The extra lore for ARCHON states that undead, whilst under the control of a Necromancer, are fully aware of everything they are doing but unable to intervene, trapped inside their own bodies.
Several entries in the SCP Foundation's database consist of this. The horror inherent to this trope is part of what makes SCP-231 one of the most horrifically disturbing things imaginable.
SCP-439 is one of the crossovers between And I Must Scream and Body Horror. It's a specie of insects that enter the mouths of sleeping humans and painfully converts their muscle into bone.note Which is a real condition. See the Real Life page for more information. Three days later, the victim will have been converted into a "bone hive" and have between 20000 and 30000 insects within their body, with the victim's different organs being eaten or used for incubating eggs. The victim is still conscious during all of this, and remains so for 4 to 6 months after which a new queen leaves the hive and the victim starts dying of starvation.
Then there's SCP-451, who believes everyone else in the world has disappeared and doesn't notice any of the people around him. His journals even reference the Trope Namer story and relates it to himself, adding "What's the point in screaming if no one's around to hear?"
Anyone who touches SCP-596 is kept alive forever until they release it, even regenerating from any injury. Not that you would want to be however, since you're kept alive in permanent agony, and the only way to let go is for someone else to touch it at which point you die. Victims can scream (and do, only stopping once their vocal cords are too shredded to continue... until they heal again.) but since they can't do anything else they still can't communicate.
SCP-911 is an egyptian papyrus scroll that traps the mind of whoever touches it in an endless void. It is possible to escape, but only for a short period after someone else touches the scroll. Part of the horror comes from the fact that the foundation has no problem with sending people inside the scroll For Science! until they discover that it may be a Sealed Evil in a Can
The stronger, having cast her spell in aggression, found herself imprisoned in a darkness containing all manner of monsters and vicious creatures.
In this place, blind and filled with rage and fear, she found the farthest thing from peace.
Centuries passed, and for the god in the box, each scraped over her like nails on skin....
The Overseer gets a similar fate. The difference is that while he uses his time in prison to calm down and reach peace, the Sentinel remains angry.
The web fiction novel Eudeamon (sic) plays with this - the sentence for criminal offenders in the society of this story is to be turned into a moving latex statue that has no legal existence and is punished for interacting with other people by an extension of sentence (brutally unfairly, even when that interaction is being assaulted, beaten and possibly raped by gangs who take advantage of the legally unpersoned status of these "Banes"). The process reverses when the "Bane" neural network computer designed to oversee the sentence develops sentience and invariably sides with their host body instead of the legal system, but then is played straight again if the sentence is ended and the now-former bane is forcibly disconnected from an unembodied lover who knows them as thoroughly as they know themselves.
Somewhat played straight with the Harbingers in the Lords Of Shadow RP. While they are still human, with every death, they are cloned into a new body and retain every memory up to and including death and the brief void after death.
Killar the Slaughterling, the Tal'Vornian God of Death is an almost perfect example of this trope, having been kept trapped in a dimensional cell exactly the same size as He is for millenia whilst being completely aware. He was somewhat unstable before, but now He's positively nuts.
The Tal'Vorn Order Sect has a spell that accomplishes this trope as well, the suitably named Eternal Torment. The spell, as its name might indicate, makes the individual functionally immortal, whilst being in perpetual agony. The people themselves are usually stored in things called Torment Engines and then any trace of their existence systematically destroyed.
Arcana Magi Zero opened the story with Alysia Perez turning to stone and completely aware of it, resulting in post trauma.
Red vs. Blue: Tex would have fallen victim to this trope, her mind is imprisoned forever in an A.I capture unit. However this is subverted in that Church traps himself in the capture unit in order to save heror at least be with her.
How Maine ended up becoming the Meta: Sigma began to corrupt him, forcing his battle strategies to become more and more primal, until all resemblance of humanity was fully eroded, leaving him a merciless killer, murdering his former allies and taking their equipment and AI fragments, all so Sigma could become the reborn Alpha.
You Wake Up in a Room, and are forced to do calculations for fake combat scenarios. You fail every single time, being told your love had died in the process. That's what happens to the Alpha. By the time Tex goes to rescue him, he doesn't even remember her name, what he's been doing, or why he's even there.
Ruby Quest: Could apply to several characters, but is most explicitly stated by Bella, who pleads for death:
Every day for over a year now, Bella has had to watch the sun rise and set, from just barely below the surface. Strapped to this wall, right next to the exit, able to watch the outside world, but never touch it.
An After Hours episode also mentioned this when discussing the downsides of various superpowers. Wolverine's are dismissed, as when you are immortal and heal from any injury, the odds of eventually finding yourself trapped or immobilized approach one.
Similar to the Ruby Quest example, Tgchan's Tozol Quest has this◊ guy. The image is accompanied by the following log:
Subject HYPERION log
OCT-1-2163: Subject HYPERION recovered, brought to interim lab for study. Limited regeneration observed in spite of catastrophic wounds and radiation dosage, halting presumably as nutrient stocks depleted.
FEB-15-2169: Subject requests that it be killed. Request repeated between one and twenty times per hour for next four hundred and ninety days.
JUL-23-2173: Subject remains conscious. Has ceased almost all action. Has ceased responding to auditory stimuli regardless of duration or intensity. Remaining eye tracks movement.
SEP-8-2182: Subject consciousness impossible to determine. No longer reacts to any stimuli in meaningful way.
The Fear Mythos features the Eldritch Abomination "Archangel", who is, in reality a twisted incarnation of the afterlife — you are forever with your god, but God Is Evil. You are trapped with it forever, in a body which moves according to it's will, not yours. There's also EAT (short for Epping AquaTarkus), which may inflict this upon it's victims.
Linkara tells The Entity this will be the eventual conclusion once it absorbs all of reality.
Of particular note is Gray Boy, who traps people in several-second long time loops that last "until the sun goes out". Any pain he inflicts on them remains constant, and the only thing that doesn't reset with the loop is their mind.
Discussed among The Sharkasm Crew. The general consensus is that "wishing for everything" would result in a state of omniscience and non-existence.