: "The Angel of Death". Dr. Mengele was infamous for the human medical experimentation he carried out in Auschwitz. He was a handsome and polite young man who always smiled and dressed nicely, and performed unspeakably horrifying medical experiments on the prisoners whom he didn't send to the gas chambers. He preferred to use children under five, and his specialties were injecting blue dyes into their eyes, dissecting their organs, sewing their limbs together, and making sex change operations. With no anesthesia or painkillers. There are two common misconceptions about Mengele: the first is that he was chief medical officer at Auschwitz and the mastermind of the Nazi medical experiments, and the second is that he was an actual "scientist" in any sense of the word. The grim irony is that despite all of the suffering Mengele caused (he personally killed at least 1,500 people... not through bombing or gas chambers but individually vivisecting most of them with his own hands), and despite how infamous his experiments would become in the world at large after the war... even other Nazi scientists later stated that Mengele's "experiments" had no scientific value of any kind whatsoever. There was no rational methodology being used on any level; he didn't even have control groups (junior high science classes were better organized). Escaped to Buenos Aires at the end of the war, where he lived a relatively affluent life performing back-street abortions. He managed to give Mossad the slip and died in Brazil in 1979, after having a stroke while swimming.
- Mengele was the living embodiment of the trope "Artistic License - Biology". One of his own colleagues went so far as to burn all the notes Mengele sent him, to emphatically make the point that they weren't scientifically conducted and absolutely pointless. Mengele only received his PhD in 1935 because he wrote a thesis on racial superiority... which was academically worthless, but the in-power Nazi party was impressed with. This leads back to the first misconception: other Nazi scientists were the ones actually "running" the research program, on things like "how to revive someone with hypothermia"... despicable experiments which involved freezing many prisoners to death, but which A - were conducted scientifically (albeit using human beings like lab rats) B - had some sort of rational objective. The reality is that Mengele... was basically a crazed grad student who only got promoted to "doctor" status for touting the party-line about racial superiority, that vivisected people on a daily basis simply to satisfy his own morbid curiosity... while off in another part of the camp the real head scientists were doing the actual research.
- While a lot of the "Nazi scientist" trope is supposed to be based on Mengele, i.e. that he mastered human cloning and would try to clone Hitler in Brazil... the reality is that even the other Nazi scientists thought he was utterly unqualified and simply The Butcher. He escaped to Buenos Aires and lived peacefully (although in fear of being captured by the Mossad) to old age until he died of a stroke while swimming. Apparently, he earned a living in Buenos Aires as "José", a shady doctor who performed illegal abortions.
- The image of Mengele as the prototypical Nazi scientist came from one basic source: his celebrity among Auschwitz prisoners. Holocaust survivor Oliver Lustig told it in detail: the millions of people sent to death usually did not meet face to face the executioners, those held for forced labor met the brutal SS guardsmen or their officers, if someone was subject to experiments he or she did not survive them. But there was one man who everyone knew, whom they had seen walking the camp, selecting those who would die, or those who would be taken to be dissected. Unlike his peers he did not shun celebrity and neither did celebrity shun him.
- Adolf Eichmann: "The Manager of The Holocaust". A strikingly normal guy but without doubt one of the scariest Nazis, he was completely obsessed with Jews from a young age and learned everything about them (including the Hebrew language). Head of the SS office dealing with the Jews, he was the one who organized and carried out the Final Solution. Eichmann was terrifyingly efficient at his work, sending trainloads upon trainloads to die in the gas chambers. As Germany was losing the war, Himmler gave a "no more gassing" order, which Eichmann promptly ignored and continued slaughtering Hungary's Jews until the Soviets invaded. He escaped to Argentina after the war, where he was finally captured by Israeli Mossad agents (Eichmann was of such high priority that Mossad agents did not want to capture Mengele when they had the chance, for fear of Eichmann escaping). He was smuggled to Israel, where he was tried for crimes against humanity, convicted, and executed (the only person ever executed by Israel's civil authorities) in 1962.
