FactionCalculus as applied to politics.
Most European nations have a multi-party political system, as a result of proportional representation; and even those countries which have a district system (such as Britain and France) tend to have more than two "significant" parties. And in just about all of them, you'll find several (and often all) of the following parties, in ''approximate'' order from Right to Left:
* '''Far Right''': A quite recent arrival in many countries. Far Right parties are a mixed bag, ranging from outright neo-Nazis who [[PuttingOnTheReich Put On The Reich]] to much more moderate groups. They are fond of simple, radical positions and strong language. They intensely dislike immigration, Islam, UsefulNotes/TheEuropeanUnion, political correctness and the 'left-wing elite'. They are usually in favour of a tough approach to crime, and use nationalist and populist rhetoric. Interestingly, their economic programme is usually more left-wing or centrist rather than right-wing.
** '''Neo-Nazis''': Extremists who scornfully reject the democratic system as it is and advocates radical change. It boils down to: Hitler was right. Prone to violence and often associated with organized crime. Anti-Semitism and a hatred of Israel, Zionism and all things perceived to be Jewish is a sure sign. So far, less than a handful of European countries have parties of this type of any noticeable size.
** '''Identitarian movement/Neo-Fascists''': A more sophisticated Far Right movement than the typical street thug Neo-Nazis, even though they advocate pretty much the same ideas. Some would call them pseudo-intellectuals. Still in its very early stages and with no big parties belonging to this subcategory to this date.
** '''Right-wing Populists''': Right-wing populist parties usually dislike the same things as Far Right parties in general do, but they put much effort into looking presentable and spend a lot of their time distancing themselves from Neo-Nazis and Neo-Fascists. Most either come straight from the Far Right tradition, descending from splinter groups of Classical Liberal parties, or is the creation of a charismatic leader without much of an ideology other than discontentment with the status quo. Interestingly, parties who have managed to evolve from fringe nationalist groups tend to be pro-Israel and strongly condemn anti-Semitism. [[note]]This could be either a clever way to root out extremists, avoiding historical comparisons and/or embracing the increasingly nationalistic Israeli state as a positive role model for European nation states.[[/note]] Right-wing Populist parties attract many voters who are in some way dissatisfied with the established/traditional political parties.
* '''Classical Liberals''': The primary defenders of capitalism and the free market. Usually popular among businesspeople and the upper class for this reason. This right-wing economic agenda is often coupled with a progressive stance on social issues like abortion, gay marriage, immigration and euthanasia, although in recent years, many Classical Liberal parties have moved to a more conservative position, especially when it comes to law and order. Compared to other political tendencies listed here, they are also somewhat more likely to be anti-environmentalist, though, being Europe, they do it only very moderately.
** Americans should think of the Libertarians, but slightly more OK with social programs and much less OK with gun rights (this ''is'' Europe, remember?).
* '''Conservatives''': The catch-all right-wing party. Best described as a fusion of the Christian Democrats (see below) and the Classical Liberals; they tend to have the economic agenda of the latter and the social agenda of the former.
** It is very important to note that a Conservative party will usually not thrive ''alongside'' any of these parties; in fact, ''a Conservative party can only flourish where Classical Liberal and Christian Democratic parties do not exist or are very small, and vice versa.'' Thus a European country will either have a Christian Democratic party and a Classical Liberal one (Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden) or a Conservative party (Britain, France, Spain). Switzerland does have a Conservative party alongside Christian Democrats and Classical Liberals, but it's quite small.
* '''Christian Democrats''': [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin A party guided by Christian principles.]] They are often very close to the centre, although slightly to the right of it. They tend to have a moderately conservative position on social issues, but not a very clear economic agenda [[note]]Wherever the Christian Democrats are a large, established party, they tend to be quite clearly on the right, or at least on the right of Social Democrats, on most issues, while still having a "social" wing that avoids lumping them with the Conservatives ; where they're a minor party, they may be centre-left on many issues, except social ones, where they remain solidly conservative.[[/note]]. Natural allies of the Classical Liberals, but they will also often work together with the Social Democrats (see below) in a "Grand Coalition". They're somewhat more uncomfortable when they have to work together with the Far Right, as has happened in the Netherlands.
* '''Progressive Liberals''': Somewhat rarer (and usually smaller) than any other type of (non-fringe) party on this list, but they still show up often enough to be worth mentioning here. They have a very progressive stance on social issues and often a slightly-right-of-centre economic programme. They are also known for their fondness for electoral reform; many Progressive Liberal parties have 'Democratic' in their name for this reason, and indeed they are, in many ways, comparable to the Democratic Party in the US. They are often seen as sophisticated, nuanced and pragmatic; this image mostly attracts votes from the intellectual elite. A Progressive Liberal party will often work together with more or less anyone except the Far Right and the Far Left, but they're often especially cosy with the Greens, with whom they share their progressive social agenda.
* '''Social Democrats''': Almost always the principal left-wing party, and the direct opponents of the Classical Liberals and/or Conservatives. They will often have "Labour" or "Workers'" in their name, indicating their roots in the 19th century working class struggle for higher wages, decent working conditions and a social safety net. (In former Soviet Bloc countries, instead, they often are direct descendants of the Party.) They are clearly on the left, but not radically so, on both economic and social issues. Many of them made a move to the economic right in TheNineties (the "Third Way"), but most of them have returned to their left-wing roots since.
* '''Greens''': As the name implies, a party that cares a great deal about sustainability and the environment. They support clean energies and oppose nuclear power and GMOs. This is usually coupled with a firmly left-wing (though not in a traditional way) economic agenda and a very progressive stance on social issues. Political correctness is a virtue for Greens. Natural allies of the Social Democrats and the Progressive Liberals.
** Green parties also sometimes have a strong business-friendly/classical liberal wing or similar internal factions. Most common lines of divide are the aforementioned classical liberal against social democratic, social democratic against far left or "Fundi" ("fundamentalist", opposition strategy) against "Realo" ("Realpolitik", strategy of working towards a coalition)
** In some other Green parties, left-wing economic ideology is so ingrained that business-friendly Greens formed small splinter groups with limited chances of success. In some countries, there are also niche environmentalist groups that blend traditional "green" concerns with Christian Democratic positions on some issues.
