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->''"There is nothing with which every man is so afraid as getting to know how enormously much he is capable of doing and becoming."''
-->-- '''Søren Kierkegaard''', father of existentialism

Existentialism is [[PostSomethingIsm the response]] to the soul-crushingly [[TheFatalist fatalistic]], [[WhatIsEvil morally relativistic]], DarknessInducedAudienceApathy-fostering [[CrapsackWorld worldview]] of [[StrawNihilist Nihilism]]. Nihilism (a tragic consequence of the scientific scepticism of the [[RomanticismVersusEnlightenment Enlightenment]]) {{deconstruct|ion}}s and rejects all ethics, ideals and meanings in life as meaningless unproven lies (e.g., science can't differentiate which morality exists and which is propaganda). However, existentialism on the other hand embraces this subjectivity. The existentialist agrees that "meaning" is an empty word, [[HumansAreFlawed our life sucks]] and [[YouCantFightFate there's nothing we can do about it]]. However, they also point out that each individual can have the choice to ''make the most out of each hour of their empty lives''-those who choose to spend it being bored, following others, {{wangst}}ing endlessly, adhering to [[ItAmusedMe hedonism]] or ForTheEvulz, are [[SillyRabbitCynicismIsForLosers wasting it]].

Existentialism often advocates individuality and involves character tropes such as having a personal ''raison d'être'' (reason for existence), BeYourself, DesperatelyLookingForAPurposeInLife, IAmWhatIAm, living out your GoalInLife, EarnYourHappyEnding, and sometimes moments of YouAreNotAlone. This gives a [[WorldOfCardboardSpeech world-of-cardboard]][=/=]PatrickStewartSpeech [[ShutUpHannibal to the nihilists]] and {{reconstruct|ion}}s the "[[WhatYouAreInTheDark meaning in life]]" concept.

The term [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Existential_angst#Angst Existential]] {{Angst}} is even coined to describe the sudden feeling of QuickSandbox it gave them, especially if they had just abandoned the FreedomFromChoice provided by both religion and social peer pressure.

Most existentialist thinkers, such as Jean-Paul Sartre and Friedrich Nietzsche, are atheists. This being said, some existentialist thinkers have incorporated religion into their thinking and philosophies (for example Søren Kierkegaard, who is considered to be the father of existentialism, incorporates his Christian religious beliefs into his existentialist thinking).

Existentialist character types include TheAntiNihilist and TheUbermensch (the extreme {{Blue And Orange| Morality}} version). The KnightInSourArmor or DeterminedDefeatist have some elements of this.

While existential motifs are OlderThanYouThink, Søren Kierkegaard, Creator/FyodorDostoevsky, Creator/LeoTolstoy and Creator/FriedrichNietzsche foreshadowed in the 19th century some of what would be the defining characteristics of the philosophy, although they didn't know each other and the philosophy was unnamed. Sartre himself went further, citing Jesus's words on the cross in the Gospel of Matthew [[note]] "My God! My God! Why have you forsaken me?" [[/note]]. The term "existentialism" seems to have been coined by the French philosopher Gabriel Marcel. It gained popularity in the early 1940s around the time of the Modernist movement (amidst incomprehensible scientific discoveries that inspired LovecraftianFiction, and of course the horrors of WorldWarTwo, which contributed to further [[TrueArtIsAngsty popularity of Angst in the arts]]), when Jean-Paul Sartre [[TropeCodifier codified]] existential philosophy with three words: "Existence precedes essence." It was the reverse of most previous philosophical thought, which held that the essence (soul, purpose, meaning) of a thing came first. Existentialism coevolved with, and takes tropes and inspirations from, the artistic movement of PostModernism, which [[NoFourthWall dissolves the boundary between life and art and reality and fiction]]. Both are connected by the philosophy that life is art, and you can live your life as your own creative art.

Existentialism however had a very serious and political edge as well, which also reflected and affected the arts. Sartre noted that people who didn't take responsibility and live their life as they feel, and continued to kowtow to either family pressure, Church dogmas or a party line without thinking and challenging it for themselves were living in "bad faith" and that even people in exceptionally difficult situations had to choose and decide how best to live their lives and take a stand and be NeutralNoLonger and/or TakeAThirdOption. Everyone is "condemned to be free" and in the end, people have to find out WhatYouAreInTheDark of their own conscience and create an identity separate from their gender, sexuality, family, religion, political persuasion and nationality. This notion of radical freedom was needless to say very appealing for the generation of TheSixties, in France, England, America and around the world.

You'll find that many of the people held up as examples of existentialism indignantly claimed that they weren't-probably a side-effect of the fact that nonconformity is one of the school's main tenets ("Once you label me, you negate me" is a famous line of Kierkegaard's).

