[[quoteright:330:http://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/touhoupageimage_1849.jpg]]
[[caption-width-right:330:A few of the more important characters[[note]]Clockwise from top right: Reimu, Miko, Sanae, Youmu, Remilia, Byakuren. Center: Marisa. Not pictured: [[LoadsAndLoadsOfCharacters At least a hundred characters]][[/note]]]]

->''[[LoadingScreen Girls do their best now and are preparing. Please watch warmly until it is ready.]]''

''Touhou Project'' ("Touhou", 東方, meaning ''Eastern'' or ''Oriental'', [[NoPronunciationGuide pronounced]] "Toh Hoh") is a series of {{doujin|Soft}} scrolling shooter games in the "BulletHell" subgenre, developed by Team Shanghai Alice. It is most famous for its [[NintendoHard high difficulty level]] involving [[BeamSpam intricate bullet patterns]], and that instead of having spaceships and warfare vehicles, it has girls in frilly dresses: nearly every character is a LittleMissBadass, CuteMonsterGirl, or CuteWitch, and wears some degree of {{UsefulNotes/Lolita|Fashion}} clothing. Much of its popularity comes from its enormous {{Doujinshi}} and {{Shipping}} community, and the equally enormous amounts of amateur musical arrangements and remixes of the games' music. Indeed most of the characters are [[OCStandIn given only a framework personality in the games]], traditionally leaving most of the details up to {{Fanon}}, however the series' creator has written quite a bit of [[ExpandedUniverse manga, stories]], and [[AllThereInTheManual general information]] for it as well.

Like ''VideoGame/CaveStory'', it's also outstanding in that the entirety of the games, including the sprite graphics, 3D graphics, character portraits, dialogue, story, music composition, programming, bullet-patterns, and concept are all done by one guy, known as [[http://en.touhouwiki.net/wiki/ZUN "ZUN".]][[note]]His real name is Jun'ya Ota. Some fans call him ''Kannushi'' (Head Priest)[[/note]]

The basic plot of each of the games is that the isolated land of Gensokyo, a FantasyKitchenSink hidden in the mountains of Japan and separated from reality by a magical barrier, faces some sort of "incident", which local {{Miko}} Reimu and her best friend CuteWitch Marisa feel compelled to resolve for their own reasons,[[note]]reluctant duty and greed, respectively[[/note]] sometimes joined by bosses from previous games. What qualifies as an "incident" can range from globally life threatening like the endless winter of ''Perfect Cherry Blossom'' to harmless curiosities like the flying boat of ''Undefined Fantastic Object''. After beating up some random bystanders in the early stages, they eventually discover the AntiVillain behind the disturbance and beat them up, along with some of their friends and/or {{Battle Butler}}s. Afterward, they make peace with the villains (often figuratively and literally "drinking tea" with them), and get sent on a tangentially related quest to beat up someone else related to the villain, but not to the incident, in a BonusDungeon.

Gameplay-wise, the main series games are vertical scrolling shooters divided into 6 stages with a bonus Extra stage accessible from the menu, unlocked after beating the main game without continues. The games [[BossGame focus more on the bosses than the stages]], with each stage boss of each game being a colorful character given their own {{Leitmotif}} and trademark bullet patterns, known as "spell cards". The spell cards and the boss themes are also given fanciful names that hint at the character's backstory and personality. This steady accumulation of bosses is the source of the series' infamous LoadsAndLoadsOfCharacters, while the spell cards and {{Leitmotif}}s keep them distinct enough to be memorable to the fans.

See also the [[http://en.touhouwiki.net/wiki/Touhou_Wiki extensive wiki]] about the game series.

Not to be confused with Creator/{{Toho}}, a movie production company mainly responsible for the {{toku}}satsu genre.

The official games in chronological order: [[note]] Almost always, the games are referred to by the Japanese-speaking fans only by the Japanese part of the title, and by the English-speaking fans only by the English part of the title. Some fans also do this for [[LoadsAndLoadsOfCharacters the songs that have both Japanese and English titles]], but we'll save that for [[{{AwesomeMusic/Touhou}} the Awesome Music pages]].[[/note]]

[[folder:The long list]]
PC98 era -- [[note]]Most characters and stories from this era have been retconned or otherwise ignored by the series' canon. Only four characters from this age have re-appeared in the Windows era and not without significant changes to them.[[/note]]

* TH 01 ''Touhou Reiiden ~ Highly Responsive to Prayers'' [[labelnote:Translation]]''Eastern Strange Spirit Legend ~ Highly Responsive to Prayers''[[/labelnote]]
* TH 02 ''Touhou Fuumaroku ~ the Story of Eastern Wonderland'' [[labelnote:Translation]]''Eastern Sealed Demon Chronicle ~ the Story of Eastern Wonderland''[[/labelnote]]
* TH 03 ''Touhou Yumejikuu ~ Phantasmagoria of Dim. Dream'' [[labelnote:Translation]]''Eastern Dream Dimension ~ Phantasmagoria of Dim. Dream''[[/labelnote]]
* TH 04 ''Touhou Gensokyo ~ Lotus Land Story'' [[labelnote:Translation]]''Eastern Fantasy Land ~ Lotus Land Story''[[/labelnote]]
* TH 05 ''Touhou Kaikidan ~ Mystic Square'' [[labelnote:Translation]]''Eastern Wondrous Romance ~ Mystic Square''[[/labelnote]]

Windows era -- [[note]]Even though the numbering system continues from the PC98 era, the sixth game is considered the beginning of the series' main canon.[[/note]]

* TH 06 ''Touhou Koumakyou ~ the Embodiment of Scarlet Devil'' [[labelnote:Translation]]''Eastern Scarlet Devil Land ~ the Embodiment of Scarlet Devil''[[/labelnote]]
* TH 07 ''Touhou Youyoumu ~ Perfect Cherry Blossom'' [[labelnote:Translation]]''Eastern Bewitching Dream ~ Perfect Cherry Blossom''[[/labelnote]]
* TH 07.5 ''Touhou Suimusou ~ Immaterial and Missing Power'' [[labelnote:Translation]]''Eastern Gathering Reverie ~ Immaterial and Missing Power''[[/labelnote]]
* TH 08 ''Touhou Eiyashou ~ Imperishable Night'' [[labelnote:Translation]]''Eastern Eternal Night Vignette ~ Imperishable Night''[[/labelnote]]
* TH 09 ''Touhou Kaeidzuka ~ Phantasmagoria of Flower View'' [[labelnote:Translation]]''Eastern Flower Viewing Mound ~ Phantasmagoria of Flower View''[[/labelnote]]
* TH 09.5 ''Touhou Bunkachou ~ Shoot the Bullet'' [[labelnote:Translation]]''Eastern Cultural Album ~ Shoot the Bullet''[[/labelnote]]
* TH 10 ''Touhou Fuujinroku ~ Mountain of Faith'' [[labelnote:Translation]]''Eastern Wind God Chronicle ~ Mountain of Faith''[[/labelnote]]
* TH 10.5 ''Touhou Hisouten ~ Scarlet Weather Rhapsody'' [[labelnote:Translation]]''Eastern Skies of Scarlet Perceptions ~ Scarlet Weather Rhapsody''[[/labelnote]]
* TH 11 ''Touhou Chireiden ~ Subterranean Animism'' [[labelnote:Translation]]''Eastern Palace of Earth Spirits ~ Subterranean Animism''[[/labelnote]]
* TH 12 ''Touhou Seirensen ~ Undefined Fantastic Object'' [[labelnote:Translation]]''Eastern Star-Lotus Ship ~ Undefined Fantastic Object''[[/labelnote]]
* TH 12.3 ''Touhou Hisoutensoku ~ Choudokyuu Ginyoru no Nazo wo Oe'' [[labelnote:Translation]]''Eastern Lacking Perception of Natural Laws ~ Chase the Enigma of the Gargantuan Guignol''[[/labelnote]] [[note]] Originally referred to as ''Unthinkable Natural Law'' by English-speaking fans, it was soon superseded by simply ''Hisoutensoku''. There are still people who refer to it as ''Unthinkable Natural Law''.[[/note]]
* TH 12.5 ''Double Spoiler ~ Touhou Bunkachou'' [[labelnote:Translation]]''Double Spoiler ~ Eastern Cultural Album''[[/labelnote]]
* TH 12.8 ''Yousei Daisensou ~ Touhou Sangetsusei'' [[labelnote:Translation]]''Great Fairy Wars ~ Eastern Three Fairies''[[/labelnote]] [[note]]Referred to by English-speaking fans as ''Great Fairy Wars'' or simply ''Fairy Wars''.[[/note]]
* TH 13 ''Touhou Shinreibyou ~ Ten Desires'' [[labelnote:Translation]]''Eastern Divine Spirit Mausoleum ~ Ten Desires''[[/labelnote]]
* TH 13.5 ''Touhou Shinkirou ~ Hopeless Masquerade'' [[labelnote:Translation]]''Eastern Tower of Beautiful Mind ~ Hopeless Masquerade''[[/labelnote]] [[note]] While written with different kanji, the Japanese title [[PunBasedTitle is pronounced the same way]] as the Japanese word for 'mirage'.[[/note]]
* TH 14 ''Touhou Kishinjou ~ Double Dealing Character'' [[labelnote:Translation]]''Eastern Bright Needle Fortress ~ Double Dealing Character''[[/labelnote]]
* TH 14.3 '' Danmaku Amanojaku ~ Impossible Spell Card'' [[labelnote:Translation]]''Danmaku Amanojaku ~ Impossible Spell Card''[[/labelnote]]
[[/folder]]

[[folder: Side Materials]]
'''Stories:'''
[[index]]
* ''[[Music/TouhouZUNsMusicCollection ZUN's Music Collection]]'' -- A set of albums containing Touhou remixes and new music by ZUN, with accompanying stories. The first one is quite odd and likely not canon anymore. The rest follow the Sealing Club, a pair of female college students in future Kyoto.
* ''[[Literature/TouhouKourindouCuriositiesOfLotusAsia Touhou Kourindou ~ Curiosities of Lotus Asia]]'' [[labelnote:Translation]]''Eastern Hall of Perfumed Rain ~ Curiosities of Lotus Asia''[[/labelnote]] -- A series of SliceOfLife short stories written by ZUN from the perspective of Rinnosuke, a NonActionGuy shopkeeper.
* ''Manga/TouhouSangetsusei'' [[labelnote:Translation]]''Eastern Three Moon Elementals''[[/labelnote]] -- A SliceOfLife manga focusing on the various misadventures of the three fairies of light as well as, usually, Reimu and Marisa. Consists of:
** ''Eastern and Little Nature Deity''
** ''Strange and Bright Nature Deity''
** ''Oriental Sacred Place''
* ''A Flower Blooming Fragrant Violet Every Sixty Years'' is a short story contained in the otherwise non-canon fanbook ''Seasonal Dream Vision''. From Yukari's perspective, it explains a bit more of just what the hell was going on in ''Phantasmagoria of Flower View''.
* ''Manga/TouhouBougetsushou'' [[labelnote:Translation]]''Eastern Ephemeral Moon Vignette''[[/labelnote]] -- A group of stories concerning Remilia invading the moon.
** ''Silent Sinner in Blue'' -- The main story.
** ''Cage in Lunatic Runagate'' -- Mostly character-focused side stories. Also contains most of the backstory and '''the ending'''.
** ''Inaba of the Moon and Inaba of the Earth'' -- A gag comedy set around the same time, starring the Eientei crew. Unlike the other manga, where ZUN is credited with the scenario, here he's credited with characters and setting, putting it on a lower tier of canon than everything else.
* ''[[Manga/TouhouIbarakasenWildAndHornedHermit Touhou Ibarakasen ~ Wild and Horned Hermit]]'' [[labelnote:Translation]]''Eastern Thorned Poet Hermit ~ Wild and Horned Hermit''[[/labelnote]] -- A manga focusing on the hermit Kasen Ibaraki, and her interactions with Reimu and Marisa.
* ''[[Manga/TouhouSuzunaanForbiddenScrollery Touhou Suzunaan ~ Forbidden Scrollery]]'' [[labelnote:Translation]]''Eastern Suzuna's Hut ~ Forbidden Scrollery''[[/labelnote]] -- A manga focusing on Kosuzu Motoori, a girl who works at her family's book rental shop in the human village.
[[/index]]

'''Artbooks:'''

* ''Touhou Bunkachou ~ Bohemian Archive in Japanese Red'' [[labelnote:Translation]]''Eastern Cultural Album ~ Bohemian Archive in Japanese Red''[[/labelnote]] -- A book presenting articles from Aya's newspaper. Most are focused on individual characters from ''[=EoSD=]'' through ''IN'' with accompanying interviews, but there are also editorials on major locations and Aya's perspective of what happened in the games. The book also included some music commentary from ZUN, an interview, a one-shot official manga, and several fan-made doujinshi.
* ''Touhou Gumon Shiki ~ Perfect Memento in Strict Sense'' [[labelnote:Translation]]''Eastern Histories by Hieda ~ Perfect Memento in Strict Sense''[[/labelnote]] -- Part of the [[UniverseCompendium Gensokyo Chronicles]], as written by the ninth child of Miare, Hieda no Akyuu. Like ''[=BAiJR=]'', many of the articles are focused on characters up through ''[=PoFV=]'', but there's also some general setting background information and expands on powers and relationships. It too has an associated one-shot manga, but less other goodies.
* ''The Grimoire of Marisa'' -- Marisa's [[DeadpanSnarker comments]] on characters' spell cards.
* ''Touhou Gumon Kujo ~ Symposium of Post-Mysticism'' [[labelnote:Translation]]''Eastern Oral Talks by Hieda ~ Symposium of Post-Mysticism''[[/labelnote]] -- A sequel of sorts to ''Perfect Memento in Strict Sense'', covering most of the characters introduced since. In lieu of the non-character encyclopedia entries it has a number of newspaper articles and a transcript of the titular symposium between Byakuren, Kanako, Miko [[MyFriendsAndZoidberg and Marisa]].
[[/folder]]

[[hardline]]

See FanWorks.{{Touhou}} for derivative DoujinSoft, {{Fanime}}, and {{Web Comics}}. See ''VideoGame/{{Seihou}}'' for the sister series.