- Eichmann is the subject of Hannah Arendt's famous quote about "the banality of evil", meaning that evil people often look and act completely normal in everyday life (and not, as is frequently misinterpreted to her annoyance, that evil is not abnormal, or that any normal person can easily become evil). Arendt, a Jew and former student of Nazi sympathiser and philosopher Martin Heidegger, was critical of the trial (seeing it as Israel simply seeking murderous revenge rather than justice), but did get certain details of it wrong despite being in attendance (partly because she missed certain key moments of the trial, such as Eichmann's own testimonies), such as her claim that Eichmann didn't care about the Jews and saw himself as only doing his job (hence "banality of evil", though there were plenty of other Nazi's who fit her image of Eichmann well enough regardless). In reality, as stated, Eichmann was obsessed with the Jews all his life and Nazism was his ticket to put his obsessions to use.
- Ernst Kaltenbrunner: A lifelong fanatical Nazi, Kaltenbrunner trained as a lawyer before joining the Austrian Nazi Party and becoming one of its key players, becoming head of the Austrian SS in 1935. After Heydrich’s assassination in 1942, Kaltenbrunner was selected as his replacement as head of the Reichssicherheitshauptamt (RSHA) and the Gestapo. Huge, scarred, hot-tempered, a heavy drinker and an all-round scary guy who provoked fear in even other leading Nazis, the Austrian took command of the concentration camp system and executed the Final Solution with what was described as the brutal efficiency of a lawyer. As chief of the Gestapo, he directed the investigation into the failed July 20 plot to assassinate Hitler and soon became one of the Führer’s most trusted and powerful henchmen, even gaining direct access to the Nazi leader himself. After the war, he was put on trial for crimes against humanity by the Allies at Nuremberg the highest-ranking SS official to be tried - but completely failed to accept any responsibility for his crimes, denying knowledge of any orders he had given and even flat out stating at one point that he had “never killed anyone”. Nobody believed him. Kaltenbrunner was charged and sentenced to death by hanging in October 1946.
- Rudolf Höss (not to be confused with Rudolf Hess above): SS-Obersturmbannführer, and the first commandant of the Auschwitz concentration camp. He perfected the methods of genocide, introducing Zyklon B and crematoria. At the Nuremberg trials, Höss claimed to neither take pleasure in nor regret what he did. An American psychologist who examined him reported that Höss seemed utterly apathetic and openly admitted that 3 million people were murdered under his command at Auschwitz. Höss was so utterly matter-of-fact about it, reacting with detached and belated confusion at the shocked responses of the court, that he gave the psychologist the impression that it honestly would never have occurred to him that his actions were unusual if someone else hadn't pointed it out. The psychologist concluded that while Höss seemed intellectually normal, his almost robotic detachment from anything approaching a human emotional response was consistent with the profile of a certified Psychopath (in the strict medical sense of the term). He was sentenced to death by Polish authorities, and hanged at the place of the Auschwitz camp.
- During his trial, Höss admitted the conditions of a death camp (gassings, shootings, teeth removal, burnings) were hellish even for the executioners (which was why they forced Jews—the hapless Sonderkommandos—to do most of it instead).
- Heinrich “Gestapo” Müller: Career policeman and day-to-day head of the Gestapo, the Schützstaffel's secret police arm. Having made a name for himself during the Weimar Republic as a member of the Munich police force, Müller was notable in possessing little sign of an actual belief in National Socialism, only joining the Nazi Party in 1939 at Heinrich Himmler’s insistence and having actually opposed the Nazis and their activities in the early 1930s (he once referred to Hitler as “an Austrian draft-dodger”). He was effectively recruited to the Nazi cause by Reinhard Heydrich - who regarded the policeman as a Worthy Opponent - and proved to be an able and unceasing henchman in the Nazi repression machine, attending the Wannsee Conference and leading the underhanded fight against Nazism’s ever-growing list of undesirables. For this reason, Müller is usually characterised by historians as a power-hungry opportunist obsessed with his own careerist aims, much like Heydrich. At the close of the war, Müller disappeared and his corpse was never found, despite repeated searches by the Americans and Russians. It was believed by some that he had been subverted into working for the Soviet Union, but this was never satisfactorily proven. Incidentally, his nickname of "Gestapo" Müller came from the fact that there was another SS general with the same name.