* '''Far Left''': A radically left-wing party which will defend the welfare state at all costs and doesn't trust [[CorruptCorporateExecutive businesspeople and the private enterprise]]. They have more in common with the Far Right than either likes to admit; both "Far" factions share a fondness for populism and simplicity, and a distrust of UsefulNotes/TheEuropeanUnion. Both parties channel working-class discontent and rage, but whereas the Far Right directs this rage towards immigrants and left-wing intellectuals, the Far Left tends to direct it towards bankers, businesspeople and "managers". And yes, in a number of countries this includes old-school Communists.
And now three oddities outside the standard spectrum.
* '''Pirates''': This is a special type of political platform. They usually advertise themselves as an alternative to the other political parties. No clear definition if they are left or right [though many analysts view them as leftist] and the pirate parties claim themselves to be above all political spectrum. They demand liberalising or abolishing copyright, greater transparency in government, direct democracy, and removing what they see as excessive government controls. They are also suspicious of companies, partly motivated by the pirates' advocacy for copyright and intellectual property reform. They are usually [sometimes mistakenly and not always so] lumped together with Anonymous, and their voter base is typically very young and ''extremely'' tech-savvy/nerdy.
* '''Regionalists''': This is Europe, after all. Regionalist parties exist in various forms and range from advocating secession to demanding autonomy. Vary wildly on their other political platforms, ranging from left-wing (e.g. the Republican Left of Catalonia) to center-left/social-democratic (e.g. the [[BritishPoliticalSystem Scottish National Party]]) to center-right (e.g. the New Flemish Alliance) to right-populist (e.g. the Italian ''Lega Nord'') to far-right (e.g. the ''Vlaams Belang'' or "Flemish Interest").
* '''Agrarians''': In countries that are less industrialised, or for various historical reasons, there are parties defending the interests of the farmers. They're usually less urban counterparts of one of the parties above - when farmers are poor but numerous, Agrarians will be effectively left wing, treating them as a kind of workers, but when the farmers are effectively businesspeople, agrarians will be more liberal economically. Since farmers tend to be more conservative than the city folk, the Agrarians also are more socially conservative and religious - but quite often they'd get along with Greens. If they survived industrialisation, they typically have some "basic" power base - farmers tend to vote for farmers, after all.
Of course, these are not ''all'' present in ''every'' European country (some of them are even mutually exclusive, as pointed out above). Nor is it the case that there are no European political parties that do not correspond to any of these "types". But parties from this list do make up an overwhelming majority in just about every parliament in Europe, and dominate the political landscape of most European nations.
Also note that the parties can differ considerably in size. Traditionally, the Christian Democrats (or the Conservatives in countries which have them) and the Social Democrats are considered the "Big Two"; sometimes the Classical Liberals are also included, which gives us the "Big Three". Far Left and Far Right parties were often small before the TurnOfTheMillennium, but have now grown to medium size in many countries. The Greens and the Progressive Liberals are usually small to medium-sized.
[[folder: Useful Notes/Austria ]]
Generally being more to the right socio-politically than neighboring Germany has had an effect on the local alignment.
* Far Right: ''Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs (FPÖ)'' (Freedom Party of Austria), except in Carinthia where they're called ''Die Freiheitlichen in Kärnten (FPK)'' (The Freedom Party of Carinthia)
** The divide between the Far Right and the Classical Liberals has been historically wafer-thin in Austria since the Austrian Liberal tradition has always been tied to German Nationalism, which in Austria means becoming a part of Germany. The Freedom Party has always had a strong business wing (which notably lead to their first role in a coalition government in 1983) and various literature on them has claimed the party's history to be an internal struggle between the "Nationals" (the Far Right wing, made up of ex-Nazis, the national student fraternities and downright Neonazis) and the "Liberals" (the pro-business wing), which the Nationals pretty much won with Jörg Haider's rise to the leadership of the party in 1986. It gets complicated after that because under his reign the party attracted more people than it ever had before. He left the party amid internal struggles in 2005 and founded the BZÖ (see below).
* Classical Liberals: ''Bündnis Zukunft Österreich (BZÖ)'' (Alliance for the Future of Austria)
** Originally Jörg Haider's party after leaving the FPÖ, after his death decided to transform into a "Right-Liberal" party to fuse economic liberalism with social conservative views. Still trailing along the line between Right-wing Populists and Classical Liberals.
** ''Team Stronach'' (FRANK/TS), a new one-person centered party around self-made millionaire (and Canadian)[[note]]Technically, an Austrian immigrant to Canada, but he moved when he was 14 and that was in 1946. His daughter was a politician of some note in Canada in the 2000s.[[/note]] Frank Stronach.
* Conservative: ''Schwarz-Gelbe Allianz (SGA)'' (Black-Yellow Alliance): Somewhere between this and the Christian Democrats in views though officially nonpartisan, it is a monarchist party founded in 2004 and influenced by the late [[TheSoundOfMartialMusic Otto von Habsburg]]. Unsurprisingly, its members advocate for the restoration of the Habsburg monarchy in Austria, as well as a monarchist union comprising many of the countries that once made up the former Austro-Hungarian Empire.
* Christian Democrats: ''Österreichische Volkspartei (ÖVP)'' (Austrian People's Party)
* Social Democrats: ''Sozialdemokratische Partei Österreichs (SPÖ)'' Social Democratic Party of Austria)
* Greens: ''Die Grünen - die grüne Alternative'' (The Greens - The Green Alternative)
[[folder: Useful Notes/Belgium ]]
Belgium has been a highly decentralised federation for a few decades now, and its major parties are split between Flemish (Dutch-speaking) and Francophone. However, within each group there is a fairly standard distribution.
* '''Flemish parties''':
** Far Right: ''Vlaams Belang'' (VB) (Flemish Interest): Against Islam and immigrants, in favor of Flemish independence.
** Classical Liberals: ''Open Vlaamse Liberalen en Democraten'' (Open VLD) (Open Flemish Liberals and Democrats): Have moved in a somewhat progressive-liberal direction[[note]]Guy Verhofstadt, a former VLD leader and PM 1999-2008, is the older brother of noted progressive liberal academic Dirk Verhofstadt, and was gradually persuaded to persuade his party to agree[[/note]] but aren't there yet.