----
!!''Touhou'' provides examples of:

[[foldercontrol]]

[[folder: Tropes in the games' gameplay]]
* AIBreaker: In ''Phantasmagoria of Flower View'' the AI doesn't look very far ahead in predicting bullet movements and instead relies on reacting to nearby bullets, so certain characters perform significantly better against AI opponents:
** Aya's high-speed EX bullets and spell cards are easily predicted and streamed by a human player, but move fast enough that the AI is unable to react to them in time to dodge.
** The large laser in Eiki's summon Spell Card comes with a warning tracer which would be an obvious indicator for players to get out of the way, but the AI will try to move out of the way at the last second and get hit because the laser is too wide for them to move far away enough before it hits.
** Medicine's EX poison clouds will slow players' movements, and are capable of piling up their slow effects until a player is just about immobilized. Savvy human players will avoid these when given the option, but the AI will happily fly into the masses of poison, get stuck, and become unable to dodge incoming bullets.
* AirJousting: Marisa's broom charge attacks in ''Scarlet Weather Rhapsody''.
* AllMonksKnowKungFu: Not only do the Buddhist monk characters in ''Hopeless Masquerade'' specialize in martial arts, ''Buddhism itself'' is associated with melee attacks as a game mechanic.
* AmazingTechnicolorBattlefield: From ''Lotus Land Story'' onward, bosses will change the background.
** EmpathicEnvironment: The fourth stage of ''Double Dealing Character'' is strange in the sense that it beats in rhythm with the music.
* AmbidextrousSprite: In the fighting games, characters' sprites are mirrored for movement, resulting in oddities such as Utsuho's arm cannon and asymmetrical legs switching places if she moves left.
* ArbitraryMinimumRange: Some spellcards have bullets generated around the boss, but the bullets doesn't have the hitspot immediately. Because of this, a player can get very close to the boss before the bullets are fired, and hence without taking any damage. [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0ZXM5L75h38 This video provides examples, like 1:02, 8:46 and 9:52]].
* ArtificialStupidity: The fighting games. Highlights include not particularly understanding if the character is melee or range oriented, using moves that can't possibly hit, virtually never using cards,[[note]]Arcade mode only. Story mode AI doesn't have cards to use.[[/note]] and difficulty selection in arcade mode doing nothing. This was bad enough for people to start work on [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CcBtCUEV-K0 an AI hack]] but the project seems to have died since.
* AwesomeButImpractical / DifficultButAwesome: Pretty much all of the experimental shot types (ie, not spread, homing, forward concentration, or piercing) fall under one or the other, depending on who you ask.
** Marisa's Master Spark bomb in ''Undefined Fantastic Object'' on definitely falls under Awesome But Impractical, at least during stages. The massive speed penalty it saddles her with makes it nearly impossible to collect anything.
** Death bombing introduced in the fifth game on. When your character gets hit, you have a fraction of a second to press the bomb button to save yourself. The timing varies with each game, but is rarely enough for the average player to do so as a reaction. You basically need to predict your own death in order to use it.
** Last Words in ''Hopeless Masquerade''; super-powerful spellcards that can only be used at max popularity, but drop your popularity to zero when used. The problem is that timeout victories are decided by popularity, making this a major risk, and gaining that much popularity likely requires you to be fairly decisively winning in the first place, making it an unnecessary risk.
* AWinnerIsYou:
-->''([[NintendoHard after completing everything in Double Spoiler]])'' You are Super Player!
* TheBattleDidntCount: Justified in that all the fights are technically exhibition matches, but...
** In ''Embodiment'', if you beat Sakuya on Easy difficulty, she [[EasyModeMockery mocks you for it]] and tells you she's still not letting you see Remilia.
** In ''Fairy Wars'', the BonusBoss fight against Marisa. ''Cirno'' is the one that starts looking beaten up and begging for a break as you whittle down Marisa's health. Although she does express surprise at how much effort she needs to go to against a "mere fairy."
* BattleIntro: ''Hopeless Masquerade'' is the first of the fighting games to feature this.
* BeamSpam: Every single character, with Shou being the worst offender.
* BonusBoss: Every game except ''Highly Responsive to Prayers'', the versus shooters and the fighters has at least one extra boss. ''Perfect Cherry Blossom'' also has the phantasm boss, a BonusBoss ''to'' the BonusBoss. In the phantasm stage, the extra boss reappears as a ''MidBoss''.
* BonusDungeon: Where the extra boss hangs out.
* BossRush: The entirety of ''Shoot the Bullet'', ''Double Spoiler'', and ''Impossible Spell Card'' is this.
* BossSubtitles: Everybody gets these. Even most of the side material includes them. They're known to change, too. Head over to [[http://en.touhouwiki.net/wiki/Character_Titles the Touhou Wiki]] for the full list.
* BossWarningSiren: In ''Subterranean Animism'', Utsuho Reiuji, the [[ILoveNuclearPower nuclear-powered]] [[CreepyCrows Hell raven girl]] (and final boss) of the game, has the distinction of prefixing each of her spell cards with klaxons while the text "'''CAUTION!!'''" flares on-screen.
* BreakingOut: ''Highly Responsive To Prayers'' has many elements of this.
* BrutalBonusLevel: Extra Stages. And the (so far) only Phantasm stage in ''Perfect Cherry Blossom''.
* BulletHell: The ''Touhou'' games are a well known example of the genre, quite possibly even moreso than {{Cave}}'s shooters, at least outside of Japan. Mind you, Cave shooters are commercial, while ''Touhou'' is {{doujinshi}}.
* CallingYourAttacks: Any spell card declaration results in the name of the card showing up at the top/bottom of the screen. Also, in the fighting game ''Immaterial and Missing Power'', you choose one specific spell card out of three for each of your life bars, and you cannot actually use them until you input a command to declare them.
* CherryTapping: ''Hopeless Masquerade'' includes special animations if someone lost due to this.
* CleverCrows: Aya Shameimaru is a Crow Tengu {{Paparazzi}} who publishes a rumor mill tabloid; if not an outright trickster, she's at least clever and annoying. There's also Utsuho Reiuji, a [[ILoveNuclearPower nuclear-powered]] [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three-legged_bird hell raven]] who's a bit more... [[TheDitz straightforward]]. Fan interpretation is split on whether Utsuho is just an idiot, or if [[GeniusDitz all of her brainpower is focused on nuclear physics]].
* ClothingDamage: If there is a dialogue after a boss fight, the loser often has her clothing damaged. Downplayed, since the damage includes dusty hair, torn sleeves and ribbons, and everything else perfectly fine.
** One interesting case is the dialogue after you beat [[BonusBoss Marisa]] in ''Fairy Wars'', where it's ''Cirno'' who has her clothing damaged instead of Marisa.
** Similarly, [[OurVampiresAreDifferent Remilia]] will also look beaten up after defeating [[ThePowerOfTheSun Utsuho]] in ''Hisoutensoku''.
* ContractualBossImmunity: [[BonusBoss Ex-Bosses]] will not receive any damage from bombs during their own spellcards and any given FinalBoss will probably also have the same immunity during their last spellcard.
* ColourCodedForYourConvenience: Red items give power, while blue items give points. After ''Mountain of Faith'', green items (small green circles in DDC)increase the value of Point Items.
** In ''Ten Desires'', Blue Spirits increase the Point Item value, Purple Spirits are Life Pieces, and Green Spirits are Bomb Pieces.
** Similarly, Red [=UFOs=] in ''UFO'' give Life Shards, Green [=UFOs=] give bombs, and Blue [=UFOs=] give points, although Flashing [=UFOs=] invert the item type.
* ComputersAreFast: Not present in the normal Shoot Em Up games, but have fun beating [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2x8cs2V2-Bg Lunatic AI]] in the two-player games.
* CosmeticAward: Clearing a scene with a high enough score in ''Shoot the Bullet'' or ''Double Spoiler'' unlocks commentary from Aya or Hatate. Score has no other purpose.
* ContrivedCoincidence: "[[ALittleSomethingWeCallRockAndRoll Punk Rock]] [[MemeticMutation in my Touhou]]" sounds [[MindScrew completely strange]] out of context, but it actually predicted the ''next two games''. The name of the band, "Chojuu Gigaku", comes from "[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gigaku gigaku]]", one of the oldest forms of masked plays in Japan also known for its heavy use for taiko drums, and "[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Choujuu_giga choujuu giga]]", a set of scrolling images primarily known as being ''farces'' of their time period. Come Kokoro (whose Noh plays were influenced by gigaku) being influenced by Mamizou (who has a Spell Card in said game of the ''exact same'' images from choujuu giga) and Raiko (who is a Tsukumogami of a taiko drum set) and you have early Japanese dance history in a few games.
* CostumeExaggeration: Reimu originally wore a realistic {{Miko}} outfit; however, after the ContinuityReboot she switched to a more stylised and less practical version, complete with DetachedSleeves. Sanae also wears a similar outfit.
* DamnYouMuscleMemory: ''Impossible Spell Card'' features a camera that works similarly to Aya's camera in ''Shoot the Bullet'' and ''Double Spoiler'', but in [=ISC=], you take pictures with X as opposed to Z in [=StB/DS=]. Cue [=StB/DS=] players dying a lot when they try to take pictures with Z.
* DeadCharacterWalking: Certain versions of ''Touhou 7: Perfect Cherry Blossom'' has Merlin Prismriver continue attacking even after the Prismriver sisters are supposed to be defeated, potentially killing your character. So much for sisterly solidarity. This bug has been [[MemeticMutation mercilessly ridiculed]] by {{doujin}} artists.
* DefeatEqualsExplosion: For bosses in the shooting games. Characters can also explode in the fighting game ''Hopeless Masquerade'', depending on how they are defeated. Note that danmaku fights are non-lethal - the player character often has a chat with the boss ''after'' defeating her - so the explosion is presumably just a showy special effect.
* DesolationShot: In ''Mystic Square'', the AmazingTechnicolorBattlefield disappears when you dispel Shinki's penultimate spell and blast her wings off. The background of the battle's final phase is a slow pan down over Makai, which is now on fire as a result of the fight.
* DifficultySpike: Most games seem to have one, usually around stage 4.
** Most final bosses' and extra bosses' final spell cards start out fairly simple, even elementary... then it gets faster, or stacks more components simultaneously over time/damage. By the end, the spell is an all-out nightmarish mess that fills the screen or moves very quickly, or both.
* DualBoss: Several examples, sometimes with three bosses instead of two:
** Yuki and Mai in ''Mystic Square''.
** The Prismriver sisters in ''Perfect Cherry Blossom''.
** Sunny Milk, Luna Child and Star Sapphire in ''Fairy Wars''.
** Seiga and Yoshika in ''Ten Desires''.
** Miko, Tojiko and Futo for one of the former's spellcards in the same game -- although Miko does not do a single thing during it.
** Reimu, Miko and Byakuren in Kokoro's ''Hopeless Masquerade'' story mode. Reimu fights by herself, but during spellcards, in the first spell, Miko joins in the attack. In the second spell, Byakuren does tag with Reimu. Third and fourth spells? The religious trinity itself. Reimu is assisted by Miko and Byakuren.
** The Tsukumo sisters, usually fought one at a time during regular gameplay, unite as the ex-stage midbosses.
* DynamicDifficulty: 4-6 have a system where the bullets become faster and denser over time. In the case of 4 and 5, it's somewhat tied to how well you're doing, but in 6 it just keeps going up until you die, which resets it.
* EarlyInstallmentWeirdness[=/=]OddBallInTheSeries: ''[[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ieDudS_yi24 Highly Responsive to Prayers]]'' isn't even a danmaku game. It's more of a weird ''{{Breakout}}'' clone, with some ShootEmUp elements in boss fights.
* EveryTenThousandPoints: In many games you get an [[OneUp extend]] every [[PinballScoring ten or twenty million]] points.
* ExpansionPack:
** ''Touhou Hisoutensoku'', an add-on to ''Scarlet Weather Rhapsody'' that introduces a new storyline and playable characters, including [[EnsembleDarkhorse Meiling and Cirno.]]
** ''Double Spoiler'' can be considered this for ''Shoot the Bullet'', which was originally meant to be updated as new characters appeared.
* FailureIsTheOnlyOption: In ''Imperishable Night'' you have to get the normal ending to unlock the better ending.
* FakeDifficulty:
** It's arguable that all of the ''Touhou'' games suffer from this, due to the ambiguity of the hitboxes on the bullets requiring more a ton of TrialAndErrorGameplay, although that really comes with the Bullet Hell territory. ''Story of Eastern Wonderland'' was the worst about it though, as your hitbox was rather large, and if you died it would offset slightly -- enough to make some previous safe spots no longer safe.
** ''Undefined Fantastic Object'''s fifth stage clouds the screen with literally ''hundreds'' of Point and Power Items. Normally, this would be a great thing for scoring and power alike, but the items can often cover the bullets onscreen, usually resulting in a "[=WTF=] just hit me?" reaction from the player. Also, [=MarisaA=] uses very shiny lasers to attack, which shoot from four options around Marisa. Almost all of stage 5 uses very shiny bullets, approximately the same size as said options. It's not uncommon for a player to run into a bullet because they look almost exactly alike. The fact that the red bullets can also blend into the red ''background'' makes it even worse. This problem is present in ''Mountain of Faith'' and ''Subterranean Animism'' as well, though to a lesser extent.
* FightingGame: Three and a half fighting game spinoffs: ''Immaterial and Missing Power'', ''Scarlet Weather Rhapsody'' and it's ExpansionPack ''Touhou Hisoutensoku'', and ''Hopeless Masquerade''.
* FightingYourFriend:
** Stage 4 of ''Lotus Land Story'' has you fighting whichever character you ''didn't'' choose. Only Reimu and Marisa were playable at this point.
** It was repeated in stage 4 of ''Imperishable Night'', which has you fighting either Reimu or Marisa, depending on the team you choose.
** Much of the story of ''Immaterial and Missing Power'', ''Phantasmagoria of Flower View'', and ''Scarlet Weather Rhapsody''.
** ''Hopeless Masquerade'' plays it straight and averts it at times. Reimu and Marisa fight each other in their own routes (they're probably used to it by now), but the buddhists and taoists never fight amongst themselves (except for stage 5 in Ichirin's and Futo's routes, but that's Mamizou in disguise both times). And then there's Koishi, who, while not being a part of the Myouren crew, still is a freshly converted buddhist, so her fighting against either Ichirin or Byakuren may or may not count.
* FirstPersonSnapshooter: The {{Gaiden Game}}s ''Shoot the Bullet'' and ''Double Spoiler'', in which you play a reporter whose sole method of dealing with enemies and bosses is [[MartialArtsAndCrafts taking pictures of them]].
** In [=ISC=], Seija can equip the Tengu's Toy Camera to both slots to imitate Aya.
* FlawlessVictory:
** Capturing spell cards, which requires wiping the spell card's corresponding LifeMeter segment or, in the case of a survival card, surviving it without losing any lives or bombs.
** ''Fairy Wars'' gives golden medals for capturing cards without dying, bombing or freezing any bullets. That was probably [[NintendoHard ZUN's idea of a joke]].
* FlyingSaucer: Part of the system in ''Undefined Fantastic Object'' involves collecting small [=UFOs=] from certain enemies that carry them. Upon collecting a red, blue and green one or three of the same color, a large UFO appears, abducts all items onscreen, and tries to fly offscreen. The saucer drops rewards upon defeat - the loot varies depending on the UFO's color and how much it absorbed.
** Also, one of Mononobe no Futo's spellcards will sometimes cause one to smash into her enemy.
* FollowTheLeader: ''Phantasmagoria of Dim. Dream'' was made shortly after ''VideoGame/TwinkleStarSprites''.
** Seihou was rather obviously inspired by Touhou.
** ''[[http://www.kongregate.com/games/kupo707/bullet-heaven Bullet Heaven]]'', a sort of 'westernized' ''Touhou'' game--the achievements have shoutouts to ''Imperishable Night'' and ''Ten Desires''.
** [[http://dagobah.net/flash/Project_Nize_Festival.swf Project Nite Festival]] combines the bomb-power system from Mountain of Faith with a gameplay similar to Imperishable Night, custom characters and spellcards.
* FourIsDeath: The enemies of the fourth day of ''Impossible Spell Card'' are Yuyuko (a ghost), Yoshika (a jiang shi who's closer to being a zombie), and Seiga (a necromancer).
* GenreShift: Technically, ''Touhou'' itself is a GenreShift.
** The first game on the PC-98 was basically ''Alleyway'' with Reimu hitting a ball.
** The second game was a shooter, but the closest one can get to the modern gameplay is with ''Mystic Square'', the last PC-98 game.
** The two ''Phantasmagorias''; the other games are single-player scrolling shooters whilst ''Dim. Dream'' and ''Flower View'' are versus shooters.
** ''Immaterial and Missing Power'', ''Scarlet Weather Rhapsody'', ''Hisoutensoku'' and ''Hopeless Masquerade'' are 2-D fighters.
** Nobody is entirely sure what to call ''Shoot the Bullet'' and ''Double Spoiler''.
* GiantSpaceFleaFromNowhere: In ''Hisoutensoku'' there was a [[spoiler:giant catfish from nowhere]] as the final boss for [[spoiler:Meiling's route]].
* HarderThanHard: Lunatic mode. It's aptly named.
** ''Ten Desires'' adds Overdrive. It's an extra difficulty added to specific spellcards (one for each non-cameo character) that's unlocked by capturing that spellcard on all other difficulties. They range from being the next logical step up after the lunatic version to being much, much worse.
* HitboxDissonance: [[NecessaryWeasel Intentional]], as the games are [[BulletHell quite impossible]] until you learn to exploit it to the fullest. The radius of the hitboxes of large bullets are smaller than the radius of the sprites, so it is typically possible to move the player's hitbox into the very edge of the bullet's sprite and not die. In addition, the boss' hitboxes are usually purposefully larger than their sprites in order to make it easy to shoot the boss.