- Georg Konrad Morgen: Former civilian judge pressed into SS service upon the outbreak of war and Eastern Front veteran, he provided an uncanny example of devotion to law after the retirement from combat in 1943, patrolling as a Judge-Advocate officer the concentration camps and death camps and investigating corruption, plunder, robbery and other crimes which abounded there. His nosy investigations infuriated Heinrich Himmler himself by early 1944, but Morgen clung to his duty and managed to get the court martial and death sentence at the hands of the SS of such figures as Karl Otto Koch (commandant of Buchenwald) and his right hand Dr. Waldemar Hoven, of Hermann Florstedt, commandant of Majdanek, and other SS officers, and removal from command of the above-quoted Rudolf Höss (who organized the disappearance and assassination of Morgen's assistant Gerhard Putsch to save himself). He testified at Nuremberg Trials and 1965 Auschwitz Trial in Frankfurt after the war and clung to his eyewitness version of the events even as he was beaten by Allied investigators. His nickname in the SS was "The Bloodhound Judge".
- Amon Göth: Sturmbannführer and Commander of the Plaszow camp. Göth was rather frivolous and laid-back for a Nazi officer, and his main interests in life were good wine, the ladies, making easy money, inventing new torture methods, feeding inmates to his dogs, and using live prisoners for sniper target practice. His camp was, not counting the gas-chamber death camps, the one with the highest death rate by far. Towards the end of the war, the sadistic and clearly insane Göth was locked in a mental asylum, later found by Polish soldiers, and executed. He was not a high-ranking Nazi in the greater picture, but his iconic portrayal in the movie Schindler's List has made him one of the most infamous.
- Otto Skorzeny: Waffen SS Special Operations chief and ass-kicker extraordinaire, he masterminded numerous missions throughout the war, including the paratrooper rescue of Mussolini from his prison, which prompted Allied Supreme Commander Eisenhower himself to openly describe Skorzeny as "the most dangerous man in Europe". He was famous for his tough look, with sword scars on his face from his fencing career as a student. Towards the end of the war, he commanded the Werewolves (guerrilla groups who fought against the Soviet Army). After the war ended, he was famous for boasting he could liberate all the Nazis held within Spandau Prison given only twenty soldiers. He escaped from prison in 1948 (disguised as a GI) and went on to become a trainer of various armed militias abroad, including Palestinian rebels in the Gaza Strip. In 1970, he had a tumor removed from his spine and was paralyzed from the waist down, but due to his levels of badassery, he was back on his feet within six months. He died five years later in Franco's Spain at the age of 67. Many modern people in the West are more sympathetic towards him for having limited himself to the battlefield and not having sought a more comfortable way to boost his career by taking part in war crimes.
- It should be pointed out, though, that despite Skorzeny's reputation, he was not actually that good a soldier. The rescue of Mussolini was carried out by Luftwaffe paratroops as well as Skorzeny's SS, and Skorzeny (while present at the rescue) appropriated much of the glory, not to mention making some fairly questionable tactical decisions (such as choosing to pack Mussolini and himself into an overloaded Storch aircraft, risking a fatal crash, simply to get to Berlin faster). His other operations such as Panzerbrigade 150, the raid on Tito (which he helped plan) or the defence of the Oder bridgeheads, were mostly failures, and only Operation Panzerfaust was a success, albeit a tactically amateurish one. The myth of his superhuman abilities comes from his post-war memoirs, hardly an unbiased source.