** Christian Democrats: ''Christen-Democratisch en Vlaams'' (CD&V) (Christian Democratic and Flemish)
** Social Democrats: ''Socialistische Partij Anders'' (sp.a) (Different Socialist Party)
** Greens: ''Groen'' (Green): Usually stylized ''Groen!''
** Regionalists: ''Nieuw Vlaamse Alliantie'' (New Flemish Alliance): More or less classical-liberal, but with a Christian-democratic wing, and really mostly a single-issue party favoring Flemish independence without being racist about it (as the Vlaams Belang are).
* '''Francophone parties''':
** Classical Liberals: ''Mouvement réformateur'' (MR) (Reformist Movement)
** Christian Democrats: ''Centre démocrate humaniste'' (CDH) (Democratic Humanist Centre)
** Social Democrats: ''Parti Socialiste'' (PS) (Socialist Party)
** Greens: ''Ecolo''
** Far Left: ''Parti du Travail de Belgique'' (Workers' Party of Belgium)(WPB)
** Right-Wing Populists: ''Parti populaire'' (People's party)
[[folder: Useful Notes/Britain ]]
See UsefulNotes/BritishPoliticalSystem for a complete breakdown. None of the British Political Parties fit very easily into the categories above, with each having some elements from two or three.
* Far Right: The ''British National Party'', ''National Front'' & ''English Defence League'' all have parts of this, although the BNP explicitly styles itself as a socialist party (they used to campaign under the slogan 'like the Labour Party you used to vote for' until the Labour Party changed the law to stop them).
* Right-Wing Populists: The main current of the ''United Kingdom Independence Party (UKIP)'' fits most comfortably here, with its moderate Euroscepticism (having no particular opposition to the entity on the Continent but believing that Britain should not be in it) and its right-wing but not exactly xenophobic immigration policy (calling for reduced economic immigration, but not calling for a stop to it, and emphasising that British citizenship should remain open to people who aren't "White British"). Features a lot of ex-Tories.
* Classical Liberals: The Liberal Democrats 'Orange Book' faction & the Conservative pro-business faction - which are the two factions currently in charge of each party, leading to the present Coalition Government. A few UKIP members used to be this, but as UKIP policies have become increasingly protectionist, UKIP free-traders have rapidly left - many of them jumping to the Liberal Democrats.
* Conservatives: ''Conservative Party'', although paradoxically only part of the Conservative Party are actual Conservatives. ''UKIP'' also have a lot of archetypal conservatives, mostly those who are very conservative indeed and object to the classical liberals running the Coalition - which is why the free marketeers have been mostly forced out of UKIP.
** The Northern Irish Ulster Unionist Party ''used'' to take the Tory whip at Westminster, but that broke down after the Anglo-Irish Agreement of 1985. Since then, the UUP has had trouble getting elected to Westminster anyway, so even though the parties have reconciled, it's a moot point.
* Progressive Liberals: ''Liberal Democrats'' - the Social Liberal Forum faction of the party.
** Additionally, the Alliance Party of Northern Ireland takes the Liberal Democratic whip when elected to Westminster.
* Social Democrats: ''Labour Party'' and the Liberal Left faction of the ''Liberal Democrats'' - the Liberal Democrats having been formed from a merger of the (classical) Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party at around the time that the Labour Party had moved into the far left of UK Politics.
** The Northern Irish Social Democratic and Labour Party informally takes the Labour whip at Westminster--i.e. they usually vote with Labour, but they are not formally bound to do so. The SDLP is Nationalist in orientation.
* Far Left: Elements of both Labour and the Greens. Labour especially still have backing from many Trade Unions. Other Trade Unions support the ''Trade Unions and Socialist Coaliliton (TUSC)'', which is the Far Left's Far Left.
* Greens: ''Green Party'': This one is odd, because there are actually three separate Green Parties: one in England and Wales, another in Scotland (it advocates independence), and another in Northern Ireland (it's Nationalist). Only the England and Wales branch has won seats at Westminster, but all three have won seats in the devolved parliaments/assemblies for Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales, and London.
** The Green Party is heavily socialist - much moreso nowadays than the Labour Party, leading to jokes about them being watermelons - Green on the outside, Red in the middle.
* Regionalists: ''Scottish National Party'' (Scotland), ''Plaid Cymru'' (Wales), ''Mebyon Kernow'' (Cornwall) - more to the left-wing; ''English Democrats'' (England) more to the right-wing. And arguably most parties in Northern Ireland.
** Arguably, the Liberal Democrats as well. Although they are a national party, they are the only one to consistently call for greater devolution to local communities. In fact, most Lib Dems go further than Regional assemblies or Scottish/Welsh Devolution - they want more power in town halls. Given the Classical Liberal faction of the Tories has/had a similar preference for decentralisation (although ''not'' devolution), this is one of the policy areas making the Coalition possible. (The Lib Dems, however, also officially advocate for federalism, while the Tories want to keep the unitary state.)
[[folder: Useful Notes/Denmark ]]
* Far Right: ''Dansk Folkeparti'' Danish People's Party
* Classical Liberals: ''Venstre, Danmarks liberale parti'' (Left, Denmark's Liberal Party): Usually just called ''Venstre''. Got its paradoxical name because when the party was founded the 19th century, it represented the left wing of liberal bourgeoisie against ''Hřjre'' ("The Right"), the landed aristocracy and Church of Denmark. Later on the workers got in on the game and were further left than ''Left'', and ''Hřyre'' died out with the aristocracy, and merged with...
* Conservatives: ''Det Konservative Folkeparti'' (The Conservative People's Party): Somewhat unusually, they exist in Denmark and a Christian Democratic party doesn't. They are small and these days more or less locked into an alliance with ''Venstre''.
* Progressive Liberals: ''Det Radikale Venstre'' (The Radical Left): A breakaway from ''Venstre'' that called itself "radical" because it incorporated some leftist ideas.