TheOtherWiki [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Existentialism has an article and analysis on the subject.]] Related to {{Absurdism}}, {{Postmodernism}}, {{Romanticism}} and Individualism.
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!!Existentialism in fiction / Works with some Existential elements:

[[foldercontrol]]

[[folder: Anime & Manga]]
* Mentioned in ''Manga/BlackLagoon''
--> '''chapter 85''' Only the me who is alive is definitely here. Will I be murdered or die a dog's death? How I die and how I live are choices only I can make. Only I can decide. Isn't it the greatest? Doesn't it make you damn excited?
* ''CowboyBebop''. Spike Spiegel states that in his youth he didn't care about dying, which made him a fearless hitman for TheSyndicate. Then he fell in love with a girl named Julia and felt like wanting to live for the first time. He's contrasted with [[ArchEnemy Vicious]] who still sticks to a nihilistic world view. When Spike gets ready to confront Vicious in the SeriesFinale he says he isn't going there to die but to find out if he was ever alive.
* ''GhostInTheShell'' In particular the two Mamoru Oishii movies deal with machine intelligence determining its own fate and nature against the will of its creators.
%%* ''GurrenLagann''
* ''KinosJourney'': The eponymous traveller is on a journey that has no destination and with "the world is not beautiful, therefore it is" as a motto.
* ''Anime/NeonGenesisEvangelion'': Several of the involved factions struggle for the power to redefine what it means to be human, but even more so the original series concludes with protagonist Shinji coming to terms with his nihilistic self-loathing.
%%* ''SoraNoWoto''
* ''LightNovel/{{Baccano}}'''s primary theme is that, while the world might be a big ball of senseless chaos (hence the series' name[[note]]"Ruckus" in Italian[[/note]]), that doesn't mean you can't pull subjective meaning out of it.
* Surprisingly OnePiece contains a great deal of Existentialist themes. It has many characters, including the heroes talk about fulfilling their [[GoalInLife dreams]], wondering whether or not they [[DesperatelyLookingForAPurposeInLife even have a purpose in this world or even deserved to live]], and trying to enjoy their lives as best they can, despite living in a CrapsackWorld while being [[YouAreNotAlone there for each other]]. The story also condemns [[ItAmusedMe hedonism]] and ForTheEvulz, and has several [[TheUbermensch Ubermensch]] as important characters most prominently [[TheHero Luffy]], Whitebeard, and Gold Roger
* ''{{Naruto}}'' deals a lot with existentialist themes, as well as other philosophy topics. The title character himself could even be considered a full-blown Kierkegaardian Knight of Faith as his creed is that he will never give up and that he will achieve seemingly impossible ambitions through sheer hard work and belief. Case in point, early on promises that he will become [[TheLeader Hokage]] one day even if he never rises above Genin, ("low ninja", the lowest ninja rank)- sure enough, three years later he is indeed still a Genin while everyone else he knows from his class is Chuunin ("middle ninja") or higher, yet he is also one of the most powerful ninja alive and several characters- including the current Hokage herself [[spoiler: and even her ''dead'' predecessors]] consider him a shoe-in for the role.
** The first major villain, Zabuza, makes a point of saying that ninja- and evil ninja, like him- try to become something other than human; a common theme amongst later villains is taking this idea literally, as several attempt to transcend their humanity in various ways, both ethically (eg. severing all bonds to clan and country, or viewing godhood as a way of looking at the world) and physically (eg. experimenting on themselves, turning themselves into living puppets etc.). Many characters, hero and villain, could be considered wannabe or actual [[TheUbermensch Ubermenschen]].
** Common themes in the series include loneliness, isolation, alienation and despair, with Naruto himself and others like Gaara and Sasuke experiencing real, serious loneliness and pain due to their miserable childhoods and horrible traumatic experiences. Characters like Neji discuss determinism and free will and are portrayed as fatalists, and the story doesn't shy from the fact that all of these characters are basically child soldiers (current or grown-up) with all that implies.
* ''LightNovel/BlackBullet''. Yes, just because you live [[CrapsackWorld in a shitty world]] where the Gastrea virus have killed off a good portion of humanity and [[AllOfTheOtherReindeer societies treating the cursed children as total trash]], doesn't necessarily mean that you should just fall over and die, you do have some purpose to live. [[spoiler:Case in point, when Rentaro lost his right leg, right arm, and left eye 10 years ago for saving Kisara's life, he was rushed to the hospital and was given two sheets of paper. One was a death certificate, the other was a contract that will allow Rentaro to live with ArtificialLimbs and become a mechanized soldier through the "New Human Creation Plan." Encouraged by the words of his foster father ("If you don't want to die, live"), Rentaro decided to pick the latter and signed up for the "New Human Creation Plan;" feeling that he has a purpose in life.]]
