* CrowningMusicOfAwesome : This play uses several songs from Madame Butterfly and the Beijing Opera as its soundtracks. The notable tune of choice is the "Love Duet" from the Puccini opera which features several times in the course of the play.
** The movie also throws in a brilliant score by Howard Shore.
** The 1993 Russian production of the play in Moscow made extensive use of 1960s-70s French pop music intermixed with Puccini's opera. [[spoiler: Before his suicide,]] [[https://youtu.be/xabl9ysuBF0?t=3m9s/ Gallimard does a surreal dance in full geisha drag]] to a [[https://youtu.be/lD2zw5FWYWo/ tragic ballad by French chanteuse Dalida]].
* MagnificentBastard: Song [[spoiler: leads Gallimard on for 20 years off reading his personality, cultural stereotypes, guilt over said stereotypes, and good old GenreSavvy.]]
* SomeAnvilsNeedToBeDropped: The play takes a lot of jabs at the toxic nature of the Western male gaze and misogyny, which Song wields for his benefit to exploit Gallimard. When M. Butterfly revived on Broadway in 2017, it played a few blocks down from Miss Saigon, a modern Madame Butterfly that played the orientalistic tropes straight.
* TearJerker : [[spoiler: After finding out that Song had been lying about his gender and their son for over twenty years only to be tossed in jail for spying for China along with all the ridicule and shame brought about by his name appearing in newspapers all over the globe, Gallimard retreats back into his world of fantasy where he first met Butterfly/Song, becomes the woman himself and commits suicide.]]