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As a whole
- Identical Grandson: Germany looks like Germania with shorter hair. Averted with the Roman Empire, who looks like both his grandsons (or rather both take after him without looking identical); Romano got his hair color, while Italy got his eyes.
- Germany looks so much like Germania that FUNimation thought they were the same person in initial subtitles for their streaming.
- Idiot Hair: Rome has two wild curls sticking out from either side of his head, which would be inherited by the Italy brothers, while Ancient Greece is shown to have the same Idiot Hair at the top of her head that her son Greece has. Persia has an angular one sticking up from the back of his head.
- Posthumous Character: For the most part they're only mentioned by their descendants and developed in flashbacks. There are a few exceptions in the anime, published manga, and World☆Stars.
- The Rival: Rome and Persia have this sort of relationship; when Persia captures Rome's Emperor Valerian, he gloats and mocks Rome, and takes pride in the fact that his living conditions are better than Rome's. Rome says that Persia isn't "cute" like Ancient Greece or Ancient Egypt. Magyar/Hun was also this to the Byzantine Empire.
Ancient Italy/Roman Empire/Roman Republic
What!? You don't even * &%&@ on the road!? You've at least kissed a girl, right? Maybe a little bit of !@#$ on the beach!?
Voiced by: Hanmei Okina (Flower of Iris CD), Hozomi Goda (JP), Christopher Sabat (EN)
- Bi the Way: Well, he did say he regretted never having sex with a male when alive...
- Boisterous Bruiser: And how. See Germania's quote, i.e.
- The Casanova: He does love hanging out ◊ with beautiful ladies.◊
- Doting Grandfather: To Italy. "Aww, he's so kyooot~"
- Dirty Old Man: The 'With Grandpa Rome' strips (in the published manga) hint on this.
- The Ditz: The Italy brothers' ditz-ness had to come from somewhere after all.
- Latin Lover: He really loves ladies and sex. Everywhere.
- Loveable Sex Maniac
- Love at First Sight: According to his official profile, it happened to him at least twice: with Old Greece (Greece's mother) and Old Egypt (Egypt's mother).
- Large Ham/Incoming Ham: Each time that The Axis and Justice Destiny Strike Force would fight each other in season 1, the sounds of spotlights flicking on in the distance, a chorus of trumpets blaring triumphantly, and all countries looking nervously at the ocean, only to see a blinding light and an ENORMOUS Roman Empire traveling on a boat or a bed accompanied by a harem of beautiful women singing the following warning:Roman Empire: In heaven, the police are British, the lovers are Italian, the chefs are French, the engineers are German, and the bankers are Swiss. In hell, the police are German, the lovers are Swiss, the chefs are British, the engineers are French, and the bankers are Italian.
- Older Than They Look: He looks around 35, tops.
- Granparental Favoritism: While he doesn't hate Romano in any way, he still prefers Veneziano over him.
- Posthumous Character: Almost only seen in flashbacks (if we don't count the published manga and the filler island cameo in the anime), but even as late as the Chibitalia Renaissance strips, it's all about him. He also confirms that nations age and die with military weakness.
- The Roman Empire/The Roman Republic
- Vestigial Empire: The Vestigial Empire. He gets very sad when he finds out that his house no longer exists and its entrance became replaced by a bench.
- Worthy Opponent: Sees Spartacus as this.
- Zettai Ryouiki: During his Rock performance of "Heaven and Hell", he's a Grade A. Naturally.
Talk about something else than women, alcohol and battles once in a while!
- Adaptation Dye-Job: He has blue-green eyes in manga illustrations, while in the anime they were made plain blue.
- Bodyguard Betrayal: According to their profiles, he used to be Rome's bodyguard. Then he killed him.
- Disappeared Dad: In the drama CD he's called HRE's father.
- Doting Parent: As revealed in Hetalia Bloodbath 2011.
- Icy Blue Green Eyes
- Perpetual Frowner: So much that, when he tries to smile, he cannot.
- Retcon: Was twice referred to as Germany's father, was called Germany's grandfather in two profiles, while in the 2011 Bloodbath he's called a Doting Parent.
- The Stoic
Hmph, this is troubling. There's nothing I can do about it, so I'll try worshiping him for now...
- Ancient Egypt
- Black Magic: She uses magic and sorcery.
- Hair Decorations: She wears a gold headband.
- Kindhearted Cat Lover: She loves and dotes on cats, since she sees them as holy, to the point that she gets upset when Rome decides to keep one as a pet.
- Missing Mom: To her son, the current Egypt.
- Nice Girl: She's described as being laidback, lenient and a "likable" person.
- Occult Blue Eyes: Due to her penchant for sorcery.
- Whip It Good: Said to use a whip by Word of God.
- Woman in White: Her dress.
Ancient Greece/Byzantine Empire
- Disappeared Dad: To Hungary. In character notes he's called Magyar, though in an incomplete Gakuen Hetalia screenplay Hungary calls him Hun.
Oh? Look at this totally useless lump of muscle I've just found! Could it just be a daikon radish?
- Big Ol' Eyebrows
- Dark and Troubled Past: He's said to have endured many hardships, which "carved out his current personality."
- Pride: He's described as being "self-assured," and he is rather smug when gloating to Rome about capturing his emperor.
- Rule of Cute: His profile mentions that Persian art sometimes uses "cute and fancy" art motifs.
- Vestigial Empire: He's said to have been in a similar situation to Rome, leaving behind many children and grandchildren.