** The existentialist themes are highlighted further [[spoiler: at the end of volume 6. While Kisara and Rentaro do not agree with their ethics and their purpose of life [[note]]Kisara's dedication of revenge on her Tendo family lineage and Rentaro's utilitarian ethics of "[[TheNeedsOfMany sacrificing his own happiness for the sake of others]]"[[/note]], they accept each other [[BeYourself as who]] [[IAmWhatIAm they are]] and prefer not to stop each other as they see their reason for their existence to be subjective.]]
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Comic Books]]
* ''ComicBook/{{Watchmen}}'': Few people are the heroes of anything other than their own stories, and Dr. Manhattan, the closest thing to God in this world, has grown aloof from humanity even as the apocalypse looms. Yet he later comes to recognize that the value of life lies in the sheer improbability of existence in the first place.
** [[SociopathicHero Rorschach]] decides that, instead of abandoning rules and discipline due to a nihilistic outlook, his rules and principles are all the more important in a world that has no more meaning other than the one we impose on it.
** A more impressive example is the non-superhero character, Dr. Malcolm Long who has a crisis after serving as Rorsharch's prison psychologist which makes him question his middle-class lifestyle and belief that his profession is actually having a wider difference. In the end, he admits that even if there is no reward and even if his angst is upsetting his marriage, helping people in whatever small way you can is what matters most.
* In WillEisner's ''A life force'' the major character, [[WhatDoYouMeanItsNotSymbolic a Jewish carpenter]] has just been told that the study hall he built for a local synagogue won't be named after him but a rich benefactor, making him feel like the four years he spent building it are wasted. On the way home he has a heart attack. He sees a cockroach on the sidewalk struggling to survive and figures they are NotSoDifferent, but also starts to wonder why he wants to live in the first place. He figures that either God created man or man created God but in either case the meaning of life is anyone's guess. Eventually he concludes that staying alive is the only thing everyone agrees on and manages to do that. Towards the end of the story [[spoiler: he divorces his overbearing wife and starts a relationship with a NewOldFlame he genuinely loves because he doesn't want to be a cockroach who's only concerned with staying alive]].
* Jon on both ''{{Garfield}}'' and ''GarfieldMinusGarfield'' explains [[http://www.gocomics.com/garfieldminusgarfield/2013/08/21#.Ukmd6z-IqV0 existential angst]].
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Film]]
%%* ''BeingThere''
%%** "Life is a state of mind."
* {{Played with}} in ''Film/FightClub''. The plot revolves around a white collar worker having some mental issues, derived from his existential crisis because he finds that he can't find any purpose in his existence.
--> "We are God's unwanted children? So be it!" '''Tyler'''
* ''Film/LaJetee'' has probably one of the most beautiful quotes ever to describe this philosophy: "Time builds itself painlessly around them. Their only landmarks are the flavor of the moment they are living and the markings on the walls."
%%* ''Film/{{Love}}''
%%* ''MontyPythonsTheMeaningOfLife''
%%** On a darkly humorous note (well, this ''is'' Monty Python), there's one scene featuring a French waiter who at first looks like an AntiNihilist... turns out he's just parroting what his mother taught him, devoid of conviction.
* ''{{Rango}}'': "No man can walk out on his own story." While this may sound like an argument for predestination, the film itself is about how an individual dropped into a harsh and confusing world discovers that only he can answer the question, “Who am I?”
%%* ''SynecdocheNewYork''
%%** Not to mention every other script by Charlie Kaufman.
%%* ''TheTreeOfLife''
%%* ''Film/WingsOfDesire''
%%** "When the child was a child, it didn't know it was a child. Everything was full of life, and all life was one." Written by German poet Peter Handke and delivered solemnly by Bruno Ganz.
%%* ''ZorbaTheGreek''
%%** Based on the novel by Nikos Kazantzakis (see below).
* The Blu Ray extras for ''Film/TwoThousandOneASpaceOdyssey'' contain this quote from Creator/StanleyKubrick:
-->The most terrifying fact about the universe is not that it is hostile but that it is indifferent. But if we can come to terms with this indifference, then our existence as a species can have genuine meaning. However vast the darkness, we must supply our own light.