* HitStop: Some high-power spellcards in ''Scarlet Weather Rhapsody'' and ''Hisoutensoku'', like Komachi's "Unpitiable Pitiable Life", Suwako's "Mishaguji-sama" and Meiling's "Light Lotus Palm" use this effect.
* HoldTheLine: Some of the bosses have spell cards that make them invulnerable, and you can't do anything other than dodge and wait for time to run out. Those are commonly known as "Survival" or "Time-Out" Spellcards.
** In ''Phantasmagoria of Flower View'', every single battle in Extra Stages as Komachi or Eiki are this. The enemy is invulnerable for a set amount of time and you must survive until their time is up, at which they often screw up on purpose.
* JackOfAllStats: Reimu tends to have the most balances shot types in terms of power and range.
* KaizoTrap: After beating bosses, it takes a second before the projectiles turn into tokens. So if you aren't careful, you can win, but still die.
** This can cause a glitch in games that use the second version of the engine(''Mountain of Faith'' to ''Undefined Fantastic Object'', ''Shoot the Bullet'' uses that engine as well, but this glitch doesn't occur because of different stage mechanic). Basically if this happens at the end of third stage, and you'll respawn after the "Stage Complete" message, you'll be stuck in that stage. You'll still have full control of the character, but some people reported being unable of alt-tabbing out of the game in fullscreen mode.
** Last Spells are often this. When you think you have defeated the enemy, you rush to the top of the screen to trigger the auto-collect and the enemy respawns right on you, giving no reaction time.
* LethalLavaLand: ''Subterranean Animism'' stages 5 and 6, which take place in the former Hell of Blazing Fires, further warmed by an underground STAR.
* MadeOfExplodium: Frogs. There's a shot-type and four seperate spellcards based on them blowing up.
** Artful Sacrifice. Yes, Alice uses gunpowder as filling for her dolls. And it results in a hilarious dialogue between Alice and Marisa in ''Subterranean Animism''.
* MagicMissileStorm: With the series being a fantasy-themed BulletHell series, this trope is basically the premise.
* MarathonBoss: By shmup standards, anyway. Each game has a BonusBoss which typically takes 8-10 minutes to defeat.
* MechanicallyUnusualFighter:
** The ReallySevenHundredYearsOld [[PhysicalGod goddess]] Suwako Moriya from '' Hisoutensoku''. Her standing is actually crouching, and her crouching is conjuring a lily pad underneath her, making her ''taller''. Her regular walking is slowly hopping like a [[AnimalMotif frog]] (and while hopping she counts as being in the air), and her ground dash is swimming underground, making her invincible to all attacks. Her air movement is her flapping her arms around, and is limited to several directions. Her attacks are relatively normal, though.
** [[EmptyShell Koishi Komeiji]] is the whacky fighter of ''Hopeless Masquerade''. To start, like Suwako, her dash is her ''prancing around'' while invisible, making her immune to all attacks. Unlike Suwako, her main whackiness is in her attacks. For most of her attacks, she ''doesn't instantly perform them when you input the commands''. Instead, she "stocks" them and use it ''automatically'' when certain conditions are met. For example, her 8B is performed only when she's under the opponent, and Catch and Rose is activated only after you hit the opponent with another attack. Also, she needs about 1-2 seconds before the moves are ready to activate, so you really need to predict the situations beforehand.
** To a lesser extent, Byakuren, who needs to charge her specials first before being able to actually use it.
* MercyMode: After running out of continues a few times in ''Imperishable Night'', the game's options allow you to start with a few additional lives. "A few" ultimately resulting in a continue's worth of lives totaling 8, where most other games only let you have half as many. Perhaps another reason for EasyModeMockery specifically in ''[=IN=]''.
* MickeyMousing: Some levels try to perfectly synchronize themselves with their music, to the extent where you get bonus enemies to destroy if you kill the midboss quickly, and perhaps even skip a pattern if you kill the first few too slowly.
** In ''Double Dealing Character'', Raiko's last two spell cards are in sync with the music.
* MoreDakka: [[StalkedByTheBell Taking your time]] in some of ''Imperishable Night'''s last words will eventually result in the bosses reaching the bullet limit, causing some of the patterns to glitch up. [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jI-u7zCjquM This]] is just about the closest you can get to having enough dakka.
** If you don't have enough, try '''Touhou Ultra'''. It has so much more it can screw up patterns completely.
* MultipleEndings: At the very least, each shottype gets its own ending. Beyond that, specifics vary:
** Most games give you a character-specific bad ending for beating the game after using a continue. The ''Phantasmagoria'' games don't care, and ''Fairy Wars'' just doesn't give you an ending if you continue. ''Mountain of Faith'' also gives you one regardless of continues if [[EasyModeMockery you played on easy]].
*** And in ''Lotus Land Story'' and ''the Embodiment of Scarlet Devil'', [[EasyModeMockery after beating the fifth stage in easy mode, you proceed to the bad ending directly]].
** The games that have route selections give you an ending based on which route you take.
** ''Imperishable Night'' combines the two above into something odd. You get a Bad Ending for ''running out'' of continues. You get a normal ending for facing Eirin as the final boss, who you'll be locked into fighting if it's your first time playing with that character or if you continued.
** ''Ten Desires'' gives you a 'Parallel Ending' if you beat the game on normal or higher with at least three bombs in stock (bombs from unused lives don't count).
* MultipleLifeBars: Each life bar represents an attack pattern. Stage bosses have at least four patterns.
* NintendoHard:
** It's fairly easy to get to the end by arcade shmup standards, as it wasn't designed to take your money. Doesn't stop it from being frustrating for some players, though. Especially on higher difficulties, getting a good ending is quite a feat. With that said, although the games are ''hard'', they are also ''fair''; most patterns are generally good with being about learning how to avoid them rather than just tossing cheap shots at you, so every death is your own fault.
** Games 10 through 12 made things worse by having continues send you back to the beginning of the stage (thankfully reverted back in ''Fairy Wars'') and removing the option to increase your base lives above three (this one still stands).
** ''Shoot the Bullet'' is 11 levels of the most sadistic, multi-layered spell cards in the whole series. Unlike any of the other games, you have no extra lives, no bombs, you lose when you time out, your only weapon is a camera that needs to be charged and manually aimed for long distance attacks, and some bosses are only vulnerable for a fraction of a second. Lastly, the difficulty ''is not adjustable at all''. You do take on each spell card individually and have infinite retries, but the incredible difficulty makes clearing it impossible for most people.
** The sequel, ''Double Spoiler'', is somewhat better thanks to improved camera controls and a new unlockable character that makes most cards easier to beat. It's still harder than the normal ''Touhou'' games, though. ZUN even had this on his blog.
-->''[[Administrivia/YouHaveBeenWarned Warning]]: Compared to the other works in the series, the difficulty level of this game in terms of full completion is [[NintendoHard rather high]], so be prepared.''
** Even ''fan-made crossover games'' fall into this, probably a direct result of putting danmaku in genres where you're actually affected by gravity and don't have a tiny hitbox.
** For the really masochistic people, there's [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Je-mu6z532E Ultra mode hacks,]] or cranking up the framerate to play at [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uDUdRryiE78 150% speed...]]
* NormallyIWouldBeDeadNow: An in-game feature later games gives you a very tiny window after you are hit to bomb, thereby preventing a loss of a life. The eighth game actually makes an entire gameplay mechanic based around this, although that instance is more of a BigDamnHeroes moment as the teammate of the one that was hit comes in and uses the bomb.
* NoSell:
** The final card of the final boss is immune to bombs, though they still clear the bullets away (though usually with some diminished effect, like a smaller radius or only getting half of them or somesuch). You'll have to grind down their health the normal way.
*** The only exception to the rule is Utsuho Reiuji, the final boss in ''Subterranean Animism'', which gains armor instead. In other words, you can continue doing reduced damage to her with a bomb, but this comes with the cost that the bombs don't clean the bullets in the screen.
** All [[BonusBoss extra and phantasm stage bosses]] have this effect for all spellcards, except in ''Fairy Wars''. In the versus shooters they are completely invincible for a certain period of time.
* ObviousBeta: ''Hopeless Masquerade'' was likely rushed for the convention it was released in. It was playable, but there were random crashes (particularly around Koishi) and the final boss was only playable in Story Mode...probably because ''she had no special moves or Spellcards implemented''. This was all eventually fixed with patches.
* OffModel: ZUN's artistic capabilities are... inconsistent. Alphes was generally much better about this, but the ''Hopeless Masquerade'' art is ''rife'' with anatomy issues.
* OneHitPointWonder: Standard for BulletHell game protagonists. Curiously enough, when you meet playable characters as bosses they gain SuperToughness instead.
* PacifistRun:
** The bosses' attacks are all on timers, and it's possible to beat them just by outlasting them. They'll even blow up at the end regardless of whether you fired any shots at them. Since this requires inhuman dodging skills on some of the harder attacks, it has become a favorite SelfImposedChallenge for ''Touhou'' gamers. Given the [[NintendoHard difficulty]] of the games to begin with, this kind of challenge is usually considered another sign that ''Touhou'' players are insane.
** Most of the extra bosses actually have a secret difficulty on their last (or second-to-last, in Yukari's case) spell card, triggered by attempting to go pacifist. Normally, those spell cards start off easy, but get harder as the boss loses HP. [[TheDevTeamThinksOfEverything To prevent cheesing the game]] and trivializing what should be a climactic end by just waiting, the spell card will have an extremely hard pattern, even harder than the normal final pattern, starting at 30 seconds left if the boss has not lost enough HP.
* ParabolicPowerCurve: It's generally accepted that the stage 5 boss will be harder than the final boss, or at least as hard. The reason for this is that stage 5 bosses tend to have more experimental or random patterns, with fewer bullets but much trickier dodging. Final bosses are all about large quantities of bullets at all times, but because they're fired in easily predicted patterns, they're not nearly as challenging for experienced players, even if it's their first time fighting that particular boss.
* PinballScoring: Typical scores after beating the game are in the millions. Highscores are in the billions.
** Taken to the extreme where you can score more points on the final level than the rest of the game. Combined.
* RecursiveAmmo
* SceneryPorn: Next time you watch a replay of any game from ''Mountain of Faith'' onward, ignore the pretty bullets and look at the backgrounds. They're absolutely stunning.
* SchizophrenicDifficulty: Significantly more the case in the photography games, which have things like ''Double Spoiler'''s 11th level being easier than its 8th level, and the bizarrely difficult 3rd level of ''Shoot The Bullet''. Great Fairy Wars is also infamous for its difficulty spike, even for a Touhou game.
* SchmuckBait: About the upper quarter of the screen is an area called Point of Collection, or POC. If you're in this area with maximum power (TH05-TH07) or in general (TH09 and on), all items that enemies drop will float towards your character. This is essential to racking up points. Except... it's highly recommended you stay away from the POC area unless you know you can sweep around. Sometimes it's too tempting to grab up all the items and then enemies suddenly come out to take a life.
* ScoreScreen
* ScoringPoints: The mainline games have scoring systems. The PC-98 games' scoring tend to be pretty simple, but the Windows games [[GuideDangIt make figuring scoring out a chore]].
* SerialEscalation: The whole series could be characterized as "And here, ZUN thought if you can win after 20 tries, the game is too easy".
* SincerestFormOfFlattery: Wondering why some game mechanics look a lot like ''VideoGame/DonPachi'''s and ''{{Darius}}''? ZUN is a {{Fanboy}} of Creator/{{Cave}}'s and Creator/{{Taito}}'s shooters, [[http://en.touhouwiki.net/wiki/Bohemian_Archive_in_Japanese_Red/Interview praising their stories and characters]].
* SmartBomb: ''Touhou'' uses a more stylish take on the SmartBomb, and it depends on the player selected.
** "Spell cards" are [[CallingYourAttacks named]] [[VancianMagic Vancian]] style [[FunctionalMagic magic]] attacks. Whenever someone uses a spell card, the screen goes to an abnormal background, a portrait of the character appears on the screen, the [[CallingYourAttacks name]] of the spell card is shown in the corner, and a [[InstantRunes circle]] surrounds the user, getting smaller and smaller until the effect runs out. When a boss uses a spell card, a bullet pattern appears on the screen. When a player uses a spell card, they use a SmartBomb.
** In the 2-player ''Phantasmagoria of Flower View'', the game uses a SplitScreen approach in which using a spell card {{Smart Bomb}}s your side of the screen ''and'' puts bullets on your opponent's side of the screen.
** It's also a notable source of GameplayAndStorySegregation, since in ''Imperishable Night'', the playable characters become bosses and use their SmartBomb attacks on you as bullet patterns which look nothing like each other. This is lampshaded in the in-game commentary, where the author says, "This is another spell card that doesn't look much like when the player uses it."
* SpinningPaper: Appears in ''Hopeless Masquerade'' at the end of a match, with the headlines indicating who won.
* SpritePolygonMix: All of the windows era main series games uses this. Hopeless Masquerade will be the first of the fighters to incorporate this.
* StalkedByTheBell:
** Rarely occurs, since [[PacifistRun Timing Out is a victory condition]], but some spell cards have an extra phase that usually begins when 30 seconds remain on said card. [[RealityWarper Yukari's]] second-to-last card, "[[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9bTnLf1ju70 Boundary of Life and Death",]] [[FantasticNuke Utsuho's]] final card, "[[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jdtRhBxsPz8 Subterranean Sun",]] and [[MemeticMolester Gengetsu's]] [[FanNickname aptly nicknamed]] "[[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FS-o5nYe9pw Gengetsu Rape Time"]] all do this.
** ''Highly Responsive to Prayers'' does similarly, with random bullets shooting at you if the clock runs out on any stage.
** ''Shoot the Bullet'' and ''Double Spoiler'' technically play it straight, but the setup all but ensures you will either defeat the boss or perish long before you time out.
* StepIntoTheBlindingFight: The Night Sparrow {{Youkai}}, Mystia Lorelei, who can [[BrownNote cause night-blindness with her songs]]. In the boss fight against her, this is implemented as [[InterfaceScrew you being unable to see anything except a small area around your character]].
* SuperMovePortraitAttack: The player's and the boss's spell cards. Utsuho's nuclear-based spell cards come with warning sirens and big yellow "CAUTION!!" tape on top of that.
* TrialAndErrorGameplay: Many, many, many times.
** When Mima flashes in ''Story of Eastern Wonderland'' it means she's about to ram you. Moving to the side is recommended.
** Yuuka has an attack more or less guaranteed to kill you the first time you see them in both fights in ''Lotus Land Story''. In her first fight, there's her so-called "[[WaveMotionGun Master Spark]]"; it's very obvious that she's about to do something, but there's no indication that you need to be on the side of the screen to survive. In the second fight she has an attack that places a shrinking circle under the player: Gamer instinct is to get as far away as possible... [[DeathByGenreSavviness and the attack hits everywhere ''except'' in the circle]].
** The fourth stage of ''Embodiment of Scarlet Devil'' has certain enemies that will cancel all bullets on screen when they die. The stage is much more passable if you know about them, but a first-time player won't.
*** In the same game, the normal bullet pattern Remilia uses after her second spell card is essentially a cheap shot against anyone not expecting it/not being careful enough, because it comes out '''WICKED''' fast.
** Mokou's Forgiveness "Honest Man's Death" has a gimmick that's completely unique in the entire series: The laser won't kill you if you move towards it when it's firing. Most people have to get help with this one online. - it is actually the case that the laser's hitbox only activates when it passes through your position at the point in time when it was originally fired: moving towards the laser's point of origin at any point after this will save you. Of course, this still requires some trial and error to figure out alone.
** Yuugi's Four Devas Arcanum "Knock Out In Three Steps" is basically impossible to capture unless you already know what to expect. It relies on you being in the right place ''before'' the bullets start moving.
** And of course, there's several instances in the ENTIRE series where memorizing where enemies come from at which point in each stage and destroying them as soon as possible greatly reduces the amount of bullets you have to dodge. It's safe to say that it is virtually ''impossible'' to not be subject to this when playing these games.
* TurnsRed:
** Almost all the the spell cards in ''Shoot the Bullet'' and ''Double Spoiler'', as you take successful shots.
*** This appears to be what those spell cards would look like from Easy mode to [[NintendoHard Lunatic difficulty]].
** Inverted in the main series, where some spell cards will speed up if the player isn't damaging the boss fast enough.
* UnitsNotToScale: With the exception of ''Embodiment of Scarlet Devil'', bosses are markedly larger than the player, regardless of how large they're supposed to actually be. This is also {{lampshaded}} by ZUN. Occasionally, fan art makes jokes based on how large the hitbox of a boss is.
[[/folder]]

