[[caption-width-right:330:The Veiled Planet [[note]]Note Venus appears featureless in normal light--the picture is taken in the ultraviolet to show clouds[[/note]]]]

->"Observation: You couldn't see a thing. Conclusion: Dinosaurs."
--> -- '''Creator/CarlSagan''', describing what Venus's cloud cover did for fiction

The second planet from {{UsefulNotes/the sun}}, and the closest planetary orbit to the {{UsefulNotes/Earth}}'s. As seen from the {{UsefulNotes/Earth}}, it's often the brightest point of light in the night sky -- in fact, if you know where to look, it can sometimes be seen even in full daylight. This brightness is partly due to how close it gets to the {{UsefulNotes/Earth}}, and partly due to its bright whitish cloud cover. Interestingly, Venus appears brightest when it's in its crescent phase, because it's much closer to the {{UsefulNotes/Earth}} at that point that it is when it's in its gibbous phase. (Venus can't be seen when it's full, of course, since {{UsefulNotes/the sun}} is smack-dab between the {{UsefulNotes/Earth}} and the planet at that point.) Since Venus is never more than 40-some-odd degrees away from the Sun, it's most prominent right after sunset or right before sunrise, giving it the names "evening star" and "morning star."

Venus used to be called "{{UsefulNotes/Earth}}'s twin". It's 95% as big around as the {{UsefulNotes/Earth}}, it's got 90% of {{UsefulNotes/Earth}}'s surface gravity, it's got an atmosphere with clouds in it, it's about the same distance from {{UsefulNotes/the sun}} -- what could be so different?

Well, for one, its surface temperature turned out to be nearly 900 degrees Fahrenheit, hotter than a self-cleaning oven and able to ''melt lead''. The "air" consists almost entirely of carbon dioxide, and at the surface the pressure is equal to being ''half a mile'' under the ocean on {{UsefulNotes/Earth}}. And those clouds? They're not made of water vapor, they're made of sulfuric acid. What was once thought of as "{{UsefulNotes/Earth}}'s Twin" turned out to be {{UsefulNotes/Earth}}'s EvilTwin and a BitchInSheepsClothing.

These rather depressing details were revealed by the Soviet Venera space probes, sent to the planet in the late 1960s. Before that time, many ScienceFiction authors held out hope that Venus might harbor life. Such hope was flimsy at best even before the Venera space probes, though; as early as the 1890s, spectrographs of the Cytherean atmosphere showed it to be made almost entirely of carbon dioxide, with ''no'' water vapor at all (meaning the clouds ''could not'' have been water clouds like those on {{UsefulNotes/Earth}}). Although the the top of the cloud layer was relatively cool, in 1962 the Mariner 2 probe revealed that the surface was several hundred degrees Fahrenheit.

Its surface features, long hidden under the constant cloud cover, were finally mapped by the Magellan space probe using radar in [[TheNineties the 1990s]]. The highest mountain is Maxwell Montes, almost 7 miles above the average surface level. If you stood on its peak, it'd be a downright chilly 380įC / 716įF, and a mere 60 atmospheres of pressure. The culprit for all this heat is the greenhouse effect -- {{UsefulNotes/Earth}}'s atmosphere is less than 1% carbon dioxide, while Venus's is over 90% carbon dioxide. {{UsefulNotes/Earth}} started with the same amount, [[SealedEvilInACan but it ended up trapped in carbonate rock]]. Venus also started with the same amount of water as the {{UsefulNotes/Earth}} had, but it remained in vapor form (300 atmospheres worth) and created [[UpToEleven a super greenhouse effect]] with temperatures in the ''thousands'' of degrees[[note]]This plus the slow rotation probably wrecked any chance at plate tectonics; instead of plates constantly sliding against each other, [[LethalLavaLand there seems to be intermittent vulcanism puncutated by the entire surface melting every 500 million years or so]][[/note]]. Eventually the water molecules dissociated into hydrogen and oxygen and escaped into space, leaving Venus high and dry. Due to Venus being mythologically associated with femininity, by convention all geographic features there are named after women or female entities, except for Maxwell Montes and Alpha and Beta Regio.[[note]]These features were first detected by ground-based radar in the mid-1960's; Alpha and Beta Regio were the first two terrain features to be isolated, and Maxwell Montes was named after James Clerk Maxwell, the formulator of the theory and equations of electromagnetism that ultimately led to the invention of radar[[/note]] There is some argument over whether the proper adjective is 'Venusian', 'Venerean', or 'Cytherean' -- just don't use 'Venereal'.

At some point in the planet's early history, some big huge honkin' planetesimal struck it at an oblique angle, causing it to rotate very slowly ''backwards'' when compared with all the other planets in the Solar system. As a result of this super-slow rotation, a Cytherean solar day is nearly as long as a Venusian year. Not that you'd be able to ''see'' much difference between day and night while on the surface. The super-thick atmosphere bends light so severely that the horizon appears to curve ''upward'', allowing you to see all the way around the planet. Twice. Whether you're on the day side or the night side, you'll see a hazy overcast sky that's about the same brightness everywhere -- assuming you survive the lack of oxygen, the crushing pressures, and the hellish temperatures, that is.

Well, now some optimistic stuff about Venus. There is a layer in its atmosphere where both temperature and pressure are {{UsefulNotes/Earth}}like, located some 60 kilometers above the surface. The only non-{{UsefulNotes/Earth}}like thing in this habitability zone is atmospheric chemistry, which is mostly CO[[subscript:2]] with some sulfuric acid vapors; but it also means that normal {{UsefulNotes/Earth}} air will work in this atmosphere like a lifting gas, easily supporting a [[TheEmpireStrikesBack Cloud City]].