* Social Democrats: ''Socialdemokraterne'' (Social Democrats)
* Greens: ''Socialistisk Folkeparti'' (Socialist People's Party)
* Far Left: ''Enhedslisten'' (Unity List)
[[folder: Useful Notes/Finland ]]
* Far Right: ''Perussuomalaiset (PS)'' (True Finns)
* Christian Democrats: ''Suomen Kristillisdemokraatit (KD)'' (Finnish Christian Democrats)
* Progressive Liberals: ''Kansallinen Kokoomus'' (National Coalition Party)
* Social Democrats: ''Suomen Sosialidemokraattinen Puolue (SDP)'' (Social Democratic Party of Finland)
* Greens: ''Vihreä liitto'' (Green League)
* Far Left: ''Vasemmistoliitto'' (Left Alliance)
* Harder to classify: ''Suomen Keskusta'' (The Center Party, or literally "Finland's Center Party")
** Mainly an agrarian party by its roots but they also consider themselves [[CaptainObvious centrists]]. They tend to, however, be classified as liberal in Finland; slightly to the right of center, which is why a coalition government between the Coalition Party and the Center Party is still called ''porvarihallitus'' (capitalist government). They are not a typical liberal party, though. They are very popular in the countryside which gives them a strong base.
[[folder: Useful Notes/France ]]
See UsefulNotes/FrenchPoliticalSystem for details.
* Far Right: ''Front National (FN)'' (National Front)
** Right-wing Populists: ''Front National (FN)'' (National Front) again, or at least its offshoot ''Rassemblement Bleu Marine (RBM)'' (Navy Blue Rally) established by Marine Le Pen, who became leader of the FN in 2011 (do you see the pun?). Ever since she took the leadership, the party has tried to distance itself from the worst parts of its history (links with [[LesCollaborateurs WWII collaborators]], antisemitism and xenophobia...) and instead presented itself as a party founded by [[BlatantLies veterans of the French resistance]] (which has been proven untrue). It was actually founded by members of a neo-fascist movement called "''Ordre Nouveau''"[[note]] "New Order" (no, not [[Music/NewOrder that one]])[[/note]].
* Conservatives: ''Union pour un Mouvement Populaire (UMP)'' (Union for a Popular Movement)
** Recently, a new party was formed : the ''Union des Démocrates et Indépendants (UDI)'' (Union of Democrats and Independents), which seems like a small coalition of (usually moderate) Conservatives, Classical Liberals, Christian Democrats, and some right-leaning Progressive Liberals. They're all allies of the UMP, anyway. Basically it's virtually the SpiritualSuccessor of the old UDF which was the textbook definition of Christian Democrats.
* Christian Democrats : ''Mouvement démocrate [=(MoDem)=]'' (Democratic Movement) [[note]]sort of ; see below[[/note]]. Arguably the UDI since it's a coalition with several centrist components. Technically, one could probably also count Christine Boutin's ''Parti Chrétien-Démocrate [=(PCD)=]'' (Christian-Democratic Party)[[note]] although to put it nicely, it has a niche appeal at best. The PCD is ''heavily'' dependent on the UMP to get anyone elected, and since that invariably fails anyways, for direct financing. Since 2013, tends to be viewed as a single-topic party banking on the conservative electorate's opposition to same-sex marriage, and as being quasi-fundamentalist by French standards.[[/note]]
* Progressive Liberals: ''Mouvement démocrate [=(MoDem)=]'' (Democratic Movement) [[note]]Yes. They just try to be a big tent of the centre. Party founder François Bayrou was inspired by the pragmatic, big-tent approach of the US Democratic Party; he reportedly wanted to call his party ''Parti démocratique'' and was reportedly very annoyed when he found out some tin-pot little party nobody had ever heard of had beaten him to the name.[[/note]], ''Parti Radical de Gauche'' (Radical Party of the Left) [[note]]a really small party (but with a very old lineage), still mainly known for its old congressmen and rural mayors, and its diehard alliance with the Socialists.[[/note]] The other half of the historical ''Parti Radical'', officially called ''Parti Radical'' and known as ''Parti Radical Valoisien'' to tell it apart from the PRG, [[note]]after the location of its headquarters, rue de Valois[[/note]] used to be part of the UMP and is a founding member of the UDI.
* Social Democrats: ''Parti Socialiste (PS)'' (Socialist Party)
* Greens: ''Europe Écologie - Les Verts (EELV)'' (Europe Ecology - The Greens) Plus a bunch of splinter centrist parties like Cap21 or Le Trčfle. EELV itself is technically a coalition between the historical anti-growth Greens and the Europe Ecologie list that did quite well at the 2009 European parliamentary election.
* Far Left: ''Front de Gauche'' (Left Front) + [[WeAreStrugglingTogether Two minor parties that are even farther left.]]
[[folder: Useful Notes/Germany ]]
See PoliticalSystemOfGermany and PostwarGermanPoliticalParties for details.
* Far right: ''Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands: Die Volksunion" (National Democratic Party of Germany: The People's Union). Heavily infiltrated by the [=BfV=], the German internal security service--to the point where it is accused of being a FlockOfWolves--just in case...
* Right-wing Populists: ''Alternative für Deutschland ([=AfD=])'' (Alternative for Germany): A right-wing breakaway of the CDU/CSU (see below) which is mildly Eurosceptic (calling for an end to the euro but keeping the EU) and has a somewhat muddled attitude toward immigration. Basically, Germany's UKIP.
* Classical Liberals: ''Freie demokratische Partei (FDP)'' (Free Democratic Party)
* Christian Democrats: ''Christlich demokratische Union Deutschlands (CDU)'' (Christian Democratic Union of Germany), except in Bavaria where they're called the ''Christlich-soziale Union in Bayern (CSU)'' (Christian Social Union of Bavaria)
* Pirates: ''Piratenpartei Deutschland (PIRATEN)'' (Pirate Party of Germany): One of the more successful Pirate Parties in Europe.
* Social Democrats: '''Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (SPD)'' (Social Democratic Party of Germany)
* Greens: ''Bündnis '90[=/=]Die Grünen'' (Alliance '90/The Greens)
* Far Left: ''Die Linke'' (The Left): The successor to the SED that governed the former UsefulNotes/EastGermany, and the majority of their support still comes from that region. The modern party is a coalition between open Marxist-Leninists and more moderate left-wingers.
[[folder: Useful Notes/Greece ]]
Greece has seen a major political shake-up since the beginning of the economic crisis, with the party system being distinctly in flux.