[[folder: Tropes that pertain to the story, fanon, fandom, or other non-gameplay elements]]
* AesopAmnesia: Each of the character's storylines in ''Phantasmagoria of Flower View'' ends with them learning AnAesop. If you play as Eiki, however, which takes place after all of the others, it turns out that everyone forgot or misunderstood what they were supposed to learn.
* TheAlcoholic:
** At least every other picture of ZUN shows him drinking alcohol, with several bottles of it at his side, or both.
** In the series canon, oni are the heaviest drinkers out of everyone, followed closely by the tengu, and the cast ''really'' loves their alcohol in any shape or form in the ExpandedUniverse.
* AllThereInTheManual: See that list of side materials up above? That's where the vast majority of the world-building is. On a smaller scale, a considerable amount of any given game's story is in it's prologue and character profiles.
* AlreadyDoneForYou: Perspective {{Inverted}} in ''Ten Desires''. Mamizou found out that the heroines have already defeated Miko, the person whom she's called for by Nue to defeat. Doesn't stop her from fighting said heroines, just because. Considering [[BonusBoss Mamizou's]] [[ThatOneBoss power]], perhaps the heroines should just stay at home.
* ArtEvolution: Inevitable in a long-running series like this.
** And not only the art but the music has also undergone an immense evolution as the series has progressed.
* ArcWelding: [[http://en.touhouwiki.net/wiki/Ten_Desires_special_and_two-part_interview_with_ZUN According to an interview]] with ZUN for ''Ten Desires'', this was said game's intention: to connect the new trilogy, [[FanNickname also known as the]] "[[MemeticMutation Moriya Shrine conspiracy]]", (''Mountain of Faith'', ''Subterranean Animism'', and ''Undefined Fantastic Object'') to the older trilogy (''Embodiment of Scarlet Devil'', ''Perfect Cherry Blossom'', and ''Imperishable Night''). Due to a [[ContrivedCoincidence certain fan theory]], ''Ten Desires'' may have been able to connect to every Windows game in one go.
* AsianRuneChant: Referenced in some of Sanae's spellcards.
* AutobotsRockOut: Two songs, "A Tiny, Tiny Clever Commander" and "Nuclear Fusion", are uniquely in the rock genre by default, the former practically a synthtar, the latter is simply epic. The latter is the final boss theme of SA, while the former is the ''first boss theme'' of UFO.
** Also the remix of one of Reimu's themes used in Hopeless Masquerade named "[[http://youtu.be/2DUjUPzIfBk?t=46s Colorful Path]]".
** The last word theme from ''Hopeless Masquerade''.
** Every boss theme in ''Double Dealing Character'' is some form of rock. Stage 4 is especially unique for including a biwa and koto as its rocking boss theme.
* AwesomeButImpractical: The Spellcard Rules fall into this, since it prefers beauty rather than lethality. ZUN himself [[LampshadeHanging lampshaded]] that:
-->Beauty of danmaku is total nonsense for the bosses. If they really have the intent to kill someone, they won't even need 1/10 of those bullets.
* BackstoryHorror: Many characters have nasty things in their past, and Gensokyo itself was originally far more dangerous, but none of it ever comes up in the current storylines.
* BattleButler: Many penultimate bosses are a servant of the final boss and have very unlikely job descriptions for someone of their combat abilities.
** In ''Phantasmagoria of Dim. Dream'' Chiyuri is Yumemi's research assistant in "comparative physics".
** ''Mystic Square'' and ''The Embodiment of Scarlet Devil'' both have {{Ninja Maid}}s in the form of Yumeko and Sakuya, the latter being by far one of the most popular characters of the franchise.
** ''Perfect Cherry Blossom'' introduces [[MundaneMadeAwesome samurai gardener]] Youmu. You wouldn't recognize her as such from the fanbase, though.
** Komachi from ''Phantasmagoria of Flower View'' also counts, since her official job is to be TheFerryMan of the Sanzu River.
** Eirin and Reisen from ''Imperishable Night'' both fit the part, being Kaguya's pharmacist and pet respectively. However, ZUN states that Eirin is actually stronger than Kaguya and [[WillfullyWeak limits her power]] out of respect for the princess.
** In ''Mountain of Faith'' Sanae is the priestess of both the final and extra boss, who are both gods.
** ''Subterranean Animism'' reverses this trend by having the BigBad and the stage 5 boss be the pets of the stage 4 boss.
* {{Badass}}: ''[[WorldOfBadass Every]] [[AdaptationalBadass single]] [[BadassAdorable girl]]'', but that soccer [[{{Mundangerous}} ball]] [[MemeticMutation is the most powerful thing in Gensokyo]]![[note]]The soccer ball is able to withstand every girl's spell card.[[/note]]
* BadassBoast: Every final boss, and many of the other bosses. Makes sense, as spell card duels are all about being as flashy and bombastic as possible.
* BareYourMidriff: Fanart often shows the blouses worn by characters such as Reimu, Marisa, Flandre or Sanae riding up when they raise their arms.
* BarredFromTheAfterlife: We have [[CuteGhostGirl Yuyuko Saigyouji]], the princess of the Netherworld, the place where souls wait for their {{Reincarnation}}. However, because [[spoiler: her body is being used to seal the [[EldritchAbomination Saigyou Ayakashi]]]] she cannot enter the cycle of reincarnation and is stuck forever as a ghost. She seems to be enjoying it, though.
* BeneathTheEarth: ''Subterranean Animism'' introduces a society of "hated" youkai living underground; surface youkai are forbidden from entering their realm due to an ancient treaty, but the opposite is not true. This realm includes the former site of Hell - it was relocated due to overcrowding, but some of the workers and evil spirits are still around.
* BerserkButton: The fandom has one in the question "What anime is this?" as well as when someone on [=YouTube=] claims that ''Touhou'' [[IncrediblyLamePun stole from]] [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ssh71hePR8Q the McRoll.]] For the uninitiated, the [=McRoll=] is based on Flandre's theme, ''not'' the other way around. Western fandom is also beginning to detest old memes ([[HilariousInHindsight pads]], etc.).
** Similar to the [=McRoll=] question, some members of the fandom will get annoyed if you try to call Flandre's Theme "Death Waltz".
** May the Lord have mercy on you if you tell Reimu she has awful night vision.
* BewareTheNiceOnes: Most characters are rather friendly when there isn't an incident, and even those with a low "human friendship level" like Yuuka are nice as long as you don't hit their BerserkButton. They're still powerful combatants with huge reserves of magic who won't hesitate to beat you to a pulp in a duel.
* BewareTheSillyOnes: Nearly everyone. Most pre-battle conversations are rather [[SeinfeldianConversation bizarre]] before the danmaku starts.
* BlackEyesOfCrazy: Inverted with the hobgoblins in ''Wild and Horned Hermit'' that despite them having black sclera, in this setting they come of as the OnlySaneMan.
* BloodKnight: As ZUN explains, the only characters we meet are the sorts of people who get into fights at a drop of the hat, because that's what the game revolves around. All the peaceful, boring people sit around at home [[NominalImportance without names.]]
* BlondeBrunetteRedhead: In ''Forbidden Scrollery'', the three main characters are Marisa (blonde), Reimu (brunette) and Kosuzu (redhead). There's also the Three Mischievous Fairies, Luna Child (blonde), Star Sapphire (brunette) and Sunny Milk (redhead).
* BlueAndOrangeMorality: Youkai as a whole act "odd" by human standards, and Yukari is weird even by ''their'' standards. In the fandom, this ranges from justifying youkai being murderers, to being ditzy weirdoes.
* BiggerOnTheInside:
** Yuuka's mansion, Mugenkan, in ''Lotus Land Story''.
** The Scarlet Devil Mansion. {{Hand Wave}}d - Sakuya uses her time and space manipulation to cause the effect.
** Eientei. {{Hand Wave}}s involving timehax are also involved, courtesy of Kaguya.
** The Palanquin ship of ''Undefined Fantastic Object'' appears a lot larger on the inside as well - [[UpToEleven despite it being a massive wooden ship already]].
* BoobsOfSteel: Because ZUN almost never draws boobs on any of the characters, their bust sizes in {{fanon}} are the result of mass MemeticMutation among fanartists. The most mature-seeming characters will usually be drawn with the largest breasts. See SelfFanservice on [[YMMV/{{Touhou}} the YMMV page]].
* BootstrappedLeitmotif: A character's {{Leitmotif}} usually ends up being the music from their boss fight, but this trope happens a few times. Meiling, Alice and Youmu all get their stage themes as {{Leitmotif}}s (along with their boss themes); Suika gets her pre-battle theme (again, along with her boss theme).
* BossInMookClothing: Every game has at least one "[[FanNickname death fairy]]"/"[[DoomyDoomsOfDoom doom fairy]]" -- a seemingly normal [[{{Mook}} fairy]] that has attacks and health comparable to most bosses. They always come from the top-center of the screen, and, like bosses, have abnormally elaborate bullet patterns.
* BreakingTheFourthWall: Happens every now and then in the games.
* BreakoutCharacter: The very first one was Mima and Marisa in ''Story of Eastern Wonderland''.
** There's Yukka, a boss in ''Lotus Land Story'', and playable in ''Mystic Square'' and ''Phantasmagoria of Flower View''.
** Cirno. She received her pwn game in ''Great Fairy Wars''.
** Seija now has one, as ''Impossible Spellcard''.
* BrickJoke: From ''Inaba of the Moon and Inaba of the Earth'', the [[UnconventionalSmoothie Banana Yogurt]] ''[[StockYuck Natto]]'' Drink.
* BrokeTheRatingScale: ''The Grimoire Of Marisa'' includes a star rating for each spell card, but several are passed over for being too weak or too strong for the rating to matter, and others get silly ones, such as "Mega-Disgusting Score" for Wriggle's bug attacks.
* ButterflyOfDoom: Just about every game from ''Mountain of Faith'' to ''Hopeless Masquerade'' (barring the {{Gaiden Game}}s), which some fans call the "[[MemeticMutation Moriya Shrine conspiracy]]". It starts out with an incident caused by a group of newcomers (the Moriya Shrine) arriving in Gensokyo. They then try to give Genokyo nuclear power, which causes another incident. That incident then sets free the followers of a sealed youkai priestess, starting yet another incident. ''And then'' the sealed youkai and her followers come into conflict with the subject of the next incident, a resurrected ruler from ancient Japan and her own followers. ''Hopeless Masquerade'' then has a religious conflict breaking out between the two groups. All because the Moriya Shrine was trying to modernize the place. [[UnwittingInstigatorOfDoom Thanks, Kanako.]]
* TheCameo: ''Wild and Horned Hermit'' is absolutely covered in these. The story hasn't used many characters yet, but Azuma Aya seems to want to draw as many as possible.
** ''Hopeless Masquerade'' features almost every character from the Windows games ([[AllThereInThemanual and the supplementary material]]), if not as a player character, then as a spectator in the background. Notable exceptions are Akyuu, the Watatsuki sisters, Kasen, Meiling, and [[MadwomanInTheAttic Flandre]].
* CannotCrossRunningWater: Remilia and Flandre Scarlet (and supposedly other ''Touhou'' vampires) have this among their weaknesses.
* CarnivoreConfusion: Gensokyo has a food chain. [[ToServeMan You're not at the top of it]], since most non-human characters ''will'' attempt to eat helpless humans away from the protection of a village.
* CastHerd: Given the [[LoadsAndLoadsOfCharacters enormous number of characters]], it isn't surprising they tend to be split into distinct groups. Sometimes this is done per game, but other times, it's done based on location (Eientei/Moriya), based on intellect ("[[TheDitz Team 9]]"), and so forth. Tends to be subverted over time as each group stars in [[http://en.touhouwiki.net/wiki/Inaba_of_the_Moon_and_Inaba_of_the_Earth works that]] [[http://en.touhouwiki.net/wiki/Cage_in_Lunatic_Runagate elaborate on]] [[http://en.touhouwiki.net/wiki/Silent_Sinner_in_Blue their members']] [[http://en.touhouwiki.net/wiki/Eastern_and_Little_Nature_Deity_/_Strange_and_Bright_Nature_Deity characterizations.]]
* CelestialBureaucracy: Used repeatedly, given how many of the settings have to do with the afterlife. One recurring gag is that the Ministry of Right and Wrong (ie: Hell), is constantly running into budget problems and has to either downsize, come up with alternate sources of income like publishing guidebooks, or whatever else the story requires.
* ChekhovsGun[=/=]{{Foreshadowing}}: ''Perfect Memento in Strict Sense'' was released in 2006 before the game ''Mountain of Faith''. With that in mind, look through some of the articles and realize just how much of ''Perfect Memento'' became used in future games.
* CherryBlossoms: Present in ''Perfect Cherry Blossom'', [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin of course]]. They apparently contain the power of spring. Some of the bosses charge their spell cards by absorbing cherry blossoms.
* ChuckCunninghamSyndrome: Most of the characters that appeared in the PC-98 games (read: every character except Reimu, Marisa, Alice, and Yuuka) have not made any more appearances outside of the game they originally appeared in. Compare that to the cast members of the games since ''Embodiment of Scarlet Devil'', who make appearances in multiple games and source material.
* CityWithNoName: The Human Village (somewhat justified in that there seems to be only the one), and the Former District of Hell (also called the Ancient City or the Subterranean City). There's also a Tengu City somewhere up Youkai Mountain (ugh...) and a Lunar Capital on the Moon, but they may just be a product of people only talking about it indirectly (popular petnames).
** The only properly named city in the whole series is Mayohiga.
* ClapYourHandsIfYouBelieve:
** The premise of ''Mountain of Faith'', along with GodsNeedPrayerBadly.
** If [[TheOneGuy Rinnosuke's]] theories are correct, the entire realm of Gensokyo ''inverts'' this. According to him, things such as magic, youkai, gods, etc. are able to exist in Gensokyo because people in the outside world ''actively disbelieve'' in them. For instance, in the tie-in manga ''Silent Sinner in Blue'', he manages to find information on the Moon landings because, as he claims, enough people have become convinced that they never happened. There is also evidence to the contrary (what with him being a KnowNothingKnowItAll), so this is hardly conclusive proof.
** In general, this is how youkai and gods come into being. The belief of them makes them stronger, while forgetting them causes them to ether disappear (Youkais) or return to being a nameless Divine Spirit (God). Gods, however are shaped by their Myths, which allows them to change their titles and powers due to their followers believing in them. Yasaka was orginally a Storm god before she became a Mountain god, for example. The real reason for Gensokyo is to seperate the Youkai from human imagination, allowing them to shape themselves. This trope is played straight, subverted, and inverted all at the same time.
* ConservationOfCompetence: Most "servant" characters in the series are portrayed by the narrative as fairly useless or lazy compared to their hyper-competent bosses. However, they're still strong enough to make stage 5 a challenge.
* ContinuityCreep: The plots of the games were originally largely standalone. Each game was generally self-contained. However, starting with ''Mountain of Faith'', the series has gained continuity, the events happening in each game becoming connected in various ways. ZUN has both stated that "''Touhou'' is not a series" and included the phrase "''Touhou'' series" in manuals.
* ContinuityReboot: The first 5 games were released between 1996 and 1998 on the Japan-only PC-98 computer. In 2002, the series continued on the Windows platform starting with ''Touhou 6'', ''Embodiment of Scarlet Devil''. Although the numbering scheme still includes the PC-98 games, most of the characters and events in these games have never been mentioned again in any canon materials, including ''Perfect Memento in Strict Sense''. The only exceptions are PC-98 characters who made reappearances in the Windows games: Reimu Hakurei, Marisa Kirisame, Alice Margatroid (looking much older than her appearance as a child in ''Mystic Square'' and with a different backstory), and Yuuka Kazami. Fans still argue if the rest of the PC-98s are canon and if Alice's new backstory can compliment hers in Mystic Square.
* ConvectionSchmonvection: There are many examples, but some notable ones involve flying through the Burning Hells and fighting a boss who throws miniature suns at you routinely. Some of this can be justified by GameplayAndStorySegregation, but the player characters should have really died well before reaching Utsuho. Reimu does comment on how incredibly hot it is and that she's feeling like she's about to get roasted. She (and probably Marisa too) is most likely only saved by her very powerful magic shielding her.
