One Swedish Chef sketch on The Muppet Show has him making super-hot chili. He adds a pinch of spice and a touch of pepper sauce, then takes a taste. Smoke comes out of his ears, but he decides to go Up to Eleven by dumping the whole bowl of spice and basically pour out the whole bottle of pepper sauce. This time when he tastes, his hat is blown off as he faints.
The Observers in Fringe apparently have very little sense of taste. In one episode, an Observer has a rare roast beef sandwich covered in jalapeņos, an entire shaker of pepper and most of a bottle of Tabasco sauce. In season 2, we see that Observers like to meet in an Indian restaurant and chow down on Naga Jolokia peppers.
One episode of Law & Order began in a trendy seafood restaurant where it was the custom for every diner to bring his own favorite brand of hot sauce. The victim's hot sauce had been spiked with cyanide.
In a Saturday Night Live sketch, a diner at a restaurant orders the "super hot" wings. The server tries to dissuade him, then brings a plate of wings, which the customer notes aren't that spicy at all. The server confesses that they're just the "mild" wings. The customer, by now annoyed, demands the "super hot," at which point the manager sits down with him, tries again to talk him out of it, and finally has him sign a waiver. As the customer is about to take the first bite, the frame freezes and a voice-over explains that he subsequently ran out of the restaurant shouting "Woo woo," shot up into the sky and exploded. In a final irony, he had in fact been served the "medium hot" recipe.
Episodes have featured Phaal, the spiciest curry in the world, chicken wings that put Buffalo to shame, and a burger that has "the four horsemen" of the chilies on it: jalapeņos, serrano, habanero, and the Bhut Jolokia (also called the Naga Jolokia, as below).
A Man V. Food Nation episode in Tulsa had a pizza with two times the jalapenos and habeneros and a "death sauce" that mixes in Thai Sriracha hot sauce and the aforementioned Naga Bhut Jolokia ghost chili peppers.
In Roswell, the alien characters put Tabasco sauce on everything they eat, from hamburgers to chocolate cake. They prefer things to be a combination of "spicy and sweet".
In an episode of The Nanny, C.C. takes Fran to a sushi bar. When Fran assumes that wasabi is the same as regular mustard, she puts too much of it on one piece of sushi, and as you can expect, the results aren't pleasant. What's more, after she recovers from the initial shock, her voice briefly turns smooth (so it does not have Fran Drescher's familiar high-pitched nasal tone); apparently, the stuff was so strong, it forcibly cleared her nasal passages for a minute or two.
Thomas from Skins disposes of Johnny White by besting him in a chilli-eating contest. Johnny gingerly places a Naga Jolokia pepper (allegedly; that's what it says in the show, just go with it) on his tongue and carefully, painfully, swallows it whole. Thomas grabs a handful and happily chews away, noting that his family used to grow them in his garden back in the Congo. Johnny's attempt to repeat this feat... goes poorly.
The short-lived series Mann and Machine had an episode where Eve challenged a suspect to a chili pepper eating contest. The suspect was willing to confess to his crimes in exchange for some water after trying the habaneros. Eve, being a gynoid, was totally unaffected by the peppers.
The Food Network program Heat Seekers is all about this, with its hosts traveling around a city looking for the spiciest foods they can find. They run into the Jolokia variants nearly every single episode.
In Jessie, a bully steals one of Ravi's dragonfire pepper sandwiches. After one bite, he starts screaming in pain, crying that his tongue is melting. When Ravi eats a whole pepper without suffering the same fate, Luke asks him how he does it. Ravi responds "Where I come from, people sleep on beds of nails and walk on hot coals. This is nothing!"
This is what happens when Able Team try eating the food in Sri Lanka. It's even worse that night when the food comes out again, described by one team member as 'napalm shits'. Ironically that saves their lives, as a hit team tries to kill them when they're asleep in their beds, only to find all three awake and annoyed on the toilet.
Neelix on Star Trek: Voyager has made this on at least a few occasions. His recipe for Rodeo Red's Red-Hot Rootin' Tootin' Chili put at least three crewmen in Sickbay.