* Far Right: ''Chrysi Augi (XA)'' (Golden Dawn): Who have been [[GodwinsLaw accused of being Nazis]], but [[JustifiedTrope not without justification]]. [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Meandros_flag.svg Look at their flag]]! (And their long record of Hitler fanboyism, and their hatred of minorities...)
* Right-Wing Populists: ''Anexartitoi Ellines (ANEL)'' (Independent Greeks): Anti-austerity, Eurosceptic breakaway party of New Democracy (see below) founded in the wake of the economic crisis.
* Conservatives: ''Nea Demokratia (ND)'' (New Democracy)
* Social Democrats: ''Panellenio Sosialistiko Kinema (PASOK)'' (Panhellenic Socialist Movement)
* Progressive Democrats: ''To Potami (TP)'' (The River): Arguably Social Democratic, but definitely centrist. Founded in 2014 by journalist Stavros Theodorakis and capitalizes on his popularity, it's centrist, wavers between social democracy and left-liberalism, and is pro-European, with a focus on combating corruption.
* Far Left: Three parties:
** ''Synaspismos Rizospastikis Aristeras (SYRIZA)'' (Coalition of the Radical Left); includes the Greens. Managed to get a plurality in the 2015 election by advocating for renegotiation of the terms of the EU bailout (to allow for an easing of austerity) and governs in conjunction with ANEL (which, despite differences on virtually every other issue, agrees with SYRIZA on crisis-related economic matters).
** ''Kommounistiko Komma Elladas (KKE)'' (Communist Party of Greece)
** ''Dimokratiki Aristera (DIMAR)'' (Democratic Left); a center-left to left breakaway from SYRIZA that split with the main party to provide limited but much-needed support to an ND-led grand coalition during the debt crisis. Completely wiped out in the 2015 election.
Previously '' Laikós Orthódoxos Synagermós (LAIOS)'' (Popular Orthodox Rally)--who emphasized Greek Orthodox identity--occupied the Far-Right seat, but XA out-righted them, and LAIOS has faded into obscurity. Now people who found LAIOS distasteful are sort of sad to see them go.
[[folder: Useful Notes/Cyprus ]]
Cyprus is a weird one, and not only because the country is currently divided and left in limbo; parties didn't really exist for the first 20 years of the Republic (keep in mind that the country was funded in 1960), and a bunch of them was created because someone noticed that it's weird not to have them (okay, the Communist Party existed in some form before 1960, but only that one). The composition of the parliament of the Republic of Cyprus, which controls the south part and it's elected by the Greek Cypriots is as follows:
* Right-wing Populists: EVROKO (Evropaďkó Kómma - European Party): Former Christian Democrats (see below) that left because they disagreed with the latters' support for the 2004 Reunification Plan, which they saw as a bad deal. Now slowly being dissolved and absorbed by extra-parliamentary parties.
* Christian Democrats / Convservatives : DISY (Dimokratikós Sinagermós - Democratic Rally): Quite a big family, being one of the two big parties. Range from Ultra-conservative ultra-religious nationalists to neoliberals (some of them being noticeably more progressive that the rest of the party). As of March 2013, they are the government.
* Centrist: DIKO (Dimokratikó Kómma): The third biggest party, essentially acting as the king maker. Despite their bursts of nationalism, they will go for any party that offers them a good deal in a coalition.
* Social-Democrats: EDEK (used to be an acronym, not anymore): They are the fourth largest party and despite their commitment to social democracy, they spend their time trying to become the next king makers, by engaging in quasi-right-wing populism (no, don't think of Nazis, just a smaller DIKO)
* Communists: AKEL (Anrthotikó Kómma Ergazómenou Laoú - Progressive Party of Working People), The other one of the Two Big parties; not really communist - don't worry, they suspended their goal for a socialist state long ago. In practice, they are social democratic at best. For a party calling itself "progressive", it's also quite conservative, at least in comparison to social democrats in the rest of Europe. Currently being in denial about how bad their reign in government was (2008 to 2013).
[[folder: Useful Notes/Hungary ]]
Like Poland below and Austria to a degree, Hungarian politics is a few ticks to the right. At the same time, the continuing legacy of both Communist rule and WorldWarII have left their peculiar mark in the alignment.
* Far Right: ''Jobbik Magyarországért Mozgalom (Jobbik)'' (Movement for a Better Hungary), the Hungarian equivalent to the British National Party and Golden Dawn.
* Conservative: ''Fidesz - Magyar Polgári Szövetség (Fidesz)'' (Fidesz – Hungarian Civic Union), originally an anti-Communist youth movement, now the currently dominant party in the country. Has always been led by Viktor Orbán, who was also a Vice President in the European People's Party for 10 years and the youngest democratically elected Hungarian prime minister in 1998.
* Christian Democrats: ''Kereszténydemokrata Néppárt (KDNP)'' (Christian Democratic People's Party)
* Social Democrats: ''Magyar Szocialista Párt (MSZP)'' (Hungarian Socialist Party), founded by former members of the UsefulNotes/ColdWar-era Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party after the end of Communist rule.
* Far Left: ''Magyar Munkáspárt''(Hungarian Workers' Party), an explicitly Communist party formed by other ex-Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party members.
[[folder: Useful Notes/Ireland ]]
See UsefulNotes/IrishPoliticalSystem for a complete breakdown. The Irish system is strange because of the two "main" parties, only one relatively neatly fits into the traditional spectrum. This is because the main parties descent from the Pro-Treaty and Anti-Treaty factions in UsefulNotes/TheIrishCivilWar, and developed more as political machines than anything with any kind of coherent ideology. Eventually, the parties did gain ''some'' sort of principle, but not much. Like Poland below, Ireland's politics are heavily influenced by the Catholic Church, which has historically pulled things a few ticks to the right; this was for a long time supported by Ireland's heavily rural character. Finally, UsefulNotes/TheTroubles figure heavily into Irish identity and politics.
* Outside the spectrum: ''Fianna Fáil'' (inevitably called that in English; means "Warriors of Ireland"). One of the two "main" parties. It's essentially more of a political machine than a "party" in the conventional sense, and doesn't ''have'' any particular ideology to speak of. As such, it is favoured by the business elite even though they are more populist than anything else. Descended from the Anti-Treaty faction.
