Romanization refers to the process of transliterating words from a non-Latin script into the Latin alphabet (AKA the Roman alphabet). Each language typically has several different Romanization systems that may give different results. Romanization is particularly necessary for names, loanwords and special vocabulary that doesn't have an equivalent in the target language.
Languages that you may encounter around this Wiki that require romanization:
* Japanese; see UsefulNotes/JapaneseRomanization
* Chinese; see WhyMaoChangedHisName