* CoolGate:
** The Hakurei Shrine serves as a gateway between our world and Gensokyo, and has a traditional Japanese arch.
** The gate at Hakugyokurou is placed at the entrance to the Netherworld, but it doesn't open. People just fly over it instead.
* CrapsaccharineWorld: ''[[AllThereInTheManual Neo-traditionalism of Japan]]'' gives us a viewpoint of the future world Maribel and Renko live in. In summary, the world is what would happen if ''{{Seihou}}'' was given a dose of ''TalesSeries'' formula. This is jarring because [[{{NightmareFuel/Touhou}} several fanon works portray Gensokyo as this]] and that this storyline is [[CerebusSyndrome surprisingly dark]].
* {{Crossover}}: "If it exists, there's a crossover with ''Touhou''" is almost an internet rule. Seriously, it even has its [[FanficRecs/TouhouCrossover own page]].
* CurtainsMatchTheWindow: All of the PC-98 characters have a same eye color as their hair (given that they're in their regular outfit). There is a fair share of Windows characters with this as well.
* CutAndPasteTranslation: There is at least one instance wherein the English translators just made stuff up, namely the "only a stage 2 boss".
* CuteEmUp: Thankfully, Gensokyo's not a SugarBowl that TastesLikeDiabetes, but it's still a major dietary source of {{Moe}}.
* CuteMonsterGirl: Almost every {{youkai}} depicted in the series is one of these.
* DefeatMeansFriendship: At least one ending to every game involves the main character having a tea party with the BigBad, and [[TheDragon dragons]] Sakuya Izayoi, Youmu Konpaku, Sanae Kochiya, and even Marisa Kirisame have become playable characters after getting defeated.
* DeliberateValuesDissonance: To match with the BlueAndOrangeMorality, standards in Gensokyo are often nothing like ours. The most obvious example is how any human not in a designated safe area during the night is [[ToServeMan fair game]] for any youkai, as humans are expected to be at least proficient in youkai hunting. This is the whole point of ''Symposium of Post-mysticism'', with Kanako, Byakuren and Miko arguing about the role of humans and youkai in Gensokyo.
* DidWeJustHaveTeaWithCthulhu: Pretty much every game has an ending like this.
* DidYouJustPunchOutCthulhu: In the PC-98 games, you defeat the Angel of Death, [[GiantSpaceFleaFromNowhere two goddesses who created their own dream world (just because your player character was bored)]], and The Goddess of Hell. In the Windows series, the protagonist stops the mistress of the Netherworld with the power to invoke death in mortals, the local Charon equivalent, one of the Judges of the dead (who is implied to be more powerful than anything in Gensokyo), a hell raven channeling the power of a sun god to control nuclear fusion, not to mention the [[RealityWarper reality-warping]] youkai who may have created Gensokyo itself. This is one of the purposes behind the spell card system - it allows even weak humans and youkai a chance at fighting stronger opponents to settle accounts, without needless, one-sided bloodshed.
* DoNotSpoilThisEnding: ZUN has requested that the fanbase keep the endings of the games secret and, for the most part, the fanbase complies (although you can find all of them if you know where to look). Given that request, and the fact that, to get a good ending, one has to 1 credit clear the game, seeing the good ending of a game is [[EarnYourFun a great accomplishment, indeed.]]
* DragonsUpTheYinYang: Dragons are rarely seen, but they are said to be in the ''highest'' class of beings in Gensokyo. One dragon spoken of in canon is worshiped as a god by human and youkai alike for his power to create or destroy anything. It's said that he appeared in the sky on the day the Great Hakurei Border was erected.
** Kasen however has a baby pet dragon and it's status as a [[GooGooGodlike godlike being makes itself known right away by causing a (very local) rainstorm]]. She alludes to the fact that simply hatching was enough to cause a calamitous thunderstorm.
** At one point in ''Wild and Horned Hermit'', Nitori mentions a water dragon "Lord Suiryuu" as being the only thing she can think of powerful enough to create the waterspout that was the focus of the chapter. Although [[spoiler:it turns out it was a Kishin.]]
** In ''Forbidden Scrollery'', Marisa accidentally helps an Evil Dragon (that's its name) unseal itself from one of Kosuzu's scrolls. Despite being Evil, it politely thanks them for the help and gives them gifts being flying away to rest for a few hundred years.
* DreamLand: The later stages of ''Story of Eastern Wonderland'' and the extra stage of ''Lotus Land Story''.
* DropInCharacter: Half the cast, to one degree or other, and into various locations, the most common being the Hakurei Shrine.
* DrunkenMaster: The creator of the games, ZUN, is a drinker, and MemeticMutation has progressed it to the point where, much like all the oni characters, he is ''never sober''. This isn't too far from the truth. Practically every image of him seems to show a beer within arm's reach, and ZUN himself admitted being drunk during some of ''Imperishable Night'''s development.
** Most of the characters seem to have inherited his tastes, since big drinking parties seem to be the most common form of recreation.
* DummiedOut: There exists a [[http://www.advancedanime.com/pictures/normal_rin_satsuki.jpg character]] cut out from ''Embodiment of Scarlet Devil'' called Rin Satsuki. Her name and two of her spell cards (Wind and Flower Signs) are found in the game's code, and fans popularly believe her appearance to be the unknown girl in the [[http://en.touhouwiki.net/images/5/54/Th06RinSatsuki.jpg circle cut]] (Comiket advertisement) for ''[=EoSD=]''.
* ElegantGothicLolita: A large chunk of the cast wears clothing in this style, though later characters' designs have moved away from it.
* EmptyQuiver: Kanako gave Utsuho power over nuclear fusion via Yatagarasu because she believes becoming known as a god who grants miraculous technology would serve as good advertising for the shrine. This ends up ''backfiring'' when Utsuho decides to use it for herself, and to [[ToCreateAPlaygroundForEvil turn Gensokyo into a living hell]]. Her status in later games have diluted to what can be classified as "Bent Spear" (we know the bomb is there, but it's not a priority) and "[[HurricaneOfPuns Faded]] [[FridgeBrilliance Giant]]" (an event that involves a nuclear reactor that's currently in use by the military, e.g. Moriya Shrine).
* EndlessWinter: In the game ''Perfect Cherry Blossom'', [[CuteGhostGirl Yuyuko]] steals spring to feed a giant monstrous cherry tree in the ghost world, causing perpetual winter in the land of Gensoukyo.
* EveryoneIsASuper: From common fairies to even average Gensokyo humans, who have some magic powers, it is flat-out assumed ''everyone'' has some kind of special powers or danmaku powers here. So, when Sanae first came to Gensokyou, she was unhappy at this fact, as she's not special anymore.
** Likewise, Rika is one of the few characters to NOT have a special ability, and offsets the fact by using technology that is normally off-limits to a non-outsider. [[CatchMeFightingDirty As well as not fighting by the rules.]]
** EveryoneHasASpecialMove: However, the spellcards each character have in stock help themselves become distinct, like [[NiceHat their hats]]. They tell stories, they reference user's power, and even the shapes of the bullets used in the spellcards can become a special trait for a character.
* ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin: If we were to tell you that ''kedama'' essentially means "fuzzball" in Japanese, could you guess what enemy it refers to?
** ''Hopeless Masquerade'' is actually a love letter to [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noh Noh theatre]].
* ExcusePlot: Progressively less as the series progresses, but the PC-98 games in particular had very flimsy plots.
* TheFairFolk: {{Youkai}} tend to act like this. They have been relatively behaving this generation due to a lazy yet powerful {{miko}} and trigger-happy CuteWitch who have been [[DefeatMeansFriendship befriending them]] constantly.
* FairyTale:
** ''Imperishable Night'''s storyline is based around [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Tale_of_the_Bamboo_Cutter The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter.]] The theme music of Kaguya Hōraisan, the final boss, is even called "Flight of the Bamboo Cutter".
** Other fairy tales are sometimes referenced in spell cards.
* {{Fanime}}:
** ''[[http://en.touhouwiki.net/wiki/Touhou_Project_Side_Story Touhou Project Side Story]]'' by SOUND HOLIC, released at Comiket 73. Features a now non-canon depiction of the Lunarians. It introduced a SpotlightStealingSquad of {{Original Character}}s, leaving the canon characters standing on the sidelines without doing much to instigate or resolve the plot. It also follows the LeaveTheCameraRunning school of cinematography.
** ''Anime/MusouKakyouASummerDaysDream'' by Maikaze, the first episode of which was released at Comiket 75. Managed to bring in such big names as Creator/RieTanaka to do voice work. Unfortunately, it had poor sales and it wasn't until 2011 that another episode was announced, and ''another'' year until it was released.
** Yuuhei Satellite's ''Gensou Mangekyou'' (or ''Fanfic/FantasyKaleidoscope''), which retells the story of ''Perfect Cherry Blossom'' in the first episode and ''the Embodiment of Scarlet Devil'' in the second.
** ''[[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P8bbNnLnPiw Patchouli to Explode]]'', released at Reitaisai [=SP2=]. Unlike the other examples here, it's based on a doujinshi and follows a small cast.
* FantasticGhetto: The underground is basically a place where despised youkai eventually settle down.
* FantasticNatureReserve: The purpose of Gensokyo's existence, which was eventually made clear from ''Mountain of Faith'' onward. Since belief in such beings as youkai and gods is rapidly disappearing in the outside world, Gensokyo is a haven for them.
* FantasticRacism:
** The residents of the underground are mostly youkai who are hated or feared, usually for their power. A notable example is the [[MindReading satori species]]. According to Hatate's comments from ''Double Spoiler'' on Satori's spells, there used to be many satoris on Youkai Mountain, but they were banished to [[FantasticGhetto the underground]] because of their [[AMindIsATerribleThingToRead ability to read other people's mind]].
** ''Undefined Fantastic Object'' brings up the question of whether it's youkai who are oppressing humans or the other way around. It should be noted that the cycle of youkai terrorizing humans and being "exterminated" in turn is actually [[InherentInTheSystem necessary for Gensokyo's survival]]. Not that that excuses some of the remarks our heroines make...
** Reimu is unique in that, despite one of the few dealing with youkai being jerks on a daily basis, she doesn't care about them one way or another.
** [[{{Tanuki}} Mamizou]] is noted for her dislike of [[{{Kitsune}} foxes]] and was responsible for driving them away from her native island of Sado. Whether Mamizou will attempt to do something similar in Gensokyo in the future is unclear.
* {{Fan Vid}}s: [[{{FanVid/Touhou}} a whole page of them.]]
* FanworkOnlyFans: ''Touhou'' is typically introduced to will-be fans through a fan video or music before those people discover the games themselves. There are many people who are fans of fandom interpretations and doujin circles and have never played an actual ''Touhou'' game.
* [[IncrediblyLamePun Flandre]][[{{Flanderization}} ization]]: {{Fanon}} is fond of this, characters commonly reduced to a single character quirk which may or may not have been a major part of their character in the original games. Given that this happens to every single character, often in multiple ways, a full list of every change would far, ''far'' larger than this page.
* FleetingDemographicRule: Formerly-inanimate objects plot social upheaval. Are they a doll[[note]]Medicine's route in ''Phantasmagoria of Flower View'', released 2005[[/note]], or musical instruments[[note]]The plot of ''Double-Dealing Character'', released 2013[[/note]]?
* FlyingFirepower: ''Everyone''.
* FriendlyWar: The main purpose of the spell card system is to allow youkai to "attack" humans without killing them, and to be "exterminated" without actually being killed themselves; this system gives the youkai sustenance so they don't die by PuffOfLogic[[note]]A youkai that doesn't attack humans isn't a youkai[[/note]] and can live their lives freely.
** SecretWar: While a [[LoadsAndLoadsOfCharacters massive array of characters]] avidly use the spell card system, it's implied that out of all of Gensokyo's population, only a handful of the major characters understand the system's real purpose. Reimu and Yukari are the best examples.
* FullContactMagic: At least in the fighting games, as well as in [[{{Doujinshi}} fanworks]], the intense nature of spell card duels is portrayed as having a fierce physical combat aspect, especially for the more physically abled girls.
* FunctionalMagic: Inherent Gift, Theurgy, Device Magic, Alchemical Magic, Rule Magic, and Force Magic are all present.
* GaidenGame: Anything with a decimal point in its number.
* GameBreakingBug:
** In ''UFO'', reaching 1 billion points would up and crash the game. A patch was released to fix this 12 days after release.
** In ''Fairy Wars'', hitting Retry from the pause menu on Stage [=C2-2=] or [=C2-3=] and then subsequently beating the game on route C2 without returning to the menu would crash the game. This one has not been patched.
** In ''Ten Desires'', the game would crash if you are not using a bomb, a valuable resource, when the Survival Card of the Extra Boss ends. This is the ''second last'' attack in the entire game. Even worse, that makes it [[UnwinnableByMistake impossible to capture]] in Spellcard mode because you aren't ''given'' any bombs to start with. Be grateful the patch for that only took 4 days after release.
** In ''Hopeless Masquerade'', the game will crash if Mamizou's Last Word is blocked.
* SlidingScaleOfGameplayAndStoryIntegration: Certain dialogue reflect gameplay events; for example, Nitori will not comment that her optical camouflage suit broke if you time out her Optical Optical Camouflage spellcard.
* GameplayAndStorySegregation: There tends to be a disconnect between what a character's powers are ''said'' to be, and what they can actually ''do.'' No matter what a character's stated powers are, they only manifest in the form of danmaku in-game. Justified, in that the spell card rules require danmaku to be used to solve disputes. It's what stops every stage 5, 6, and extra boss from curb-stomping you. See HoldingBackThePhlebotinum. The in-universe explanation for this is that the character's powers are listed in the UniverseCompendium as whatever the character ''says'' they are, even if it doesn't reflect reality in any way.
** Although divine beings are said to be poisonous to youkai, Remilia can safely suck Tenshi and Suwako's blood in ''Hisoutensoku'' in her alternate special move "Vampire Kiss".
* GhibliHills: What most of Gensokyo's landscape consists of, SceneryPorn included.
* GiantPoofySleeves: A good half of the cast.
* GoodAllAlong:
** As with WhiteAndGreyMorality, almost nobody is ''really'' evil in Gensokyo, which helps facilitate DefeatMeansFriendship. Actively noted by ZUN, who mentioned that the "darker" plots of ''Mountain of Faith'' and ''Subterranean Animism'' (see SortingAlgorithmOfEvil) would be shifted back to the lighter tone of the rest of the series in subsequent games, which was indeed the case with ''UFO'', save for the aforementioned philosophising about the nature of youkai and humans.
** The only aversions so far in canon are Seiga Kaku and Seija Kijin. Seiga is explicitly described as evil by everyone else (mostly the necromancy) and no one likes her, while Seija was not forgiven for what she did in ''Double Dealing Character'', and not even her defeat [[DefeatMeansFriendship guarantees friendship]] with the player characters; during ''Impossible Spell Card'' she's on the run because ''everyone'' is after her for what she did (not that she really minds, due to her contrarian nature).
** Fanworks love to avert this, claiming that one (or more) character is a jackass psycho. It's a running gag in some boards that ''everyone'' is evil, and some fans are of the opinion everyone is too rude to be truly "good".
* GreatBigLibraryOfEverything: Voile, the Magical Library [[note]] Voile is simply from the name of the music track that plays there: the library is never given a name in the narrative.[[/note]] in the Scarlet Devil Mansion's basement. It's large enough to allow for a stage roughly five-minute-long aerial battle over the bookshelves traveling in one direction without ever reaching the end. The library is maintained by [[BadassBookworm Patchouli Knowledge]], who spends her days locked up inside adding to the already-massive cache of knowledge - she's not just the librarian, but also the author of an unspecified proportion of the tomes in her library, and probably the overwhelming majority of the magic books in the library, given the esoteric rules for wizardry in the ''Touhou'' 'verse. While 100 straight years of this this have given her [[SquishyWizard anemia, asthma, and Vitamin A deficiency]], you are more than likely to find anything you could ever want in there ([[StickyFingers Marisa]] sure does).
