[[caption-width-right:350:''"Céad mí­le fáilte"'']]

->''"In Ireland the inevitable never happens and the unexpected constantly occurs"''.
-->--'''Sir John Pentland Mahaffy'''

'''Ireland''' ('''Irish:''' ''Éire''; '''Ulster-Scots:''' ''Airlann or Airlan''), is a medium sized, [[GrayRainOfDepression rain-swept]] island on the northwestern fringe of Europe, which looks a bit like a teddy bear or koala (imagine it in the profile, looking away from Britain). It is also the name of the Northern European country that covers four fifths of that island, the rest being covered by Northern Ireland (part of the UK). For Hollywood clichés about Ireland, see {{Oireland}}. For more about Northern Ireland, see UsefulNotes/NorthernIreland and UsefulNotes/TheTroubles.

A note on the '''name'''. The official name of the country is simply Ireland in English, but "Republic of Ireland" is the official description (The Republic of Ireland Act, 1948). Both are acceptable, though using the latter in casual speech will probably get you odd looks in UsefulNotes/{{Dublin}} (not hostile, just odd). Éire (''air-uh'') is technically legitimate but for various complicated reasons involving UsefulNotes/NorthernIreland is ''not'' used casually. And mostly not used at all, since the majority of Irish don't actually speak the Irish language, and even fewer use it as their primary language. English is the primary language of Ireland, though the government of Ireland works very hard to keep the Irish language alive.

Ireland (the country) is the second most '''Catholic country''' in Europe after UsefulNotes/{{Poland}} (not counting the Vatican, obviously), though the influence of the Church has waned in recent years, especially in the wake of a [[PedophilePriest sex abuse scandal]] and coverup, but it is still enough that Ireland got a special agreement in the Lisbon Treaty that its [[GoodGirlsAvoidAbortion ban on abortion]] would not be touched. When the Taoiseach (Prime Minister) very publicly chewed out the Church over the sex abuse scandal, it was seen as rather earth-shattering.

It was also up until recently one of the '''poorest countries''' in Europe, classified as a third-world country, but this has been completely reversed over the past decade and now the country is one of richest states in the world. Irish economic success lead to the country being dubbed UsefulNotes/TheCelticTiger (like the Tiger economies of Asia) and is mostly derived from a lot of financial investment through Ireland's EU membership. Ireland's reliance on foreign investment and large debts came back to haunt it during the international economic crisis, and it is currently on the decline again, Ireland being the first country in Europe to officially declare itself in recession, as well as being one of the [[FunWithAcronyms PIGS economies]] (along with Greece, Portugal and Spain).

Speaking of recessions, Ireland was very heavily hit by the '''recession'''. The backlash brought down the long-running Fianna Fáil/Green coalition government, and installed a Fine Gael/Labour coalition with its biggest election win ever. After much talk about how everything would be different now, [[MeetTheNewBoss they proceeded to do everything the same way as before.]] Every year budget cuts have been made to children (especially those with special needs), the elderly, and the increasing number below the poverty line... Fortunately, as of 2016, Irish bonds are no longer considered "junk", which should ''in theory'' make things a bit easier.

Ireland is also known for its '''agriculture''', having more sheep than humans in its territory. The UsefulNotes/IrishPotatoFamine of the late 1840s led to about a million deaths, a further million emigrating and a population crash so great it didn't grow again until the 1960s. Although the population has recovered (more or less) and more of the population is urban today, agriculture is still important to the Irish economy, particularly producing for export: Ireland is one of the larger exporters of dairy products (mostly butter and cheese) and meat (especially beef) in Europe, with its primary market being (for obvious reasons) Great Britain.

Since then, Ireland has had a history of '''emigration''', resulting in the massive [[UsefulNotes/TheIrishDiaspora Irish diaspora]] across the globe. Most of them are concentrated in English-speaking countries, but just about everywhere has an Irish community. The emigration situation ironically reversed in the 1990s, when net migration was inward thanks to the Celtic Tiger. With the ten new countries in the EU in 2004, immigration increased further and coupled with high fertility rates, it makes Ireland's population one of the fastest growing in Europe. We should note that on account of the massive emigration in the 19th century, Ireland's current population is a lot lower than it used to be--in the 18th and early 19th centuries, Dublin was the second-largest city of the British Empire and one of the ten largest cities in Europe. The emigration had a lasting effect, keeping Ireland's base population low and its agricultural emphasis strong as it entered the 20th century. Had Ireland been properly fed in the 19th century, it might well have been ''far'' more populous than it is (to give you an idea, if the island of Ireland were as densely populated as the island of Great Britain, it would have a population of about 25.5 million, rather than the population of about 6.7 million it actually has, making it the sixth-most-populous island in the world rather than the 19th).