[[/folder]]

[[folder:Literature]]
%%* ''Alexis Zorba''
%%* ''Literature/AsILayDying''
%%* ''{{Candide}}'' Generally considered to be one of the forerunners. Famous for the phrase, "That is well said, but we must cultivate our garden."
%%* ''CrimeAndPunishment''
%%* ''Literature/{{Discworld}}''
* ''HisDarkMaterials'': If GodIsEvil and the best afterlife we can hope for is to [[CessationOfExistence dissolve into pure energy]], then it is our duty to have a story to tell when we look back on our lives.
* ''{{Nausea}}'': The book holds a dark, melancholic take on Exis' as Antoine, the protagonist, uses this philosophy to avoid the darkness he sees and feels as the eponymous title suggests.
%%* ''NotesFromUnderground''
%%* ''Steppenwolf''
* ''TheStranger'': This novella is often cited as an example. [[WordOfGod Albert Camus denied this]], but it's worth noting that he became commonly known as the "godfather of existentialism". The book itself could be labeled as Absurdist or Nihilist; either that or it was just a character study of a psychopath.
* ''The Unbearable Lightness Of Being'': The book actually opens with a contemplation on Nietzsche's concept of "eternal return" (which is then refuted).
* [[HiddenDepths Perhaps surprisingly]], ''Franchise/ConanTheBarbarian'':
-->''"I have known many gods. He who denies them is as blind as he who trusts them too deeply. I seek not beyond death. It may be the blackness averred by the Nemedian skeptics, or Crom's realm of ice and cloud, or the snowy plains and vaulted halls of the Nordheimer's Valhalla. I know not, nor do I care. Let me live deep while I live; let me know the rich juices of red meat and stinging wine on my palate, the hot embrace of white arms, the mad exultation of battle when the blue blades flame and crimson, and I am content. Let teachers and philosophers brood over questions of reality and illusion. I know this: if life is illusion, then I am no less an illusion, and being thus, the illusion is real to me. I live, I burn with life, I love, I slay, and am content."''
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Live Action TV ]]
%%* The ''Series/{{Firefly}}'' episode "Objects In Space" had existentialist themes, according to JossWhedon's commentary.
* On ''Series/RedDwarf'' the crew members encounter the Inquisitor, a Mechanoid who has seen the end of existence and come to the conclusion that there is no God. He travels through time to demand from every creature that they justify their existence. Turns out everybody he judges is [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9tGO79BtWUI judged by themselves]].
-->'''Rimmer''': Everybody is judged by their own selves?\\
'''Inquisitor(as Rimmer)''': It's a bit metaphysical but it's the only fair way.\\

** With the ironic result that, of the four of them, the two who are found innocent are the egomaniacal Cat and Rimmer, who refuses to accept any blame for his many faults. So the ones who are condemned are the unselfish Kryten and generally decent guy Lister, because they actually hold themselves to a higher standard and recognize that they have failed to live up to it. So ultimately, the Inquisitor's crusade is eliminating nice people and leaving the universe filled with jerks.
[[/folder]]

%%[[folder:Music]]
%%* The PinkFloyd album ''TheDarkSideOfTheMoon''.
%%[[/folder]]

[[folder: Other]]
* Comedian Kevin Bridges did a bit about how God created the universe, but 'pissed off' because he had other properties to tend to. Humanity's only response to a godless world is to be like a teenager having a party when his parents are away for the weekend. At a wild party it's a given you'll get roughed up a bit.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Tabletop Games]]
* ''{{Planescape}}'': Living next door to angels and demons and being able to visit gods and meet them in person, the people of [[CityPlanet Sigil]] have long given up on religion and the city is dominated by several philosophical factions that seek to find meaning in existence.
[[/folder]]

%%[[folder:Theater]]
%%* ''{{Hamlet}}''
%%** Generally considered to be one of the forerunners.
%%* ''WaitingForGodot''
%%** Possibly the most famous example in theatre.
%%* ''RosencrantzAndGuildensternAreDead''
%%** Which is to be expected, being an XMeetsY of the previous two plays.
%%* ''NoExit''
%%** Famous for the phrase, "[[ItWasHisSled Hell is other people.]]"
%%[[/folder]]

[[folder:Video Games]]
* ''Franchise/AssassinsCreed'': There is no God. There is no Devil. There are only [[HumansAreFlawed Flawed Humans]], the children of flawed {{Precursors}}. So if we wish to live in peace, prosperity and freedom, ''we'' must build a civilisation that permits those things.
--> "[[{{Deconstruction}} Nothing is true,]] [[{{Reconstruction}} everything is permitted.]]"
%%* ''FinalFantasy''
%%** Existentialist themes appear over almost the entire series, but most notably in ''Final Fantasy VII''.
%%* ''LegacyOfKain''
%%** To the extent that the series literally ends with [[spoiler: you having to fight against God.]]
* ''Franchise/MassEffect'': While rarely directly concerning itself with philosophy, the solution to basically every problem Shepard helps solve is to teach the involved parties to determine their own fates and overcome prejudices that prevented a peaceful compromise.
[[/folder]]
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