- In an ironic twist, it has recently been revealed that Skorzeny was recruited by the Mossad of all people to disrupt German scientists hired by Egypt to develop its missile program. He apparently did it in exchange for getting his name taken off Simon Wiesenthal's list of Nazi war criminals (apparently the Mossad actually did ask Wiesenthal to remove Skorzeny's name, but when he refused they forged a letter from him and lied about it to Skorzeny).
- Wernher von Braun: A German-born rocket scientist, aerospace engineer, space architect, and one of the leading figures in the development of rocket technology in Nazi Germany during World War II and later the United States. In his 20s and early 30s, von Braun was the central figure in Germany's rocket development program, which was responsible for the design and production of the V-2 strategic bombardment rocket (using slave labour) during World War II. He joined the Allgemeine SS, which was not an armed unit, to gain the required security clearances to continue his work on rocketry. After the war, he and some of his rocket team were taken to the United States as part of the then-secret 'Operation Paperclip' to recruit as many German technical specialists as possible (regardless of their wartime actions) and so advance US military research. Von Braun worked on the United States Army intermediate range ballistic missile (IRBM) program before his group was assimilated by NASA, under which he served as director of the newly formed Marshall Space Flight Center and as the chief architect of the Saturn V launch vehicle, the superbooster that propelled the Apollo spacecraft to the Moon. His crowning achievement was to lead the development of the Saturn V booster rocket that helped land the first men on the Moon in July 1969. In 1975, he received the National Medal of Science. He passed away in 1977 due to pancreatic cancer.
Below are those who are unclassifiable... for now.
- Julius Streicher: Former schoolteacher, political agitator, virulent anti-Semite and journalist, he got such pleasant nicknames as "Jew Baiter No. 1". Ran a furious anti-Semitic campaign from 1923 to 1945 as owner and chief editor of the newspaper Der Stürmer and authored anti-Semitic pamphlets. Claimed the Jews were guilty of sacrificing Christians and putting their blood in bread, initiating the Great Depression and pimping the vast majority of prostitutes in Germany and abroad. Became Gauleiter (regional governor) of Franconia, gaining another appropriate nickname, "The Beast (or The Bull) of Franconia". Supposedly half-insane (during the Nuremberg Trials his behavior had been erratic and hysterical), insulted his fellow Nazis wherever possible and was widely hated by them. Stripped of public office in 1940 and retired, but continued to publish Der Stürmer. Lacked further political power to speak of and therefore had no word to say in the running of the war or The Holocaust, but still got beaten and tortured after his capture (the only Nuremberg Trial defendant to be treated so) and sentenced to death for inciting to mass murder.
- Streicher exploited fully the fact that porn was not legal at the time and therefore scarce and expensive as any smuggled commodity. The vast majority of lower class males who made up most of his readers could not afford true porn, and his exaggerated and exploitative sleazy stories of Jews defiling Christian and Aryan girls were titillating enough to be attractive.
- Roland Freisler: President of the People's Court, and an attendant of the Wannsee Conference. Freisler oversaw the trials of the teenage leaders of the peaceful White Rose movement, and of those suspected in the July 20 plot. Heartless, corrupt and an all-around bully, he would manipulate transcripts to ensure a verdict of "guilty" and scream explosively at defendants when delivering a sentence, or when they tried to defend themselves. In just three years on the bench, Freisler delivered the vast majority of death sentences the People's Court ever issued. He received a deliciously Karmic Death in 1945, when American bombers attacked Berlin and interrupted a Saturday session of the Court. A beam was dislodged by an almost-direct hit to the building and crushed Freisler, who would have survived had he not stayed behind to save the court documents (including those of Fabian von Schlabrendorff, who was facing execution for his role in the July 20 Plot that day note ). The death was certified by Dr. Rolf Schleicher, whose brother had been condemned to death by Freisler on the previous day.