And as we all know from pop-psychology, [[MarsAndVenusGenderContrast women are from there]].

!Venus in media

* ''[[AbbottAndCostello Abbott and Costello Go to Mars]]'', despite its title, has the comic duo meet space women on Venus.
* The alien in ''Film/ItConqueredTheWorld'' came from Venus, hitching a ride to {{UsefulNotes/Earth}} on one of our military space probes.
* Immanuel Velikovsky proposed, based on his reading of certain ancient mythology, that Venus was originally spat out of {{UsefulNotes/Jupiter}}, and wandered through the inner solar system causing the parting of the Red Sea and [[Literature/TheBible Joshua 10:13's]] sun-standing-still-in-the-sky episode, before settling into its current near-circular orbit.
* In ''LuckyStarr and the Oceans of Venus'' by Creator/IsaacAsimov, Venus is an ocean planet with seas and kelp (and domed underwater cities).
* ArthurCClarke:
** His short story "Before Eden" (1961) recounts the tales of the first astronauts to land on Venus, who discover a carpet-like creature living there. They take pictures, then drop off their waste products and blast off. Unbeknownst to them, the creature finds their waste delectable, but has no immunity to the {{UsefulNotes/Earth}} bacteria within it and soon spreads deadly {{UsefulNotes/Earth}} germs to its entire species, [[DownerEnding wiping them all out]].
** Many of Clarke's novels from the 1950s have, as part of the backdrop, Venus as a place that humans have colonized. ''The Deep Range'', ''Islands in the Sky'', ''Earthlight'', etc.. Many of these stories make offhanded references to the oceans of Venus and native Cytherean life.
* In Creator/RobertAHeinlein's ''Literature/SpaceCadet'', the titular cadets answer a Cytherean DistressCall. Venus is depicted as the typical swamp planet of the pre-Venera wishful-thinking days in all of Heinlein's works that mention the planet.
* In Creator/CSLewis's ''Literature/{{Perelandra}}'', Venus is a garden of Eden where original sin never occurred.
* In the Disney film ''Mars and Beyond'', one scene has the narrator describe the conditions of the other planets in the Solar System besides Mars, and when he gets to Venus he says [[FunnyAneurysmMoment "There may be life on Venus..."]]
* An episode of ''TheTwilightZone'' features a man from UsefulNotes/{{Mars}} who gives SuperStrength to an earthman to see what he'll do with it. The earthman squanders his abilities, so the Martian brags about how pathetic Earthmen are to a patron in an Earth bar. It turns out the man listening to him is from Venus, and the Cythereans are about to invade and conquer ''both'' Mars and Earth.
** An early 1950s episode of Radio/XMinusOne uses the exact same plot.
* The 1957 BMovie ''20 Million Miles to Earth'' features a spaceship freshly returned from Venus that crashes into the sea near Italy. It turns out to be carrying a Cytherean embryo which, predictably, grows up into a giant reptilian monster that terrorizes Rome.
* In early issues of the ''Literature/PerryRhodan'' series from the early 60s, Venus is described as a lush jungle world teeming with life. After initial exploration, mankind colonizes the planet. In the decades since space probes revealed the actual conditions on Venus, the planet has been mentioned only scarcely. As early as the late 80s, the planet has been described as a hellish heatworld in the series. But no in-universe explanation of the conflicting descriptions so far. In the modern reboot ''Perry Rhodan Neo'', Venus is portrayed realistically, though it's been revealed that the Fantan have the technology to terraform Venus into an inhabitable planet.


* Manga/VenusWars has a damn good MundaneDogmatic attempt to put shirtsleeve humans on Venus; the author smacks it with a comet in ''juuust'' the right way to not only disperse most of its toxic atmosphere and speed up its rotation, but even form seas. Too bad they're acidic.
* In ''Film/{{Contact}}'', Dr. Arroway tells her preacher beau that Venus was what convinced her to become an astronomer:
-->'When I was about eight years old, I was watching the sunset, and I asked my dad, "Whatís that bright star over there?", and he said that it wasnít really a star at all, but it was actually a whole planet called Venus. [points at the sky] Which should be over there soon. He said, "You know why they called it Venus? Because they thought it was so beautiful and glowing. And what they didnít know is that it was filled with deadly gases and sulfuric acid rain," and I thought, ''This is it, Iím hooked''.'
* An episode of ''TheSixMillionDollarMan'' features a space probe engineered to survive on the surface of Venus. It [[ConvenientlyClosePlanet accidentally went back to Earth]] and embarked on a rampage of destruction.
* Charles Stross's ''Literature/SaturnsChildren'' starts out in a city floating in Venus's atmosphere, then follows its FemBot protagonist through the rest of UsefulNotes/TheSolarSystem
* [[SchoolhouseRock Interplanet Janet]] split for Venus, but on Venus she found she couldn't see a thing for all the clouds around.
* An episode of ''Series/CosmosAPersonalVoyage'' named "Heaven and Hell" features Earth and Venus in the title roles. Venus, according to Creator/CarlSagan, is the one planet in the solar system most like {{Hell}}.
* Venus is one of the three real planets (the other two being {{UsefulNotes/Earth}} and {{UsefulNotes/Mars}}) that appeared in ''VideoGame/SimEarth'''s scenario mode, which the player had to terraform and colonize.