Ireland is also '''famous for''' its dead writers (most of whom left Ireland as fast as possible), its lack of snakes, its dancers, its poetry and love of drink. Plus the world's second highest percentage of redheads (10%), behind Scotland (13%). As such, this has become a stereotype outside of Ireland (especially in the States) -- thus any Irish character is very likely to be sporting red hair, despite the reality that most Irish are brunet(te)s and also more likely to be blonde too.

'''Politically''', Ireland is best described as non-aligned but Western leaning. It's a member of UsefulNotes/TheEuropeanUnion, but not of UsefulNotes/{{NATO}}. It does allow Shannon airport to be used for refuelling by US military flights (which caused controversy in the lead-up to the IraqWar, and due to the open secret of CIA extraordinary rendition flights) and Soviet aircraft refuelled there during the Cuban Missile Crisis. During UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, it was officially neutral (but implicitly aligned to the Allies politically and through majority public opinion.) Thousands of Irish men, both emigrés and volunteers, fought in the British and American armies. Perhaps the best example, though, is the folk history, largely based in truth, that while crashed Luftwaffe pilots were universally interned for duration, Allied pilots were frequently (and technically illegally) [[CouldSayItBut pointed in the direction of the Border so they could reach Belfast]]. The country also suffered rationing due to the German blockade, that lasted until 1947. Dublin was bombed once on 31 May 1941 by a German aircraft, killing 34 people, for reasons that aren't clear to this day, with various arguments for navigation error, reprisal for Dublin sending rescue personnel to Belfast, a warning not to enter the war or a result of the British radio beam "bending". The Germans apologized and offered compensation. There were two other attacks by the Luftwaffe during the war.

Its '''[[UsefulNotes/PaddiesWithPropellerPlanes military]]''' is relatively small, unlike many other neutral states, though it is still larger than a few similarly sized-states such as UsefulNotes/NewZealand (and in per-capita terms Ireland has a higher percentage of soldiers than UsefulNotes/{{Canada}} or UsefulNotes/{{Australia}}). Since 1958, its main active function has been involvement in UN peacekeeping operations. A small but significant number of Irish citizens looking for more, er, "interesting" military service serve in the [[UsefulNotes/BritsWithBattleships British Armed Forces]], with the Irish authorities generally turning a blind eye to Britain's recruitment activities in the Republic.

The current Irish '''Taoiseach''' (''tee-shokh''; think 'Prime Minister' but don't actually say it) as of 2017 is Leo Varadkar of Fine Gael (''fin-uh gale''), and his Tánaiste (''tawn-ish-tuh''; Deputy Prime Minister) is Frances Fitzgerald, also of Fine Gael.

One of his predecessors was '''Brian 'Biffo' Cowen'''. 'Biffo' is a mildly pejorative but mostly affectionate nickname that stands for [[FunWithAcronyms Big Ignorant Fecker From Offaly]] (the somewhat polite version). Prior to the 2011 election he announced his retirement from politics, and was the first Taoiseach in the history of the state not to stand for re-election.

[[caption-width-right:252:Brian Cowen. This picture, (along with a counterpart of him on the toilet) were hung in Royal Hibernian Academy (RHA) gallery and the National Gallery of Ireland. ]]

Prior to him, it was '''Bertie Ahern'''. He stood down on 6 May 2008 for reasons involving alleged corruption (let's just say he was very good at guessing who won at the races, but the [[Series/FatherTed money was just resting in his account]]). His daughter, Cecilia, wrote the original novel for ''[[Literature/PSILoveYou PS I Love You]]'', which has been made into a feature film. She's also the co-creator of ''Series/SamanthaWho''.

There are a large number of '''[[UsefulNotes/IrishAccent accents]]''' audible in modern Ireland. For example:
* Dublin
** ''Local Dublin'': the broad-working class dialect
** ''Mainstream Dublin'': The typical accent spoken by middle-class or suburban speakers
** ''New Dublin'' or ''D4 accent'': An accent among younger people -- born after around 1970. Named after the D4 postcode, where this accent is stereotypically found.
* Midlands
* Traveller
* Cork
* Kerry
* Connacht

And these are just the ''main'' ones. Researchers have found that there's a different accent for roughly every five miles you travel. That's basically a new accent for ''every single town on the island''.

'''Fiction set in Ireland''' (unless it involves UsefulNotes/TheTroubles) will either take place in Dublin or in a tiny village in some undefined part of the countryside. Virtually nothing takes place in other cities or towns. Bernard Manning once identified a category of fiction called "Oirish", which involved several basic elements -- old vs new, modernity vs supersition, [[EvilColonialist evil British people]], history, and adulterous affairs, all set in tiny villages in County Mayo. ''PrivateEye'' characterized a stock Irish fictional sentence as: "Wee Bridie was walking to Holy Communion in her shiny new shoes the day the Guards came for Mulgarvey." Exceptions are few enough to list:

* ''The Butcher Boy'' (Monaghan)
* ''Angela's Ashes'' (Limerick)
* ''Pure Mule'' (several towns in Offaly)
* ''The Wind that Shakes the Barley'' (Cork)
* ''Series/{{Heroes}}'' (part of volume 2; Cork)
* ''Series/SingleHanded'' (Galway)
* ''Literature/SisterFidelma'' (Cashel and other parts of Munster, in the seventh century)
* The ''Burren Mysteries'' (The Burren country of County Clare, in the sixteenth century)

'''Famous Irish people''':
* Actors [[Series/StarTrekTheNextGeneration Colm Meaney]], Creator/PierceBrosnan, Creator/AidanGillen, [[Film/HarryPotter Richard Harris]], Gabriel Byrne, Creator/CillianMurphy, [[Series/TheTudors Jonathan Rhys Meyers]], Creator/LiamNeeson, Stuart Townsend, Colin Farrell, Creator/DanielDayLewis, Brendan Gleeson, Ciarán Hinds, [[{{Series/Merlin}} Colin Morgan]], [[Creator/RobertSheehan Robert Sheehan]] and [[Series/FatherTed Ardal O'Hanlon]].
* Actresses Creator/MaureenOHara, SaoirseRonan, Creator/EvannaLynch, Creator/SarahBolger, [[Film/IndianaJonesAndTheLastCrusade Alison Doody]] and KatieMcGrath.
* Sir Arthur Wellesley, UsefulNotes/{{the Duke of Wellington}} (though he resented this characterization: "Being born in a stable does not make one a horse!")
* Conor Mcgregor, UFC Fighter
* Michael Collins, independence activist.
* Edmund Burke, political theorist and philosopher.
* Far too many great writers and poets to list, including Creator/JamesJoyce, Creator/GeorgeBernardShaw, Creator/BramStoker, Creator/WilliamButlerYeats, Creator/OscarWilde, Samuel Beckett, Seamus Heaney, [[HandicappedBadass Christy Brown]] (played by Daniel Day Lewis in ''Film/MyLeftFoot'', for which he got an Oscar)...
* Bands/singers including Music/{{U2}}, Music/ThinLizzy, Music/MyBloodyValentine, The Boomtown Rats, Music/TheCranberries, Music/VanMorrison, and Sinead O'Connor, Boyzone, The Script, Music/{{Westlife}} [[AndZoidberg and Jedward]].
* Robert Boyle, scientist of Boyle's Law fame.
* Francis Beaufort, creator of the Beaufort Scale.
* George Boole, father of the transistor.
* John Philip Holland, pioneer of the modern submarine.
* TV/Radio presenter Sir Radio/TerryWogan.
* Celebrity chat-show host [[Series/TheGrahamNortonShow Graham Norton]]
* Comedian and ''Series/MockTheWeek'' host Creator/DaraOBriain.
* Comedian, writer, actor and filmmaker Dylan Moran
* Graham Linehan and Arthur Mathews, creators of ''Series/FatherTed''.
* Celtic Woman and Celtic Thunder: A GirlGroup and BoyBand who sing a mix of traditional Irish songs and more modern songs (at their most recent concert ''Voyage,'' Celtic Thunder sang a few traditional songs alongside Music/BillyJoel and Music/GarthBrooks.)
* Wrestling/{{WWE}} wrestlers Wrestling/{{Sheamus}}, Wrestling/FergalDevitt as "Finn Bálor" (but better known as ''Prince'' Devitt), and Wrestling/BeckyLynch.
* Golfers Rory [=McIlroy=] (though he's actually from the North), Pádraig Harrington, Shane Lowry, Fred Daly, and Harry Bradshaw.
* No small number of rugby players, the most famous of whom in recent times is Brian O'Driscoll.
* Film director and writer Creator/LennyAbrahamson.
'''Useful Notes''':
* UsefulNotes/CelticKingdoms
* Myth/CelticMythology
* UsefulNotes/TheCelticTiger
* UsefulNotes/TheCommonLaw (Irish law is derived from English law indirectly, as Ireland has always had its own judiciary).
* UsefulNotes/{{Dublin}}
* UsefulNotes/IrishAccents
* UsefulNotes/TheIrishDiaspora
* IrishMedia
* UsefulNotes/IrishNames
* UsefulNotes/IrishNewspapers
* UsefulNotes/IrishPoliticalSystem
** UsefulNotes/PrimeMinistersOfIreland
* UsefulNotes/IrishPotatoFamine
* UsefulNotes/TheIrishQuestion
* UsefulNotes/TheIrishRevolution
* UsefulNotes/IrishTravellers
* UsefulNotes/TheNewIrish
* UsefulNotes/NorthernIreland
* Creator/{{RTE}}
* UsefulNotes/TheTroubles
* Creator/TV3
* Creator/UTVIreland


[[folder: The Irish flag ]]

->Green symbolizes the Catholic Gaelic majority, orange the Protestant minority, and white the peace with which both groups work.