* TheGreatestStoryNeverTold:
** By the end of ''Imperishable Night'', only all the team members, Kaguya and company, and Keine know that the real incident was the corrupted Moon. Everyone else thinks that the real incident was the unending night, which was actually caused by the protagonists you chose in order to buy time to fix the Moon.
** From Reimu's interview in ''Bohemian Archive in Japanese Red'', it would seem Gensokyo's residents are unaware of her resolving ''any'' of the incidents. Later on in ''Wild and Horned Hermit'', she decides to start throwing big "Incident Resolution Parties" to make sure everyone realizes that she was the hero. Although apparently this fails, since in ''Forbidden Scrollery'' Akyuu hadn't noticed that ''Double Dealing Character'' had occurred, despite that being the same Incident we saw Reimu host a party for.
* HairDecorations: If a character doesn't have a NiceHat or [[LittleBitBeastly animal ears]], they'll most likely have some kind of hair decoration instead. There are many, ''many'' kinds worn here. ZUN seemed to be uncomfortable drawing the tops of people's heads in his earlier works.
* HardWorkHardlyWorks: Most youkai seem to get by with whatever talent they're born with and no training whatsoever.
** Reimu's laziness, yet apparent genius lets her get by without any training either. Averted with Marisa, who works like crazy just to keep up.
* HatePlague: In ''Double Dealing Character'', something is causing various, normally non-violent youkai to become aggressive. It seems to be affecting player characters too; Marisa and Sakuya become AxCrazy if you play through the story with their [[EvilWeapon currently cursed weapons]].
* HeartBeatSoundtrack: ''UFO'' [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FrIbeivp_fs stage 6 theme]] has this. Probably counts as a MythologyGag to the PC-98 games, since ZUN wanted to do the ''Mystic Square'' [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0lt3xlTwT3U stage 6 theme]] with [[http://en.touhouwiki.net/wiki/Mystic_Square:_Music heartbeat sounds.]]
* HeartIsAnAwesomePower: Pretty much every character has some InformedAbility that is nearly useless if taken at face value, and the ones that don't are basically triple-7s on the SuperpowerLottery. Danmaku prowess is sometimes even completely exclusive to what power a character has, though more frequently the character's ability plays a role in their danmaku to varying degrees, such as Cirno's ice projectiles making up most but not all of her attacks.
* HeroicComedicSociopath: Many of the playable characters are acknowledged not to be the most virtuous people around, and fighting the villain of the day is often done for purely selfish reasons. Aside from their motives, the BossBanter also tends to reveal serious lapses in moral judgement on the protagonists' part.
* HoldingBackThePhlebotinum: The spell card system was created, because the youkai would have no other way to fight Reimu, who is canonically unbeatable by any method when she isn't messing around and killing her would possibly result in the collapse of Gensokyo's barrier, which separates it from our world and would thus [[TheEndOfTheWorldAsWeKnowIt eradicate Gensokyo and everyone in it]]. For Reimu it may just be an excuse to be lazy and not take things seriously. Some of the more forward thinking youkai recognize that the spell card system allows them to sit down and have tea with mortal enemies, and keeps the place at least ''safer'', if not totally safe.
** Many examples, really. There are about a dozen characters in Gensokyo who can destroy the planet if they ever go all-out and whose ''serious'' fights with each other (or Reimu, considering that the latter is not away from reality all the time) will amount to ability quickdraw. The Spellcard system is universally accepted precisely because possible consequences of a serious battle between Gensokyo's powerhouses are too scary.
* HyperactiveSprite: In the fighting games, Suika keeps goofily swaying back and forth when standing in place.
** In ''Mountain of Faith'', Hina spins while shooting bullets in all directions. ''A lot.''
* IAmNotAGun: Youkai, as beings born from human fears or as explanations for the unknown, tend to have a specific "purpose" that they were born to fulfill, most commonly to antagonize humans. Not all of them want to though, despite the risk of death or worse for being forgotten after abandoning their "purpose". Byakuren's Buddhist temple was created to help youkai either find a new purpose or simply come to terms with non-existence. Of course, most of the younger ones don't even ''know'' they have a purpose or why they should care.
* IBelieveICanFly: Pretty much everyone. By this point, the series has stopped trying to justify it. Originally, Reimu walked or used Genji, a flying turtle.
* IconicSequelCharacter: Many, MANY characters, especially since most of the characters from the first five games have disappeared without a trace, and the very first game barely have any story at all. Among the popular protagonists, Marisa debuts in the second game, and Sakuya in the sixth. Yukari, who has been part of Gensokyo's history since it was founded, doesn't even appear until the seventh game, and Sanae doesn't appear until the ''tenth''.
* IdiosyncraticEpisodeNaming: With the exception of ''Sangetsusei'' and some of the music [=CDs=], the Japanese title of every official Touhou work shares at least one kanji with the name of a character introduced in it (or involved, in the case of ''Seasonal Dream Vision'').
* ImageBoard:
** [[http://www.pooshlmer.com/wakaba/wakaba.html Pooshlmer]] is a major English imageboard for most of your ''Touhou'' needs.
** [[http://voile.gensokyo.org/ Voile,]] not to be confused with Patchouli's library, is where people translate the fancomics.
** Although [[ImageBooru Danbooru]] isn't specifically ''dedicated'' to ''Touhou'', over 25% (and growing) of its content (over 400k images, out of Danbooru's total of over a million) is ''Touhou''. Some individual ''characters'' (and not even just the main characters) have more images than entire popular ''series'' such as ''Franchise/FinalFantasy'' and ''Franchise/LyricalNanoha''. As an example, Fujiwara no Mokou, who's never been playable in any game, is represented in more posts than the entire ''Final Fantasy'' franchise.
* {{Immortality}}:
** ResurrectiveImmortality:
*** All who drink the Hourai Elixir gain the resurrective type, at least functionally. The very concept of death is removed from their being, but in practice this works by having them "respawn" whenever they take what would've been lethal damage.
*** The fairies work like this: As embodiments of nature, they are reborn immediately whenever they die. Gameplay-wise this is the explanation for how you can blow them away by the hundreds without feeling guilty, and the written stories we see them fall asleep in the snow, die of hypothermia, and wake up the next morning. Akyuu says they don't really understand what death ''is''.
** TheAgeless:
*** [[WitchSpecies Magicians]] who become "complete" gain a this - [[ReallySevenHundredYearsOld they stop aging]], but disease may or may not still kill them, as they're still [[SquishyWizard as fragile as humans]].
*** Lunarians don't age, since it's apparently caused by "impurity" which they've isolated themselves from. They can die by non-natural means, though, and it's implied that despite their efforts they still carry small traces of impurity from before they moved to the moon and will ''eventually'' die of old age, just much much slower.
*** Toyosatomimi no Miko and company were seeking this, as was Byakuren.
* ImmortalImmaturity: Practically everyone. Notable exceptions are Kaguya and Yuyuko, when she's not busy harassing her guardian. It's also implied that Suwako's childishness is really just an act.
* ImprobablyFemaleCast: Near the entire cast ''just happens'' to be female, with a literal handful of exceptions. However, statements by ZUN imply that this isn't so much a personal taste as it is something that's enforced, since so many people associate ''Touhou'' with "girls shooting bullets at each other" that changing it would ruin that dynamic. ZUN has mentioned that for ''Undefined Fantastic Object'' he originally planned to have Byakuren's brother Myouren be the final boss, but didn't go through with it since having an "old man" be the final boss of a ''Touhou'' game would be weird. Subsequently, the final boss of ''Ten Desires'' is a [[GenderFlip Gender Flipped]] [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prince_Sh%C5%8Dtoku Prince Shoutoku]], and the final boss of ''Double-Dealing Character'' is closely tied to [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Issun-b%C5%8Dshi Issun-boshi]] and has a very boyish name.
* InformedAbility: Due to how danmaku battles work,[[note]]they're essentially a formalized dueling system designed to level the playing field and reduce lethality[[/note]] most characters' stated abilities have very little relevance to their gameplay performance.
* ItAmusedMe: Bored characters do a lot of crazy things in this series and are occasionally responsible for the entire plot with no further motive than to shake things up. Many extra stage fights are along these lines on the part of both protagonist and boss. This is the entire reason why Tenshi comes down in ''Scarlet Weather Rhapsody''.
* ItRunsOnNonsensoleum: In ''Silent Sinner In Blue,'' the rocket to reach the moon is designed by taking some out-of-context tidbits from the Apollo moon missions, and hammering them back together with InsaneTrollLogic. The result is this adorable thing that basically looks like a vaguely rocket-shaped cottage with frilly curtained windows. When Eirin sneaks in to check up on it, she's shocked... at how perfectly made it is without her assistance. This is Gensokyo, so ''of course'' it's space-worthy.
* {{Jerkass}}: Most dialogue consists of the girls insulting each other, clashing egos, death threats, and in the case of defeating Mokou, casual murder and cannibalism.
* JustifiedTrope: ''So'' many. The Spell Card Rules, drafted by Reimu, justify NonLethalKO, LetsYouAndHimFight, SuperMovePortraitAttack, the ability to have crazy semiregular incidents while maintaining WhiteAndGreyMorality, and even the use of the BulletHell genre ''itself''... because the tropes are the law. And for very good reasons: it lets youkai do what they do best, lets Reimu easily resolve the incidents, and lets youkai fight back without fear of killing Reimu, which would be a very Bad Thing.
* KickingAssInAllHerFinery: Almost everyone wears pretty frilly dresses.
* {{Leitmotif}}: Each boss in the main series gets a unique song for her BossBattle, which naturally becomes her {{Leitmotif}} in fanworks.
** ''[[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qGwASZn0ZKA Shrine of the Wind ~ Theme of Eastern Story]]'' (an unused track from the first game) has become the {{Leitmotif}} for the series as a whole, with the intro music of all the main Windows games being remixes of it. Some FinalBoss themes also incorporate elements of it.
*** Considering the remixes of it that are the themes of Stages 4 and 3 of ''IN'' and ''DDC'' respectively, it might also qualify as the Leitmotif of the Bamboo Forest of the Lost.
** This even spreads over to {{Pixiv}}, where the Leitmotif acts as a special tag for [[SceneryPorn exceptionally beautiful artwork]], even for unofficial Leitmotifs for special characters. For example, the original kanji for "Lunate Elf" along with its English reading is a tag for beautiful Daiyousei works.
* LetsFightLikeGentlemen: The [[JustifiedTrope justification]] for the danmaku combat system.
* LetsSeeYOUDoBetter:
** Interestingly enough, that's how the games were created. ZUN couldn't find any game he really liked, so he created his own. And ''boy'', did it work.
** In addition, a good chunk of the fandom's appeal is the opportunity to do this with ZUN's artwork/character designs.
* LikeAnOldMarriedCouple: Reimu and Marisa. Their conversations tend to default to mild bickering and teasing.
** Marisa and Alice even moreso. In both ''Imperishable Night'' and ''Subterranean Animism'', more than once they ignore the boss just to trade snipes.
* LittleMissBadass
* LivingForeverIsAwesome: The youkai are living it and loving it. Only Mokou has a problem with immortality... and that was because she very possibly killed a man to get her dose of the Hourai Elixir. In the expanded universe, it goes slightly beyond that, having resigned to her fate after going crazy from sheer boredom at one point.
* LoadsAndLoadsOfCharacters: [[http://en.touhouwiki.net/wiki/Characters Surpassed one hundred]] years ago. Even cutting that down to only characters that have [[ContinuityReboot appeared in Windows games]], there are still over 60.
* LoadsAndLoadsOfRaces: [[http://en.touhouwiki.net/wiki/Category:Bestiary A large number]] of {{youkai}} and other groups, with every mainline game adding at least one more. Even "youkai" is just an umbrella term, and they can range from angry, ravenous monsters, to classical vampires, to beings that might as well be human.
* LostInTranslation: In ''Embodiment of Scarlet Devil'', Flandre's dialogue saying "coin ikko" (Which is a BlindIdiotTranslation that {{Atari}} made in ''STUN Runner'''s Japanese version) was simply translated to "One coin".
* LovelyAngels: ''Imperishable Night'', the 8th game in the series, fits this trope by the player playing a team of two characters, although most LA teams are a ''little bit'' more functional than they are in this game.
* LowerDeckEpisode: ''Fairy Wars'', a much shorter game than usual, focuses on a quarrel between Cirno and the Three Faeries. Every single person in the game is a fairy, with Daiyousei, Lily and the Three Faeries themselves as bosses, rather than any of the usual "A-list" cast members. [[spoiler:Except at the end of the extra stage, where Cirno takes on Marisa]].
* LuckyRabbitsFoot: Tewi the rabbit, an unabashed prankster whose explicit power is giving people good luck.
* MacrossMissileMassacre: Often used in ''Touhou'' [[FanVid/{{Touhou}} Fan Vids]] to represent danmaku in three dimensions.
* TheMagicGoesAway: Gensokyo was created as a safe haven for magical creatures and gods who can no longer exist in the outside world. It's also implied that humans can't cast spells out there either. Although given the existence of immigrants it's not as though there's ''no'' magic outside. Yet.
-->'''Byakuren''': But then, because of the Westernization of Japan, folklore became superstition, shugendou gave way to secularism, and they were forgotten about along with humanity's fear of the dark. The tengu who were working together with humans starting appearing less and less. For this reason, the existence of these youkai was endangered. And not just tengu, but all youkai...
* MeaningfulName: Most characters have at least one name (the family name, most often) that's vaguely related to what they do.
* TheMerch: A good amount, considering it's a doujin series. It includes, but is not limited to: doujinshi, costumes, mousepads, jewelry, plushes, and high-quality figures, including Figmas.
* MirrorMatch: Miko's fifth match in ''Hopeless Masquerade'' is against herself. Of course, it's just [[VoluntaryShapeshifting Mamizou]], and the fight ends after one spell card, only for the real fight to begin.
** Eiki's last spellcard in ''Shoot the Bullet'' has her turn into Aya. It's probably some sort of test of character.
* MissionControl: In ''Subterranean Animism'', various youkai provide this to Reimu and Marisa, leading to different ammo/bombs, different special skills for Reimu, different dialogs and endings, and different ways of getting horribly mauled by Satori.
* MonsterClown: Featured heavily in the ''Dolls in Pseudo Paradise'' story.
* MonsterMash: It's fairly commonplace in Gensokyo for miko, witches, vampires, ghosts, aliens, faeries, oni, goddesses, and all sorts of other youkai to have tea or sake together.
* MookPromotion: Most of the normal enemies in every game are fairies. However, the [[AnIcePerson ice fairy]] Cirno is a self-proclaimed strongest fairy, and may well be one, appearing as a boss in few games and being the sole protagonist of ''Great Fairy Wars'' with an ability to freeze bullets.
