There is actually a Biblical source for this in Isaiah 12, but on the surface at least it was referring to the "King of Babylon". This may be a literal king, though is often taken to be a code word for earthly rulers who oppressed the nation of Israel, and some have attempted to interpret it in terms of spiritual rulers (hence the link to the devil). The term "Lucifer" is simply how the King James Version translated "morning star".
A prominent feature of the beast from the earth (commonly associated with the Anti Christ) in the book of Revelation. "And all that dwell upon the earth shall worship [the beast], whose names are not written in the book of life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world." -Revelation 13:8
Several mortal characters in Greek Mythology became gods or otherwise immortal, including Apollo's son Asclepius, who became the god of healing and medicine; Ino, who raised Dionysius for Zeus and became a minor goddess of the sea, who helped Odysseus return home; the Diomedes who appeared in The Iliad, raised to godhood by Athena; and most famously Hercules, AKA Herakles, who in return for saving the gods of Olympus from the Giants and for his many heroic deeds, became a god after his death. On the other hand, a mortal man fixed pots and pans to his chariot, claimed to be "Zeus the Thunderbearer", and got his fool self struck with lightning for the effort. Yeah. Zeus has a temper.
Also, Bellerophon, who after taming Pegasus, became so full of himself, tried to fly up to and enter Mount Olympus itself. Pegasus, however, had far more sense than his master, throwing him before he succeeded, where he plummeted into a thorn bush and lived the rest of his life as a cripple. (In one version, Pegasus threw him after Zeus sent a gadfly to sting him, although that really didn't seem like Zeus' style; seeing as Zeus took Pegasus in, made him a pack horse for his thunderbolts, and then later rewarded him by immortalizing him in the heavens as a constellation, the former version seems more likely.)
Subverted in The Apocolocyntosis (Pumpkin-ification) of the Divine Claudius, written by Seneca. The gods decide not to deify Claudius, but instead is sent to Hades to work for Caligula.
The Nation of Gods and Earths, also known as the Five Percenters believe that the Original Asiatic Blackman is God, and that each black woman is the Earth. They vehemently deny the existence of any supernatural "mystery God" and break the word Allah down as Arm Leg Leg Arm Head, meaning humanity. The possibility of women being God is controversial, and many Gods (and Earths) disagree as to who has the right to call themselves God. Some even see the potential for white Five Percenters to prove themselves to be God, despite Caucasians traditionally being seen as "devils by nature".
The Mormon teachings claim that it's possible to become a god, which differs from Christian teachings.