Sibling Yin-Yang: Netherlands and Belgium: Belgium is all smiles when Netherlands shows up in Spain's home, but he's all growls instead. Double in the anime, which adds the contrast between Belgium's cheery and somewhat high-pitched voice and Netherlands's much deeper tone. Also, according to Vol 3 notes:
"Both seem to have had completely different personalities but their roots suggested they had dexterous hands skillful in diplomacy."
Team Mom: Belgium sometimes plays this in fanworks and seems to have shades of this in the Drama CD.
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I'm sorry for teasing you, I'll give you some tarte au matons from my place!
Adaptation Dye-Job: Inverted, early illustrations portrayed her with blonde hair, but since her appearance in the anime with very yellow blonde hair, she has been portrayed as a brunette. Or a dirty blonde.
Season Five of the anime seems to keep her hair color at this brown/dirty blonde color.
Fan Nickname: Because Belgium has no official human name, many fans refer to her as "Belle" or "Bella." Also, some fans of late have started to refer to her as "Alice", a pretty popular name in the Belgian land. Some fans will affectionately refer to her as "Belbel" on occasion. A blog post by Himaruya also listed Laura, Emma, Anri, and Manon as fan-suggested names for her.
Hair Color Dissonance: Early artwork and the World Series anime color her hair a brighter golden blonde, but later illustrations and Beautiful World portray her with either dark blonde or brown hair.
Belgium: With all these strong guys around me, I may appear a bit plain, but I'm doing my best!
Incest Subtext: According to some fans, Netherlands argues with Belgium while he wants her to become one with him again, like how Belarus wants to be one with Russia, except Netherlands is just pushy instead of Yandere. As a result, the fanon pairing of Belgium/Netherlands has a small but very loyal fandom corner.
Ms. Fanservice: Humorously subverted. Fans specifically request Fanservice from the girls, then Himaruya draws a Belgium who is wrapped in a mantle and apparently only wearing bra/panties underneath... while openly complaining about her "nudity".
This is played sort of straight in the actual strip, however, in that she's the only girl we see in her bra.
Nice Girl: Her first reaction to seeing a naked Parallel Spain out on Christmas is to give him her scarf. In later strips, she's seen trying to get her older brother to be nicer to others and get her younger brother to join in the Halloween party. Despite her efforts, she bemoans that she doesn't stand out.
She played it straighter when younger, though. While teen!Netherlands is shown in very simple village clothing due to his current poverty, little!Belgium wears a very cute dress and shiny Mary Jane shoes since she's a Child Prodigy in business trades and thus has more money than he does. Later, when the first Ned strip mentions how she has recently left their home, there's a drawing with both siblings in which a sullen-looking Belgium wears a rather pretty Pimped-Out Dress.
Self-Made Woman: First she was a Child Prodigy businesswoman. Later she was a part of the Spanish Empire. Then she left her brother's home to be her own nation. Now her lands are reasonably rich and have pretty good living standards.
Shorttank: She seems to be the adult version of this trope. As well, despite looking like The Ojou when she was younger, her personality seems more suited to this.
Trickster Mentor: Possibly. Her profile describes her as being meddlesome and she did tease Romano in her first speaking role.
Tsurime: In the manga. While not nearly as pronounced as Netherlands' Belgium's eyes are often drawn a bit sharper than the other girls'. This is especially apparent when comparing her to Hungary, Liechtenstein, or Taiwan.
For his human name, "Lars" (short form for Laurence) and "Wilhem" seem to have caught on in Western fandom. Himaruya has also listed Tim, Govert, Abel, and Morgens as various names suggested for him, though none of them are official.
Hair Color Dissonance: His hair color in the manga seems to shift between appearing as a pale sandy blond to a darker, dirty blond or light brown shade. Himaruya's official color chart shows that he's supposed to have the same golden blond shade as his sister, though her hair color is also subject to variation.
Neat Freak: His profile describes him as one, and it's confirmed in the fourth manga volume where Poland and Lithuania comment on how tidy his house is and Netherlands responds that he tidies it every day and then forbids Poland from using his kitchen because he fears that he will make it dirty.
Non-Idle Rich: You can bet that any strip that centers around the Netherlands is going to be about him trying to make (or avoiding to spend) money.
OC Stand In: For a period of time, fans had his FIFA sketch to base his appearance on but very little to base his actual personality on, and he was most commonly depicted in fanworks as a boisterous, easygoing, not-too-bright, pot-smoking guy - in other words, a pot-smoking version of Denmark. Even after he was shown in canon to be more of a blunt, no-nonsense, somewhat stoic and unsmiling guy, the Denmark-like fanon portrayal for him lingered on for some time in fanfic.
Perpetual Frowner: He always seems to have a scowl or disinterested expression on his face, especially when contrasted with his sister Belgium who's always smiling and cheerful.
Rags to Riches: He's seen as a rather poor and struggling teenaged nation (while his younger sister Belgium is a Child Prodigy businesswoman), then he's seen as kinda more affluent but under Spain's wing (that he's not too happy about), and later he has become quite the overseas empire... and a stoic, penny-pinching Non-Idle Rich.
Tsundere: He is described as a Type A. Might have been confirmed in canon, as Netherlands speaks and acts very roughly but is still willing to keep contact with isolationist!Japan, putting up with his Hikiko Mori quirks rather patiently and bringing his pet bunny around. In fandom with Spain, this is his main characteristic.