* {{Mooks}}: Fairies, in addition to the lesser-used Fuzzballs and Doofy Ghosts. Fairies are [[SuicidalOverconfidence suicidally overconfident]], weak, and effectively immortal (regenerative), though the last [[GameplayAndStorySegregation doesn't manifest in the games]], probably because they "respawn" somewhere safe offscreen. These factors combine to make them pretty much perfect mooks.
* MundaneMadeAwesome: '''[[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u9Qa9AIxJhs Touhou Soccer.]]'''
* MundaneUtility:
** ''[[MundaneMadeAwesome Touhou Soccer]]'', where the girls use their massively destructive spell cards to play [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kofnEdB8Blc ''Soccer''.]]
** Turns out that ghosts make excellent air conditioners.
** Similarly, there's an entire pool on Danbooru of Cirno being used for mundane ends, such as chilling drinks.
** Both Sakuya's and Kaguya's timehax abilities are used to maintain their homes in various ways.
** Yukari regularly uses her [[RealityWarper Phenomenal Cosmic Powers]] as a glorified transportation system.
** The official comics feature something of an aversion, in that the characters - particularly the human characters - don't seem to use their [[IBelieveICanFly powers of flight]] very much.
---> '''Marisa:''' Where's the ladder?
* TheNeedless: [[WitchSpecies Magicians who are turned into youkai]] don't need food or sleep, though they do both out of habit or leisure. They don't age, either.
* NewPowersAsThePlotDemands: Built into the descriptions. Almost all ability descriptions include 程度の能力 (Teido no nouryoku), which is currently (as of June 2012) being translated as "capable of". Basically, everyone can do more than what's stated.
** This is confirmed in ''Forbidden Scrollery''. According to Reimu's discussion with Kosuzu, her powers had recently awakened. This also suggests that {{Muggles}} who don't have powers ''now'' can have them ''later on''.
* NiceHat:
** Touhou Wiki, which lists [[LoadsAndLoadsOfCharacters 123 characters]], has a special category called "Characters without hats"... with 11 names.[[note]]Though they count hair accessories and animal ears as hats.[[/note]]
** ZUN also has a NiceHat.
* TheNightThatNeverEnds: The plot of ''Imperishable Night'' plays with this. It's ''your characters'' causing it, so they can find the source of the real incident.
* NobodyCanDie: A function of the spell card rules. Aside from the few [[OurGhostsAreDifferent ghost]] characters, the only confirmed deaths are briefly-mentioned background characters.
* NoHuggingNoKissing: Despite what the majority of [[{{Shipping}} fan]] [[{{Rule34}} work]] will tell you, all the official content has virtually no romance (and always kept to backstories or non-sequitur jokes) and absolutely no sexual themes. Amusingly a couple of the characters are even ''married'' (the Watatsuki sisters) but this seems to serve the single purpose of making them the nieces-in-law of another character and their husbands are never seen or mentioned at any point.
* NonLethalKO:
** The spell card rules mean the games follow this trope. There is very strong lampshading of this, and very good reasoning for characters ''not'' wanting to kill the human characters. Also, since most of the characters are youkai, odds are many of them can't be killed by physical damage anyway, while the fairies which provide most mook enemies are said to have very short lifespans but constantly revive, giving them little concept of mortality.
** A good number of characters are implied to have killed people, but no one that's introduced ever dies. The only exception to this is Mokou apparently dying during her battle... and it doesn't count, since she's immortal.
* NonindicativeName
** Team Shanghai Alice, the name ZUN operates under, is (1) a single person, not a team; (2) based in [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ebina Ebina]], Japan, not Shanghai; and (3) he isn't named Alice.
*** From Touhou 13's staff roll: "[[LampshadeHanging Lately I've been wondering if there's a real point to the staff roll]]."
** Many of the cast's powers fall under this, since [[UnreliableNarrator they provided the official names themselves]] and may be trying to either hide or exaggerate their true strength. Examples include Reisen (who can "manipulate madness") actually having wave-based abilities that can be used for illusions and hypnosis among other things, Kogasa (who can "surprise humans") never actually managing to do so, and Futo referring to her style of magic as "feng shui" seemingly just to keep up her image.
* NonNaziSwastika: Both Ran and Yukari Yakumo use manji-themed spellcards. Ran's version is ''Shikigami's Shot "Ultimate Buddhist"'' and Yukari's is ''Evil Spirits "Butterfly in the Zen Temple"''.
* NonSpecificallyForeign: With the sole exceptions of Hong Meiling and Kaku Seiga (Both being Chinese), the Scarlet sisters (who are from Europe, but they're never stated from which country are from) and, in less degree, Parsee Mizuhashi (possibly from Iran), all the characters with non-Japanese names are never stated from which country are from, or even if they were born outside Japan in first place.
** This is weirder regarding their names along with the nationality of their ''species'': Letty Whiterock is a English sounding name, but she's a ''yuki-onna'', a Japanese type of youkai. ''Double Dealing Character'' takes it to the next level by having the first three youkai described as Japanese youkai in their profiles but also referred to as Western youkai in the song titles (ningyo/mermaid, rokurokubi/dullahan, etc).
* NotDrawnToScale: In particular, boss characters tend to look taller in cut-ins than they would logically seem to be based on their sprites or other aspects of their character. Most fans depict Remilia as fairly short, but her cut-in makes her as tall as Reimu.
-->If their sizes appear to be different on the game screen than given above, it's because of some mystic force like perspective, so [[BellisariosMaxim pay it no mind]]. :-)
---> ZUN, after discussing some characters' heights in [[http://en.touhouwiki.net/wiki/ZUN%27s_E-mails an e-mail]]
* NotSoExtinct: It was widely believed that there were no oni in Gensokyo despite otherwise being a FantasyKitchenSink. And then of course they immediately meet one. In fact, it's not even mentioned ''until'' they meet her and it comes up in their conversation with her as ArbitrarySkepticism.
* OffOnATechnicality: [[{{Troll}} Someone]] tried to trademark "東方プロジェクト". He succeeded, [[ItsAWonderfulFailure but it didn't affect anything except ZUN's mood]], since the series actually uses the GratuitousEnglish title "東方Project". Said person also attempted to trademark that and "上海アリス幻樂団" (Shanghai Alice Gengakudan) and failed.
* OlderThanTheyLook: Applies to pretty much every character that isn't stated to be completely human, which is Reimu, Marisa, Sakuya, and Sanae. And even then, questions have been raised about Sakuya, even in-universe.
* OneHundredAndEight: There's 108 scenes in Double Spoiler.
* OnlySixFaces: Not only is ZUN susceptible to this with his famously crappy character art, but so are some of the official manga artists, such as Aki Eda (''Silent Sinner in Blue'') and Makoto Hirasaka (''Touhou Sangetsusei'').
** One step up in the fighting games. As far as Alphes' character portraits go, literally everyone has the same face.
* {{Onmyodo}}:
** Lots of characters use Ofuda as weapons.
** Yukari and Ran have Shikigami. (The latter ''is'' a Shikigami herself.)
** Almost every boss in the Windows games is shown surrounded by a magical circle with a hexagram inside. (It's not a pentagram, but it's pretty close.) Chen, Sanae and Iku also incorporate pentagrams in some of their attacks.
** And with Mononobe no Futo we now have an actual Onmyodo magician in the cast.
** Mamizou uses ''lots'' of shikigami in her spellcards, in the form of human-shaped, dog-shaped, bird-shaped and frog-shaped paper dolls. She can also make copies of herself presumably by transforming her shikigami, since her ability is to change the shape of objects.
* OurMonstersAreDifferent: Including [[OurFairiesAreDifferent fairies]], [[OurAngelsAreDifferent angels]], [[OurDemonsAreDifferent demons]], [[OurVampiresAreDifferent vampires]], [[OurGhostsAreDifferent ghosts]], [[OurGodsAreGreater gods]], robots and likely at least one [[OurDragonsAreDifferent dragon]].
** OurElvesAreBetter: While in Touhou "elves" means fairies (who are none too bright), the Lunarians fit this trope to a T, specifically being SpaceElves.
* ParentalAbandonment: Mr. Kirisame is the only parent of a canon character who is not dead, missing, or otherwise unaccounted for. And even then, he's only mentioned, and Marisa quickly ignores and attempts to change the subject. Considering how some youkai are stated to simply come into being under certain circumstances rather than being born, it's likely that many of the characters have never actually had parents.
* PoorCommunicationKills: In ''Imperishable Night'', the [[LetsYouAndHimFight boss fight with either Reimu or Marisa]] is the result of one or both sides either not understanding what's actually going on, or outright ''refusing'' to listen. When the Ghost Team tries to mention the Moon to Marisa, Marisa says "this has nothing to do with the Moon!" and if Magic Team brings it up to Reimu, she turns around and blames them for the Moon as well!
* PopularityPower: Popularity is one stat in ''Hopeless Masquerade''. It goes up as you land attacks, declare spellcards, and goes down as you take hits and play too defensively. At 100% Popularity, you can perform a Last Word spell, and if the match goes to a time-out, the player with more Popularity wins, as opposed to the one with more health, as in most fighting games.
** Toyosatomimi no Miko's special ability in the game is that she gains more power the more popularity she has, complete with her cape changing colors to match.
* PowerUpMagnet
* PowerupFullColorChange: In ''Hisoutensoku'', characters with superarmor become red-tinted, while the auto-counterhit state Meiling can acquire is indicated by her becoming yellow.
* PunnyName: Hisoutensoku ("lacking perception of natural laws"), the HumongousMecha that ''Touhou 12''.3 is named after, is a pun on/ShoutOut to [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gakutensoku Gakutensoku]] ("learning from natural laws"), Japan's first robot [[{{Steampunk}} built in 1929]].
* [[PunyEarthlings Puny Humans]]: Humans in Gensokyo are vastly outnumbered and outpowered by youkai (and other subraces), and the number of humans who can go toe to toe with them can be counted comfortably.
* RecurringRiff:
** Parts of ''Mystic Square'' Stage 3 theme ''[[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nMaqhhrZkvc Romantic Children]]'' get reused in ''Perfect Cherry Blossom'' Stage 3 Boss theme ''[[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lVwstM4vZC8 Doll Judgement]]''.
** ''UFO'' Stage 6 theme ''[[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FrIbeivp_fs Fires of Hokkai]]'' is based on ''Mystic Square'' Stage 6 theme ''[[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0lt3xlTwT3U World's End]]''.
** ''[[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gPB_4YeQpEQ Cute Devil ~ Innocence]]'' uses parts of ''[[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pqPOgYWVN8c Sleeping Terror]]''
** Marisa's theme in ''Imperishable Night'' Stage 4 (Powerful), ''[[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0eA-GscnIOY Love-Coloured Master Spark]]'', is based on her original theme in ''Story of Eastern Wonderland'' Stage 4, ''[[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ex-4Ct9jsZw Love-Coloured Magic]]''.
** Many stages and bosses in ''Double Dealing Character'' repeat the main verse or have slight variations of [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yn3GPjhtYJ8 Kid's Festival ~ Innocent Treasures]].
* RedShirt: The [[{{Mooks}} fairy maids]] that Remilia takes with her on her lunar expedition in ''Silent Sinner in Blue'' fit the classic ''Franchise/StarTrek'' redshirt archetype in that they accompany the main characters onto an alien world and are completely useless when dealing with the native inhabitants. Not surprising, as it was already well established that Remilia's fairy maids are useless at ''everything''.
* RedSkyTakeWarning: The plots of ''The Embodiment of Scarlet Devil'' and ''Scarlet Weather Rhapsody''.
* ReallySevenHundredYearsOld: Most non-human characters.
* ReferenceOverdosed: The series is full to the brim with references to mythology, science, and some popular culture.
* {{Retraux}}: The soundtracks for ''Perfect Memento in Strict Sense'' and ''Silent Sinner in Blue'' are made in style of PC-98 synth.
* RidiculouslyCuteCritter:
** The rabbits in the Inaba comics.
** Also, depending on who you ask and/or the artist, the yukkuris.
** There's a meme about depicting Keine's hakutaku form as one.
* SacredHospitality: The number one rule for {{Muggles}} in the [[AllThereInTheManual backstory]]: be polite. All the rude people the series focuses on have the firepower - or at least regeneration - to survive not being so.
* SchizoTech: There are actually four different technology levels in Gensokyo: humans and youkai, who are pretty much at medieval level; items that come from the modern world outside (and, in the PC-98 games, came with the Outsiders themselves); the kappas, who are tinkering and working on {{Magitek}}, including Optical Camouflage and Hellfire-powered geothermal power plants; and the Lunarians, who top the tech tree in canon and have futuristic technology, which in ''Silent Sinner in Blue'' is revealed to be a Japanese version of CrystalSpiresAndTogas. Even the ''outdated'' technology that the renegade Lunarians displayed in an exposition in Gensokyo is far more advanced than anything on Earth.
* SchrodingersPlayerCharacter: In most games the characters the player didn't select still exist, just don't expect to hear from them until the ending.
** In both ''Lotus Land Story'' and ''Imperishable Night'', the character you didn't select shows up as one of the bosses.
** Naturally averted in the versus shooters and fighting games where you get to fight most of the characters you didn't pick. ''Phantasmagoria of Flower View'', ''Scarlet Weather Rhapsody'' and ''Hisoutensoku'' even have everyone's story canonically happening in some order.
** Interestingly played with in ''Embodiment of Scarlet Devil''. [[DummiedOut Rin Satsuki]] was supposed to be a player character for that game, but was removed for unknown reasons. A line from Marisa during her route suggests that Rin had a profession as a doctor, like Eirin, but {{Fanon}} takes this ''[[EpilepticTrees all over the place]]''.
* SeinfeldianConversation: Er... often. Some of it is due to the heavy use of references to eastern mythology or folklore and metaphors that only make sense in Japanese.
* ShoutOut: Many characters are {{Shout Out}}s to one thing or another. Full details on all of them on [[Characters/{{Touhou}} the character page]].
** Many, ''many'' references to ''Literature/AliceInWonderland'', including a character named Alice.
** ZUN is an admitted fanboy of ''Manga/JoJosBizarreAdventure'' and as such there are ''lots'' of shout outs to that series. Sakuya performing [[MemeticMutation ZA WARUDO]] is one such example.
*** "Her sake does not even drop!" during Yuugi fight is a homage to Master Zeppeli and Jonathan Joestar, classy gentlemen who really didn't drop their wine in intense fights.
*** "Do you remember how many times you've eaten bread?" is a homage to Dio Brando, the BigBad of the Joestar arc, who can't remember how many times he exsanguinated humans. [[note]]Marisa does remember how many times she's eaten bread... thirteen times. She prefers Japanese food.[[/note]]
*** Marisa uses the quote "yareyare da ze" (Jotaro Kujo's CatchPhrase, roughly translated as "geez, give me a break") after defeating Wriggle in Stage 1 of Imperishable Night.
*** One of Kaguya's spellcards in ''Shoot The Bullet'' is the Red Stone of Aja.
*** Many of the characters having [[WhatKindOfLamePowerIsHeartAnyway vague or seemingly useless abilities]] that [[HeartIsAnAwesomePower can be dangerous when used effectively]] is also quite common in ''Manga/JoJosBizarreAdventure''.
*** Even the name of the series itself may be a Jojo's reference - it is written with the same kanji as Josuke's surname.
** Three different characters have references to the works of Creator/AgathaChristie.
** Stage 6 of ''UFO'' has rows of fairies that move in a zig-zag pattern and fire bullets straight downwards, as a reference to ''Space Invaders''.
** Nue, the Extra Stage boss of the above game, has mutiple. She has a spell card that uses PlayStation buttons, and references [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nue the Nue of legend]].
** One strip in ''Inaba of the Moon and Inaba of the Earth'' contains a reference to the ''VideoGame/{{Wizardry}}'' series. Also, a certain weapon in the comic is labelled [[Film/MontyPythonAndTheHolyGrail "HHG of Aunty Ock"]].
---> '''Akyu:''' [[KillerRabbit Is it true that you decapitate your prey with your front teeth?]]