* Christian Democrats: ''Fine Gael'' (inevitably called that in English; means "Family of the Irish"). The other "main" party, this one more or less ''is'' Christian Democratic--and very Catholic. Descended from the Pro-Treaty faction.
* Social Democrats: ''Labour Party''. Joined at the hip to Fine Gael, as despite their radically different views on social policy, they are in accord in their economic views (FG takes Catholic social teaching, which is actually quasi-social-democratic economics, very seriously).
* Far-Left: Two parties, from two different sub-traditions:
** ''Sinn Féin'' (inevitably called that in English; means "We Ourselves"). Claims descent from [[UsefulNotes/TheIrishRevolution the original Sinn Féin Nationalist movement]]. Socialist and fiercely, fiercely Nationalist. Formerly the political wing of the [[UsefulNotes/TheTroubles Provisional IRA]], now a Eurosceptic far-left party.
** ''United Left Alliance'': A grouping of three far-left groups, without the same links to Nationalism as Sinn Fein.
* Green: ''Green Party''. Formerly allies of Fianna Fáil. Now wiped out.
[[folder: Useful Notes/Italy ]]
* Far Right/Regionalist: ''Lega Nord (LN)'' (Northern League): As their name implies, they are only found in the northern part of the country; they want either more autonomy for it or complete independence. What bigotry they have is mostly directed at southern Italians--whom they regard as backwards, lazy, and a drain on the country--rather than foreigners (although they hardly get a free pass).
* Classical Liberals: ''Forza Italia'' ("Go, Italy!") a.k.a. "Berlusconi's party".
* Christian Democrats: ''Unione di Centro [=(UdC)=]'' (Centre Union)
* Progressive Liberals: ''Italia dei Valori [=(IdV)=]'' (Italy of Values)
* Social Democrats: ''Partito Democratico (PD)'' (Democratic Party): Although this is an odd one, since they could equally well be considered Progressive Liberals; they formed from a merger of various centrist and centre-left parties, some of which were Progressive Liberals, and some of which were social democrats (one major faction, the Democrats of the Left, descended directly from the Communist Party of the Cold War years). The "Democratic Party" label was an explicit reference to the American one, but PD [=MEPs=] sit with the Social Democrats--although the EP group ''changed its name'' to accomodate the fact that the PD was ''not'' entirely social democratic.
* Far Left/Green: ''Sinistra Ecologia Libertŕ (SEL)'' (Left Ecology Freedom): In a fairly solid alliance with the PD--they're allowed to run someone in the election for who will be the PD candidate for Prime Minister.
* Regionalist: ''Südtiroler Volkspartei (SVP)'' (South Tyrolean People's Party): Party for the German- and Ladinian-speaking people in Alto Adige/South Tyrol; also numerous parties in the Aosta Valley.
In the last election the Italian political system was shattered by comedian Beppe Grillo's ''Movimento 5 Stelle'' (Five Star Movement) who won a sixth of all seats in the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. No one is entirely sure what exactly they want except for all the other parties to get lost. And apparently they don't like UsefulNotes/TheEuropeanUnion much.
[[folder: Useful Notes/The Netherlands ]]
* Far Right: ''Partij voor de Vrijheid (PVV)'' (Party for Freedom)
** Opinions can vary wildly on wether the PVV is Far Right or Right-wing Populist, depending on whether party leader Geert Wilders' most recent Muslim-baiting has been bad enough to make the news.
* Classical Liberals: ''Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie (VVD)'' (People's Party for Freedom and Democracy)
* Christian Democrats: ''Christen-Democratisch Appél (CDA)'' (Christian Democratic Appeal)
* Progressive Liberals: ''Democraten '66 (D66)'' (Democrats '66)
* Social Democrats: ''Partij van de Arbeid [=(PvdA)=]'' (Labour Party)
* Greens: ''[=GroenLinks=]'' (Green-Left)
* Far Left: ''Socialistische Partij (SP)'' (Socialist Party)
On account of its low electoral threshold and purely proportional electoral system, the Netherlands also has a tradition of "testimonial parties": fringe and special-interest parties who seek seats in parliament to [[SingleIssueWonk make a statement]] rather than obtain political power. Currently, three such parties have representation: ''Staatkundig Gereformeerde Partij'' (SGP) (Reformed Political Party, representing the hardcore conservative Reformed folks of the Dutch "[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bible_Belt_(Netherlands) Bible Belt]]" advocating for Biblically-based government; most notably openly states women and men are "[[StayInTheKitchen of equal value but not equal to men]]" and excluded women from membership until 2006), ''Partij voor de Dieren'' (PvdD) (Party for the Animals; [[AnimalWrongsGroup animal-rights]]), and 50PLUS (pensioners' interest).
[[folder: Useful Notes/Norway ]]
Norway developed a political party system after the rise of parliamentarism in 1884. The oldest parties were established around that time. For years the only two parties worth mentioning were the ''classical liberals'' (the right) and the ''progressive liberals'' (the left), of which the latter is the oldest and has the first elected prime minister in Norwegian history. From this party sprang both the christian democrats and the Farmers party/the centre party. The Labour party arose from the growing unions, and soon set a wedge between the liberals, until they took over completely in 1935. They have largely had the momentum ever since. The Socialist left broke off from the Labour party in 1960 because of disagreement over the NATO membership, while communists broke out as early as in 1923. The modern far left is formed from the Norwegian student uprising in 1968. Yeah, and the Progress Party showed up under a different name in 1973, getting votes from discontented right-wingers all over the place.
* Far Right: ''Fremskrittspartiet [=(FrP)=]'' (Progress Party). Arose in 1973 as a party to cut taxes and public expenses. Has a notably colorful history with many twists and turns, being a "one man party" for many years. Populist in nature. The party will not label a clear statement on the EU. The founder of the party had connections to the pre war fasctist party, but nobody speaks about that...
* Classical Liberals: ''Hřyre'' (Conservative Party or "The Right"). Gathered support from the merchants in the cities, the wealthy businessmen and the old elite. Pro EU. Was shaped from the old official elite that opposed parliamentarism, which was instigated from the Left wing.