- Arthur Seyss-Inquart: Austrian Nazi politician and architect of the Anschluss with Germany. He qualified as a lawyer before entering politics and became the frontman for Nazism within Austria in the 1930s, without becoming an actual member of the NSDAP – which worked enormously in his favour as this allowed him to maintain a respectable front to the Viennese political establishment. After Chancellor Kurt von Schuschnigg was effectively bullied out of power by Hitler, Seyss-Inquart was appointed in his place and promptly delivered Austria into the hands of the Nazis. He was later appointed Reichskommissar of the occupied Netherlands, where he was responsible for rounding up and shipping Dutch Jews to the camps and maintaining "economic cooperation" between Germany and the Netherlands; which included enslaving some 500,000 Dutch workers and sending half of them to the Reich. For his efforts, he was tried for crimes against humanity after the war at Nuremberg and executed in October 1946.
- John H. D. Rabe: A German businessman and Nazi Party member who worked for Siemens AG. He helped set up a protected area called the Nanking Safety Zone for Chinese refugees from the Japanese terror during the Nanjing Massacre (a.k.a. the Rape of Nanjing). This helped to save over 200.000 Chinese civilians and cost Rabe his life savings and reputation in Germany. When he wrote to Hitler about the state in Nanjing with a plea to stop the Japanese invasion, he was detained by the Gestapo and only released after Siemens used their weight to set him free. After the war, he was arrested by the Soviet NKVD and then by the British Army, both of which let him go after intense interrogation. He lived in poverty for the rest of his life, with his family and him only having a small one-room apartment and not enough money for food. When the citizens of Nanjing learned of the situation in 1948, they quickly raised the sum of now 19.000 USD for Rabe—the mayor of Nanjing personally traveled to the apartment and hand-delivered the money to Rabe, along with a large supply of food that he purchased on the way. They also sent a food package each month until the communist takeover. On January 5, 1950, he died of stroke. In 1997, his tombstone was moved from Berlin, Germany to Nanjing, China.
- Oskar Schindler: Of Schindler's List fame. He was a businessman from the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia who joined the Nazi party for the economical and political advantages, and got the chance to start running a factory to build ammunition. At first, he bribed officials to make sure he had the required workers, but as the war continued, he increasingly spent more money to save as many people as possible, saying that everyone was a skilled worker to make sure that they were not sent to Auschwitz, while not producing anything at all in his factory (he even bribed other companies to get the necessary munitions to fulfill his quotas). He ended up bankrupt because of what he did and poor for the rest of his life, but he would also be one of only two Nazi Party members awarded the honorific Righteous Among The Nations, and he was buried in Jerusalem, where the descendants of those he saved come to pay him annual homage.
- Karl Plagge: The other Nazi Party member to be honored as Righteous Among The Nations, although he was kicked out of the Party because he refused to espouse racist teachings. He joined the Wehrmacht, and was assigned to a unit to repair military vehicles in Vilnius, Lithuania. It was here he saw atrocities committed against Jews, and swore to do his best to fight the Nazis, feeling it was his responsibility as a German to prevent such things from happening. He used similar tactics to Schindler, recruiting Jews from the Vilnius Ghetto as "essential workers" in order to prevent them from being killed. He also provided the Jews with extra food rations, warm clothes, firewood, and the ability to barter with both his men and local gentiles—which was strictly illegal. Upon hearing that the SS wanted to liquidate the Vilnius ghetto, he went to extraordinary lengths to protect the Jews under him, moving over 1,000 of his workers and their families from the ghetto to his slave labor camp, saving them from liquidation (however, the SS did ultimately control his camp, and on one occasion while he was away they managed to round up most of the camp's children and kill them). In 1944, as the Soviet Red Army was about to invade and the SS began to plan to liquidate his camp, he delivered a speech to his workers about how he and his men would be transferred elsewhere, but that the SS, ''an organization devoted to the protection of refugees'', would take care of them. Over half of the camp's population took the hint and went into hiding before the death squads got there. In the end, he only managed to save between 250-300 of the 1250 Jews he had at the camp, but that was still the largest population of Vilnius Jews to survive The Holocaust. In 1947, he was tried as part of the post-war de-Nazification process, where thanks to the testimony of several of the Jews he saved he was exonerated. However, Plagge refused to accept exoneration, feeling he hadn't done enough to deserve it, and was reclassified as a "follower" of Nazism. He was awarded the posthumous honor of "Righteous Among the Nations" in 2009.