** In the same title, there's also a ShoutOut to [[SuperMarioBros Mario]].
** Makai in ''Mystic Square'' is basically one big ShoutOut to John Milton's ''ParadiseLost''.
** In ''Phantasmagoria of Flower View'', most times when you defeat an enemy, the game will call them a DEAD PARROT. [[Series/MontyPythonsFlyingCircus Hmmm, I wonder what that could be a shout out to...]]
** A few of the bullet patterns seem directly inspired by patterns from other BulletHell games. [[http://en.touhouwiki.net/wiki/Touhou_influences Look at this list and decide for yourself.]]
** There are references to ''Manga/FistOfTheNorthStar'' in the fighting games, most notably ''Hisoutensoku''. If Reimu's ultimate spellcard "Fantasy Heaven" ("''Musou Tensei''" in Japanese, which happens to be a [[NamesTheSame homonym]] for Kenshiro's ultimate technique, "Unconscious Transmigration of Souls", also pronounced "''Musou Tensei''") is successfully activated in the third round of a match, the background music will change to [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O8-SrmzsrkE a mashup remix]] of Mystic Oriental Love Consultation and the Fatal KO theme from the ''Fist Of The North Star'' fighting games. Fitting because said spellcard is a guaranteed knock out unless [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hCkhBwipem0 the opponent gets very lucky]] (no, it is NOT a OneHitKill).
*** [[ThePowerOfTheSun Utsuho Reiuji's]] sprite animations greatly resemble those of Souther. [[http://en.touhouwiki.net/wiki/File:Utsuho_Similarities.png See for yourself]].
*** [[AnimeChineseGirl Hong Meiling]] takes several moves from Yun of ''Franchise/StreetFighter'' fame, including his You Hou super and his lunge punch.
** ''Hopeless Masquerade'' adds a bunch:
*** Miko's powerbar image in ''Hopeless Masquerade'' is a [[http://knowyourmeme.com/memes/reaction-guys-gaijin-4koma modified gaijin 4koma]].
*** Nitori's Last Word is basically a huge homage to to [[VideoGame/MetalGearSolid Snake]]'s final smash in ''VideoGame/SuperSmashBros Brawl''.
*** One of Ichirin's alternate color schemes resembles [[LightNovel/ACertainMagicalIndex Index's]] outfit.
*** All three of [[spoiler:Disguised Mamizou]]'s spell cards are references to ''Genpei Toumaden''[[note]]One is "Reimu" dropping Yin-yang orbs in the same manner as the Buddha enemy in that game. Another is "Byakuren" throwing animal likenesses as the Lute player enemy of the same game. The last one is a giant "Miko" waving her shaku in a similar way to the final boss' showing off before the last battle.[[/note]]
** From ''Double Dealing Character'':
*** Sukuna's second-to-last spellcard on Normal is called "[[Manga/AttackOnTitan Shingeki no Kobito]]".
*** Seija's pose. [[Creator/StudioShaft Shaft]] [[http://i.imgur.com/4dqAX.jpg head tilt]], anyone?
*** The plot of the game itself: [[Anime/RevolutionaryGirlUtena people (youkai) are given power by the resident of an upside-down floating castle to "start a revolution", but their benefactor's actual goals are far more selfish.]]
* SliceOfLife: Very common in official written works, especially the manga ''Eastern and Little Deity'' / ''Strange and Bright Nature Deity'' / ''Oriental Sacred Place''[[note]]yes, that's one series with title changes[[/note]] and the short story serial ''Curiosities of Lotus Asia''. This tends to put off some fans [[GenreShift who are used to the combat-heavy games]], though others enjoy the laid-back view of Gensokyo.
* SlidingScaleOfGenderInequality: All the important characters who actually do anything are female.
* SlidingScaleOfIdealismVersusCynicism: A land full of fairies and beautiful girls in elaborate dresses enjoying sake together, punctuated by such "crises" as ''too many flowers blooming.'' There are a few darker elements tucked away in there, mostly as {{Noodle Incident}}s and OffscreenVillainy. On the other hand, FantasticRacism is a recurring plot point.
* SlidingScaleOfSillinessVersusSeriousness:
** Canon ''Touhou'' works in general tend to be on the silly side.
** Fanworks can be anywhere on the scale. ZUN seems to encourage this intentionally, for instance by never explicitly nailing down how dangerous it ''really'' is for humans to live in Gensokyo.
* SocietyOfImmortals: The Lunar Capital, rather explicitly, but also youkai society in general, as youkai are implied to have no natural lifespan. Although most of them don't exactly form societies, other than exceptions like the Tengu.
* SpaceElves: The Lunarians, who are of the "Mystical Enlightened Race" subtype. As their name indicates, they hail from the moon, though they originally lived on Earth thousands of years ago before leaving to escape the Shinto concept of impurity.
* SpaceIsAnOcean:
** The key to making the magic-powered moon rocket in ''Silent Sinner in Blue'' is to realize that they should be thinking of it as a voyage across the sea and call upon gods associated with sailing and seaships.
** Also, more literally, the moon is associated with the sea (as opposed to Earth being a "mountain"). The Lunar Capital is even the same place as the Dragon Palace, meaning that if you get lost at sea you might end up on the moon.
* SpaceStation: Torifune, introduced in ''Trojan Green Asteroid''. It is[[note]]or will be, with the Mary and Renko stories taking place in the future[[/note]] a Japanese space station designed to test terraforming practices. Then it somehow became an illusion and is now a fantasy jungle floating in outer space.
* SpellMyNameWithAnS: Official spellings for character and place names can vary within the series. For example, ZUN writes "Gensokyo" in English in ''Perfect Cherry Blossom''--this is [[http://en.touhouwiki.net/wiki/Gensokyo predominantly the spelling the fandom uses]]. The back cover of ''Grimoire of Marisa'' spells it as "Gensoukyo." "Gensoukyou" and "Gensokyou" are alternate spellings directly derived from the romanization from the kanji involved, and there has been a push by some fans to make either spelling the common variant.
* SpringIsLate: In ''Perfect Cherry Blossom''.
* StoryArc: About three, connected more by the characters that appear than the actual story.
** The first arc is made up of the five PC-98 games. It's canonicity status is vague, beyond a few {{Shout Out}}s in the Windows games.
** The second arc is the "Windows Trilogy" of ''Embodiment of Scarlet Devil'', ''Perfect Cherry Blossom'', and ''Imperishable Night'', with ''Immaterial and Missing Power'' taking place between the latter two games. See the [[Trivia/{{Touhou}} Trivia section]] for more explanation. The game ''Phantasmagoria of Flower View'' acts as a bridge between this arc and...
** The "Moriya Shrine Trilogy", which consists of the games ''Mountain of Faith'', ''Subterranean Animism'', and ''Undefined Fantastic Object''. Unlike in the previous arc, each game after the first is the direct result of an event in the previous game - the ultimate instigators being a group of newcomers to Gensokyo who upset the status quo in an almost ButterflyOfDoom fashion.
*** ''Scarlet Weather Rhapsody'' occupies an odd place; it was released after ''Mountain of Faith'' (and is numbered as such), but is essentially unrelated to the arc. In fact, it's probably closer to being part of the previous arc. On the other hand, ''Touhou Hisoutensoku'' is clearly part of the "Moriya Shrine" arc; it takes place after the trilogy and is influenced by it's events.
** ''Ten Desires'' [[ArcWelding connects both of the "Windows" and "Moriya Shrine" trilogies]]. The fighting game ''Hopeless Masquerade'' is a continuation of ''Ten Desires''.
* StrongAsTheyNeedToBe: Player characters beat everyone they fight regardless of whether it makes any sense. Most blatant with Kokoro, who spends nine storylines losing, only to then beat absolutely everyone without resting, finishing with Miko, Hijiri, and Reimu ''at the same time''. [[BoisterousWeakling Cirno]] is also able to beat anyone she's up against whenever she's a playable character, even though it's stated that while she's strong for a fairy, she's still weak compared to most of the other characters.
* StrongerSibling
-->'''ZUN:''' 'When it comes to Gensokyan sisters, in general the younger one is "broken"'.
* StrongerWithAge: A general rule of the setting. Animals will turn into youkai if they manage to live long enough, and something similar appears to apply to humans, going by the immortals we've seen.
* StupidStatementDanceMix: [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JB5IIsX0wS4 ''It Stops at the Affected Area and Immediately Dissolves ~ Lunatic Udongein'',]] best known for its EarWorm (O-Over Dr-drive! O-O-Over Dr-Dr-Drive!) is a prime example, but quite a few of {{IOSYS}}' ''Touhou''-inspired songs could easily count.
* SufficientlyAnalyzedMagic: Interestingly, magicians are shown following UsefulNotes/TheScientificMethod ''more'' than the obviously technology-based characters, though most of the latter are closer to engineers than scientists. Rinnosuke even refers to the modern technology of the outside world as "a type of magic that requires no [[{{Mana}} spiritual power]]".
* ThemeMusicPowerUp: In ''Hopeless Masquerade'' a unique theme for every character starts playing once they reach Max popularity.
* ThemeNaming:
** ''Wild and Horned Hermit'' uses theme ''[[BossSubtitles titling]]'', though it's more obvious in Japanese. All of the titles take the form of four kanji describing the character, followed by a single hiragana, followed by two kanji for the character's species.
* TitleDrop: The final spell cards in ''Perfect Cherry Blossom, Imperishable Night, Mountain of Faith, Ten Desires'' and the story mode of ''Scarlet Weather Rhapsody''. Also tends to happen in the dialogues.
** Some character names borrow kanji from the Japanese titles themselves but are read slightly differently. These characters are also central characters in their respective games (Sanae borrows from ''Mountain of Faith'' and half of the ''Touhou'' title, while Eiki Shiki borrows two from ''Phantasmagoria of Flower View''). This gets funny when a forum post was joking about the then-upcoming character in ''Hisouten'' would be called "Tenko" ("ko" being a common suffix for a girl, plus the last kanji of ''Hisouten'') and we got "Tenshi" (same Kanji, different reading).
* TooDumbToLive: ''Perfect Memento in Strict Sense'' marks fairies as such. Fortunately (for them) they respawn.
* ToServeMan: There's multiple mentions that the youkai of Gensokyo eat humans. [[UnreliableExpositor Akyuu]] says in ''[[AllThereInTheManual Perfect Memento in Strict Sense]]'', though, [[http://en.touhouwiki.net/wiki/Perfect_Memento:_Monologue that it doesn't happen so much today]] [[http://en.touhouwiki.net/wiki/Perfect_Memento:_Road_of_Reconsideration unless you're]] [[http://en.touhouwiki.net/wiki/Perfect_Memento:_Encyclopedia:_Outsider an outsider]] [[http://en.touhouwiki.net/wiki/Perfect_Memento:_Hermits or a hermit.]] The [[http://en.touhouwiki.net/wiki/Perfect_Memento:_Draft_of_Spell_Card_Rules Hakurei Spell Card Rules]] may have been responsible for this change.
* TranslationConvention: ZUN has [[LampshadeHanging lampshaded]] this:
--->Is the language the girls use Japanese?
--> Gensokyo IS Japan. :-) However, note that even if they use obscure or archaic words, so long as there is no precise intent, they basically express themselves in Japanese in the games.
** Interestingly, they describe their language in-universe as "human", in contrast to youkai languages.
* TwentyMinutesIntoTheFuture: The stories with Maribel and Renko are partially set in the near-future of the outside world.
* TwoLinesNoWaiting: Chapter 18 of ''Wild and Horner Hermit'' runs parallel to ''Hopeless Masquerade'' but we see events that happen from Kasen's perspective.
** Similarly, chapter 10 and 11 of ''Forbidden Scrollery'' takes place during the same game's final ending but from Kosuzu's perspective.
* UndergroundCity: Former Hell.
* UniverseCompendium: All of the artbooks, though ''The Grimoire of Marisa'' is less conventional.
* UnmovingPlaid: Utsuho's cape in ''Hisoutensoku''. It has stars and galaxies on it, which always appear at the same angle.
* VagueAge: Basically everyone that isn't the Scarlet sisters, who have known ages although their ''apparent'' age is more of an open question[[note]]Different artists have drawn them as looking like anything from teens to pre-schoolers[[/note]], and the characters of ''Ten Desires'' who are specific historical figures with documented birth dates. We have a rough idea of what centuries Mokou, Kaguya, and Byakuren came from, and that's about it. Even the normal humans have so little past and such rough art that's hard to tell.
* ViciousCycle: The events of ''Phantasmagoria of Flower View'' happen every sixty years. But there is no real danger save for confused people picking random fights with each other, which is just another day in Gensokyo, and the incident solves itself eventually.
* WaddlingHead: Yukkuris.
* WeatherDissonance: Basically the premise of ''Scarlet Weather Rhapsody''.
* WebcomicTime: Averted: stories take place in the year they're released, give or take a few months to set them in the right season. Since games tend to be released roughly annually, Incidents also occur annually.
* WhaleEgg:
** Might be the case for some unexpected creatures. In one chapter of one of the manga, it's suggested a couple of times that a mysterious egg may be from a ''cat youkai''.
** The same chapter also confirms crow tengu having eggs, and while they're related to birds, the two examples we've seen of that species look basically human.
* WhiteAndGreyMorality:
** Those who are [[DesignatedHero good]] are [[BystanderSyndrome apathetic to everything]] unless it affects either their interests or Gensokyo itself.
** Most of the final bosses in the series are more selfish or irresponsible than outright evil, having a lack of consideration for the rest of Gensokyo whether due to selfish interest (Remilia), lack of foresight (Eirin and Kaguya), or outright stupidity (Okuu).
** A few notable exceptions: the Saigyou Ayakashi of ''Perfect Cherry Blossom'' - a mindless, man-eating tree; Utsuho Reiuji during ''Subterranean Animism'', who was [[WithGreatPowerComesGreatInsanity mad with power]] and wanted to ''melt the surface world'' (although to be fair, she's also rather stupid); and Taisui Xingjun, provided he actually exists.
* WildMassGuessing: And ''lots'' of them. See the [[WMG/{{Touhou}} Touhou WMG page]].
* WingsDoNothing: ''Everyone'' in Gensokyo has a method for flying, whether they use wings or not. One footnote in ''Perfect Memento'' says that "... even without wings we can all fly." This shouldn't be too surprising given that EveryoneIsASuper.
* WitchSpecies: "Magician" is both a species and job description. Natural magicians are born able to use magic and don't need to eat, but are otherwise identical to humans. Human magicians need to learn a spell to replicate the bit about not eating. After that, they can both learn spells to stop aging, at which point they're considered "complete" magicians. It's never actually stated that the magician species is the result of the [[LamarckWasRight "abandoning food" magic being inheritable]], but [[WildMassGuessing it seems likely]].
* WordSaladTitle: The titles of most official materials tend to be a 3 kanji compound word followed by an English subtitle. Sticking to this pattern makes a lot of them way more complicated than they need to be.
* WorldBuilding: The point of the artbooks. Fan works do this extensively, and it's seemingly half the reason the fanbase is so big.
* AWorldHalfFull
* WorldOfActionGirls: Almost all characters are female powerhouses. In contrast, the few [[NominalImportance named]] male characters aren't known to be fighters.
* WorldOfBadass
* XanatosGambit / BatmanGambit: The entirety of ''Silent Sinner in Blue''. The second is inside the first.
* {{Youkai}}: Makes up a very large portion of the cast, even when not taking the minor stage bosses into consideration.
** MoeAnthropomorphism: A lot of the characters are actually humanoid representations of abstract concepts.
** [[RubberForeheadAliens Rubber Forehead Youkai]]: Most of the the monsters in this series are one or two features away from looking entirely human.
** [[HumanAliens Human Youkai]]: Some ''do'' look completely human.
* YouGottaHaveBlueHair:
** For actual blue-haired characters, Remilia, Nitori, Tenshi, Kogasa and Cirno count. Though Remilia's initial appearance featured her with white hair.
** Even excluding the youkai, there are the silver-haired Sakuya, Youmu, Keine, Mokou and Eirin, though the last of these is from the Moon.
** And the green-haired Sanae. Green-haired youkai include Yuuka, Kyouko, Kisume and Wriggle.
* ZigzagPaperTassel:
** Reimu's and Sanae's ''haraegushi''.
** Kanako's and Tenshi's ''shimenawa''.
[[/folder]]

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