* Christian Democrats: ''Kristelig Folkeparti [=(KrF)=]'' (Christian People's Party). Sprang out of the classical liberals, with a strong support in the south west, where the laymen`s christianity is strong. Preaches strongly on family values. Pro EOC, against EU.
* Farmer`s Party/the center party: ''Senterpartiet [=(SP)=]'' Niche party for rural interests. When this party is in government, the farmers usually get a bigger share of the national budget. Against EU and the EOC.
* Progressive Liberals: ''Venstre'' (Liberal Party "Left"). Known for the longest party history, and for most of the fractionism. Has split up and reformed time and again. It is said about this party that the party members never agree on anything. Last split was after the EEC referendum, when the party lost half it`s members to a new liberal party that never made it. Today, the support for the EU still threatens to disrupt what is left of the party.
* Social Democrats: ''Arbeiderpartiet'' (Worker's Party). The centre of power in Norway, almost to the point that any other party has to deal with them. Pro EU officially, with a strong anti wing to the left.
* Moderate Left: ''Sosialistisk Venstreparti (SV)'' (Socialist Left Party). Broke off the Labour party in 1960 after heavy disputes over the NATO question. Been a staunch opposition party ever since, but softened up after getting in government from 2005. Most astounding feature is kicking the Labour party out of position in 1963 with ''two men in parliament''. Usually the party for students, university people and teachers. Against the EU.
* Far left: ''Rřdt'': Actually a coalition between different socialist alliances like the ''red voter alliance'' and the former ''Worker`s Communist Party'' (AKP -ml: The marxist-leninists). The old Communist Party from 1923 is still kicking, but is held out of the loop. All those parties are opposed to an EU membership.
* Outside of blocks: ''The Greens'' (MDG). Came in as a branch of a bigger environmental movement with related parties in many countries. Has recently gained one seat in parliament. Has a knack of siding with the reds in many cases.
Contrary to other European countries, the question of EU membership gains the greatest support in the centre and moderate right (with the "Centre Party" as a weird exception from that rule). The left wing is more opposed the further left one gets, and the far right refuses to take sides (By now, every party has a majority against, even the traditional right, making the party elites more "pro" than the common folk regardless of political leanings). The usual rule in Europe is to find the anti EU leanings to the right. One of the reasons Norway is labelled "backwards country".
[[folder: Useful Notes/Poland ]]
Note: The influence of the Catholic Church moves Poland's politics a few ticks to the right from the rest of the pack, hence the unusual alignment.
* Far Right: ''Kongres Nowej Prawicy'' (Congress of the New Right) -- "libertarian" party. All about reducing the state to basic functions, minimal taxes and complete deregulation. They're also socially conservative and extremely Eurosceptic. The newest in a long string of parties led by Janusz Korwin-Mikke, a politician and pundit very open about his hatred of democracy. Eternally outside of the Sejm, but [[PeripheryDemographic highly popular on the Internet]]. As of late 2014, their leader became a [=MEP=], and they now have a sole Sejm representative, who defected from [=PiS=].
** Recently, ''Ruch Narodowy'' feels stronger - a fusion of right-wing extremist movements, similar to Hungarian Jobbik or Greek Golden Dawn. Time will tell, whether they'll get into parliament or fuse with [=KNP=].
* Right-Wing Populists (or Christian Democrats, if you are feeling charitable): ''Prawo i Sprawiedliwość'' (Law and Justice) -- Combines social conservatism, populist leftist economics (higher taxes on the rich[[labelnote:*]]Poland being Poland, they actually lowered taxes when they were in power[[/labelnote]], lowering the retirement age, occasionally talks about nationalising banks), mild Euroscepticism, and a tough stance on law and order, particularly corruption. Spent the last few years in opposition due to their tiresomely aggressive rhetorics, but making a comeback now that the economy is in trouble. Infamous for accusing the government of conspiring with Russia to assassinate the [=PiS=]-aligned former president, who died in a plane crash (see: UsefulNotes/ConspiracyTheories).
** ''Solidarna Polska'' (United Poland): A copy of [=PiS=] started by [=MPs=] who were kicked out of [=PiS=] for questioning the leadership. Basically [=PiS=] with less conspiracy theorism and the odium of [[WeAreStrugglingTogether splitting the right]], and as such aren't terribly popular. Try to eke out some votes by aligning with conservative elements in the Church.
* Classical Liberals: ''Platforma Obywatelska'' (Civic Platform): PO is considered to be to the left of [=PiS=]. It traditionally supports free markets[[labelnote:*]]Poland being Poland, they actually raised taxes after getting in power[[/labelnote]], and has a moderate social conservative stance, though it contains both Progressive Liberal and conservative wings. A few members of both factions have defected to the RP and PT (see below). PO and [=PiS=] have been the two major parties since about 2005.
** ''Polska Razem'' (Poland Together): Libertarian-ish, social conservative party started by a few conservative [=MPs=] who were kicked out of PO.
* Progressive Liberals: ''Twój Ruch'' (Your Movement), formerly known as ''Ruch Palikota'' ([[EgocentricTeamNaming Palikot's Movement]]): A socially-liberal party established by Janusz Palikot, TheGadfly of Polish politics, formerly a PO Member of the Sejm. Rode into parliament on a wave of discontent with the Church. Notably features the first openly gay and transgender [=MPs=].
** ''Greens'' or Zieloni (there are some other Green movements) have failed in every election they started in, but like [=KNP=] above they now have a sole representative in the Parliament - the aforementioned transgender woman Anna Grodzka.
* Social Democrats: ''Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej'' (Democratic Left Alliance): An amalgamation of several leftist parties, most of which traced their descent from the PZPR (Polish United Workers' Party), which was The Party in the Communist days. Lost most of their influence in 2005 after a massive corruption scandal. After years of being too busy with in-fighting to convey a coherent stance on anything, seems to be moving to the right on economics; its leader is more of a classical liberal. Tries to avoid expressing any opinions on social issues, so as not to alienate older voters, which has been exploited by ''Twój Ruch''.
* Agrarians: ''Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe'' (Polish People's Party) -- Approximately Social Democrat, but more socially conservative (are you noticing a pattern by now?) and with a specific focus on agriculture and support for small farmers. Has a reputation for nepotism and being willing to get into a coalition with just about anybody.