- Anton Drexler: Nazism's intellectual godfather. Drexler was a far-right poet and pamphleteer who co-founded the German Worker's Party (DAP), NSDAP's immediate predecessor, in 1919. By Hitler's own account, Drexler initiated him into the Party after observing an argument between Hitler and a fellow rightist. Along with Hitler and Gottfried Fieder, Drexler drafted the German Worker's Party Manifesto in 1921, and oversaw the Party's transformation into NSDAP. Described by historian Anthony Read as "a plodder both mentally and physically," lacking the charisma or vision to lead the party and was soon eclipsed by his charismatic protege. Though respected by Hitler, Drexler played no role in the Nazi government and essentially retired before his death in 1942.
- Gregor Strasser: Hitler's primary rival within the Nazi Party. Strasser served in the Freikorps, joined the SA, took part in the Beer Hall Putsch and (aided by his brother Otto and then-protege, Joseph Goebbels) served as the Party's de facto leader during Hitler's imprisonment. A brilliant organizer, orator and propagandist, Strasser played a key role in expanding National Socialism from a fringe Bavarian movement to a national party, building a strong power base in Germany's industrial regions. But Strasser's independent streak led Hitler to distrust him, and Strasser's more left-wing, proletarian ideology (which Hitler dubbed "National Bolshevism") caused a bitter falling out. Their final break came in 1932, when conservative Chancellor Kurt Von Schleicher offered Strasser a cabinet post - leading Hitler to expel Strasser's supporters from NSDAP, and to institute personal loyalty oaths for all remaining Nazis. Strasser thereafter retired from politics, but Hitler couldn't let bygones be bygones. Like Röhm, another perceived rival, Strasser was murdered on the Night of the Long Knives.
- Martin Niemöller: A war hero who served aboard the U-boats in World War I, Niemöller was a Christian pastor and an initial supporter of the Nazi regime. However, for "insufficiently supporting the regime," he was arrested and held at three concentration camps, including Dachau, until he was liberated by American troops. After the war, he became famous for his poem regarding the rise of the Nazi regime:"First they came for the communists,
and I didn't speak out because I wasn't a communist.
Then they came for the trade unionists,
and I didn't speak out because I wasn't a trade unionist.
Then they came for the Jews,
and I didn't speak out because I wasn't a Jew.
Then they came for me
and there was no one left to speak for me."
- Eva Braun: Hitler's longtime mistress. Regarded by most historians as an empty-headed apolitical naif, Eva was not a member of the Nazi Party nor did she participate in its atrocities, although she undoubtedly knew about them and didn't care. Her primary interests were sports, fashion, banned American movies (available to her, of course), and pining for the Führer's attention. During the 1930s, she made two suicide attempts in response to Hitler not paying enough attention to her. Her good looks and uncomplicated devotion were exactly what Hitler wanted in a woman. He referred to her by nicknames which affectionately emphasized her supposed childlike innocence. While fiction tends to portray Eva Braun as Hitler's one and only female companion, she was merely one of several mistresses for most of their relationship. Eva essentially wrote herself into history by choosing, in defiance of Hitler's orders, to go into the bunker with him at the end of the war. There, he decided to go monogamous and married her, just two days before they committed suicide together. She only took a Cyanide Pill, in contrast to Hitler taking the pill and shooting himself for good measure, because she wanted her corpse to look attractive. Soon afterwards, both their bodies were doused with gasoline and burned, so she didn't get her wish. Eva Braun's existence was known only to the members of Hitler's inner circle and the general public only found out about her after the fall of the Nazi regime.