[[folder: Useful Notes/Portugal ]]
* Classical Liberals: ''Partido Social Democrata (PSD)'' (Social Democrat Party), has this name because they were Social Democrats until the '80s.
* Christian Democrats: ''Centro Democrático Social - Partido Popular (CDS-PP)'' (Democratic and Social Center - People's Party)
* Social Democrats: ''Partido Socialista (PS)'' (Socialist Party)
* Greens: ''Partido Ecologista "Os Verdes" (PEV)'' (Ecologist Party "The Greens"), in a permanent coalition with the Communists, so somewhat overlapping with the Far Left.
* Far Left: ''Partido Comunista Portuguęs (PCP)'' (Portuguese Communist Party) and ''Bloco de Esquerda (BE)'' (Left Block)
[[folder: Useful Notes/Russia ]]
See UsefulNotes/RussianPoliticalSystem for details
* Far Right: ''DPNI ("the Movement to Counteract Illegal Immigration", an outlawed party)''
* Right Wing Populist: ''Liberal Democratic Party of Russia (looks like far-right, but in fact populist all bark and no bite)''
* Classical Liberals: ''Right Cause'' (a dwarf party), ''Another Russia'' (an outlawed one too)
* Conservatives: ''United Russia'': This one is The Party, supporting UsefulNotes/VladimirPutin whatever he does. It controls everything, but given Putin's popularity this isn't unexpected. Just really annoying and suspicious.
* Progressive Liberals: ''Yabloko'' ("Apple Party") (not important enough to ban)
* Social Democrats: ''A Just Russia''
* Far Left: ''Left Front (an outlawed party)''
* Don't Fit In: ''Communist Party of the Russian Federation (a blend of social-democrat and conservative).''
[[folder: Useful Notes/Spain ]]
* Conservatives: ''Partido Popular (PP)'' (People's Party)
* Progressive Liberals: ''Unión Progreso y Democracia [=(UPyD)=]'' (Union for Progress and Democracy)
* Social Democrats: ''Partido Socialista Obrero Espańol (PSOE)'' (Spanish Socialist Worker's Party)
* Far Left: ''Izquierda Unida (IU)'' (United Left)
* Regionalist: ''Convergčncia i Unió [=(CiU)=]'' (Convergence and Union; Christian Democratic/Conservative) and ''Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya (ERC)'' (Republican Left of Catalonia, Social Democrats) in Catalonia are the biggest two. Several regional parties exist for the other autonomous communities of Spain. And then there's the Basque country...
[[folder: Useful Notes/Sweden ]]
* Right-wing Populists: ''Sverigedemokraterna (SD)'' (Sweden Democrats). Particularly popular in Scania, the southernmost part of Sweden (near Denmark, and part of Denmark until the mid-17th century), and in rural areas in general.
** ''Webcomic/ScandinaviaAndTheWorld'' had [[http://satwcomic.com/swedish-politics this to say]] about SD's first entry into the ''Riksdag''.
* Classical Liberals:
** ''Moderaterna'' (Moderate Party), was formerly a Conservative party but ditched any meaningful conservatism within the last decade.
** ''Centerpartiet (C)'' (Centre Party): The Centre Party has its origins as Agrarians, but due to urbanization they have become Classical Liberals with a touch of Greenwash propaganda.
* Christian Democrats: ''Kristdemokraterna (KD)'' (Christian Democrats). Popular in and around the Swedish bible belt in the province of Smĺland.
* Progressive Liberals: ''Folkpartiet Liberalerna (FP)'' (Liberal People's Party)
* Social Democrats: formally ''Sveriges Socialdemokratiska arbetarparti (SAP)'' (Swedish Social Democratic Workers' Party), more commonly known as ''Socialdemokraterna'' (Social Democrats). They were the dominant party in Sweden for much of the 20th Century, ruling consecutively between 1932-1976.
* Greens: ''Miljöpartiet de gröna (MP)'' (Environmental Party of the Greens)
* Pirates: ''Piratpartiet'' (Pirate Party)
* Far Left: ''Vänsterpartiet'' (Left Party). The former communist party, nowdays Left-wing Populists.
* Far Left: ''Feministiskt initiativ'' (F!) (Feminist Initiative). A Left-wing Populist party, founded by a former leader of the Left Party, with intersectionalist feminism as their cornerstone.
[[folder: Useful Notes/Switzerland ]]
Switzerland is really funny, as it has been governed by an all-party coalition of the four major parties (SVP, FDP, CVP, SP) called the "magic formula" since 1959, with the seat distribution on the Federal Council (the seven-member Cabinet that also serves as Switzerland's collective head of state) changing only very slightly on the basis of who gets more seats in the Federal Assembly.
* Right-wing Populists: ''Schweizerische Volkspartei (SVP)'' (Swiss People's Party), started as an Agrarian party and moved to the Right under chairman Christoph Blocher.
** Their part is taken over in the Italian speaking Cantons by the ''Lega dei Ticinesi'' (Ticino League, similar to the Lega Nord) and more recently in the French speaking Cantons, especially in Geneva, by the ''Mouvement Citoyens Genevois (MCG)'' (Geneva Citizens' Movement).
* Classical Liberals: ''[=FDP.Die Liberalen=]'' (FDP. The Liberals)
* Conservatives: ''Bürgerlich-Demokratische Partei (BDP)'' (Civic-Democratic Party), an offshoot of the SVP.
* Christian Democrats: ''Christlichdemokratische Volkspartei (CVP)'' (Christian Democratic People's Party, Catholic) and ''Evangelische Volkspartei (EVP)'' (Protestant People's Party, Lutheran Protestant, much smaller than the CVP)
** The CVP also has a smaller more left-wing wing called the ''Christlichsoziale Partei (CSP)'' (Christian Social Party) which has oftentimes gathered seats on their own and in some Cantons is even organized as a seperate party. Swiss Politics are complicated.
* Social Democrats: ''Sozialdemokratische Partei (SP)'' (Social Democratic Party)
* Greens: ''Grüne Partei'' (Green Party)
** ''Grünliberale (GLP)'' more business-friendly offshoot of the Green Party.