->''"The truth is rarely pure and never simple. Modern life would be quite tedious if it were either, and modern literature a complete impossibility."''
-->-- '''Algernon Moncrieff'''

''The Importance of Being Earnest'' is an 1895 play by Irish playwright Creator/OscarWilde. It is a farce on the societal conventions and restrictions of late-Victorian society, and remains enormously popular today.

The play follows the lives of two best friends, Jack Worthing and Algernon Moncrieff. Jack lives in the country with his ward, Cecily Cardew, but spends much of his time in London -- where he calls himself "Ernest Worthing," so that he can do as he likes without anything getting traced back to his real identity. Furthermore, as luck would have it, his girlfriend Gwendolen (Algernon's cousin) has always dreamed of marrying a man named "Ernest." Algernon finds out Jack's ruse, but keeps Jack's secret for his own mischievous purposes: since he knows that there is no such person as "Ernest Worthing," he can sneak off to Jack's country home and pose as "Ernest Worthing," where he meets and falls in love with Cecily.

Jack, meanwhile, had "killed" his fictional brother Ernest, only to find that Cecily had already met "Ernest" in the form of Algernon. Not long after, Gwendolen arrives and meets Cecily, and the ladies soon find that both of them are engaged to a man named Ernest Worthing.

[[ItMakesSenseInContext It makes... more sense if you actually read it.]] And keep in mind that Wilde specifically ordered that the comedic script should be acted with the utmost seriousness. Plus the finale ending with the multiple plays on the word/name "Ernest" is much funnier if played seriously.
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!!This play provides examples of the following tropes:

* AccidentalTruth: Jack and Algernon pretend to be [[spoiler: brothers, and it turns out they are. Jack also pretends to be named Ernest, and that was the name he was christened as, before he was lost as a baby.]]
* AdaptationInducedPlotHole: The 2002 film switched [[spoiler:the brothers' birth order,]] leaving it unexplained how Algernon could have [[spoiler:forgotten that he had a younger brother]], and why [[spoiler:the second, not the first, son being christened after the father would be memorable for Lady Bracknell when she can't remember what the actual name was.]]
* AllGirlsWantBadBoys: Cecily
* AmbiguousSyntax: the source of many a pun.
-->'''Jack:''' How you can sit there calmly eating muffins when we are in this horrible trouble, I can't make out. You seem to me to be perfectly heartless.
-->'''Algernon:''' Well, I can't eat muffins in an agitated manner. The butter would probably get on my cuffs.
* ArsonMurderAndJaywalking: Algernon drank a bottle of wine that Jack was saving, then he comes onto and eventually gets engaged to his ward Cecily, stays for tea and eats all the muffins.
* BigEater: Algernon
* BlatantLies: Jack and Algernon, constantly, and the others get their share as well.
* BrickJoke: "You will call me sister, will you not?"
* CollectiveIdentity: Both Jack and Algernon use the alias Ernest Worthing. Each proposes while using this identity and HilarityEnsues when Ernest's two fiancees meet each other.
* ContrivedCoincidence: The resolution of the plot hinges on a huge one.
** The Colin Firth film averts this. [[spoiler: Jack just lies. Lady Bracknell knows, but goes along with it.]] Surprisingly, they didn't have to change the dialog to make it work.
* CoupledCouples: Jack [[spoiler:aka Ernest]] and Gwendolyn, and Algernon and Cecily.
* DoesThisRemindYouOfAnything: The whole play is supposedly full of elaborate puns on male homosexuality (though Wilde's contemporaries and John Gielgud have denied it), most of them are examples of GetTheeToANunnery now. Still, the whole 'double life' subtext is effective as ever today, and nothing could ever stop "Bunburying" sounding dirty.
* DoorstopBaby: Jack
* EverythingSoundsSexierInFrench: This is why Lady Bracknell ''doesn't'' want French songs played at her next reception.
** German, on the other hand, sounds "thoroughly respectable" -- and not just to Lady Bracknell. Cecily insists that studying German makes her look plain, and that's probably why Jack insists on her studying German extra hard whenever he's not there to chaperone her.
* FunnyBackgroundEvent: In live productions, often when characters are talking with one another, anyone meandering on stage and not directly participating in the conversation are doing something hilarious, such as not-so-subtly listening in.
* GettingCrapPastTheRadar: Allegedly, "Earnest" was a contemporary term, among homosexuals, for "homosexual". Thus, to those in the know, the title of the play becomes "The Importance of Being Homosexual", and the main characters who change their names...
* GoldDigger: Lady Bracknell, on her own behalf and her nephew's.
* GorgeousPeriodDress: The 1952 film is full of these.
* GrandeDame: Lady Bracknell is one of the grandest -- and one of the ''[[IncrediblyLamePun dame]]''[[IncrediblyLamePun -dest]].
* HaveAGayOldTime
* HotForPreacher: Miss Prism.
* IceCreamKoan: An awful lot of the wittiest lines ''sound'' profound at first, but fall apart when you [[FridgeLogic think about them]] too hard, the characters even comment on this fact.
* [[IHaveNoSon I Have No Brother]]: Cecily thinks Jack is invoking this trope when he really means that his brother has died.
* ImplausibleDeniability: Jack keeps insisting that the suspicious cigarette case was a gift from his aunt even after it's obvious that Algernon has read the whole inscription.
* TheIngenue: Gwendolen and Cecily are parodies. [[LampshadeHanging Lampshaded]] by Lady Bracknell for Gwendolen, and Jack for Cecily.
* InventedIndividual: Algernon's [[InventedIndividual Ernest]] is the nonexistent "Mr Bunbury"; Jack's is, naturally, his brother Ernest.
* InventedInvalid: Algernon claims to be visiting his invalid friend Mr Bunbury, who suffers from "curiously bad health", allowing him to avoid his engagements with his relatives.
** Amusingly, Algy tries to [[ForcedMeme popularize]] with Jack the word "Bunburyist" to describe people who invent faraway, needy friends as excuses. The fanciful Bunbury, however, inspires minor pity in others and mostly just irritates Lady Bracknell, so he's not the Trope Namer.
* IronicEcho: "My first impressions of people are never wrong."
* TheJailBaitWait: Algernon and Cecily can't marry without Jack's consent until Cecily is ''thirty-five''. Algernon is willing to wait that long, but Cecily isn't.
** Although that may have been yet another lie on Jack's part. In any case, he's clearly only withholding consent to blackmail Lady Bracknell into letting him marry Gwendolen.
* KissingCousins / IncestIsRelative: At the end of the play, [[spoiler:since Jack is Algernon's brother, Jack's girlfriend Gwendolen is his cousin.]]
* TheLawFirmOfPunPunAndWordplay: When Jack defends his ward Cecily's social status against Lady Bracknell's questions, he notes the late Thomas Cardew's three addresses (which "always inspire confidence, even among tradesmen," according to Lady Bracknell); in support of this fact, he adds that her solicitors are the firm of Markby, Markby, and Markby. They also meet with her approval ("A firm of the very highest position in their profession. Indeed I am told that one of the Mr Markby's is occasionally to be seen at dinner parties.")
* LeaveTheTwoLovebirdsAlone: Algernon volunteers to get Gwendolen's mother out of the way so Jack can propose -- although he does insist that Jack take him out to dinner as payment.
* LeftTheBackgroundMusicOn: Depends on the production how far they take this, but Algernon's offstage piano playing in the first act tends to come in at dramatically appropriate moments, much to Jack's annoyance.
* LivingADoubleLife: The entire concept of "Bunburying". Jack is Ernest in town and Jack in the country.
* LockedIntoStrangeness: Played with. The unseen Lady Harbury's hair is said to have "turned quite gold [[SarcasmMode from grief]]" at her husband's death.
-->I never saw a woman so altered; she looks quite twenty years younger.
* LoveAtFirstSight: Algernon's for Cecily. (Her love for him, of course, is of an even [[LoveBeforeFirstSight earlier origin]].)
* LoveBeforeFirstSight: With someone who doesn't even exist.
* LukeIAmYourFather
* MeaningfulName: Dr. Chasuble's name refers to a piece of clerical clothing; also, the names of Algernon and Lady Bracknell allude to Wilde's lover Alfred Douglas and his mother -- the latter lived in the town of Bracknell and Moncrieff was the name of an ancient Scottish family just like that of Douglas.
** And Miss Prism's name is a reference to the word ''misprision'', as well as suggesting "prim" and alluding to the phrase "prunes and prisms."
* MoralLuck: Lady Bracknell embodies this. She admonishes Jack for being an orphan because it shows "contempt for the decencies of family life"; disapproves of sympathising with ill people because "illness is hardly a thing to be encouraged"; and even congratulates an offstage character for finally "making up his mind" to die.
* MyBelovedSmother: Lady Bracknell
* NamesToTrustImmediately: Cecily and Gwendolen both think the name "Ernest" is one of these.
* NiceToTheWaiter: When we first meet Algernon we know he's likable because he's having a pleasant conversation with his servant.
* NoLovesIntersect: Played straight, but double subverted InUniverse when Gwendolyn and Cecily fall out when they both believe they are engaged to the same man.
* OneDegreeOfSeparation: Although like many of the tropes in this play, this is something of a satire on common dramatic conventions.
* ParentalMarriageVeto
* PassiveAggressiveKombat: When Gwendolen and Cecily mistakenly come to believe that they are both engaged to the same man, they engage in an incredibly vicious yet polite catfight. The unstated rule is that they must insult each other while maintaining the appearance of civility and the one who loses her temper first loses.
* PerfectHealth: Cecily can't even cough on demand.
* PunBasedTitle: Meaning, of course, both "The importance of being named Earnest" and "the importance of being sincere."
* RapidfireNameGuessing
* TheReveal: Jack's parentage.
* RunningGag: There are several food-related ones, such as Algernon's constant eating and love of muffins, and the dislike of cake that appears to be shared by all four lovers.
* SatchelSwitcheroo: Resulting in the aforementioned DoorstopBaby
* SingleWomanSeeksGoodMan: invoked by Gwendolen and Cecily when they address the men they love.
* SpeechCentricWork: Stacks of dialogue, most of it [[WorldOfSnark snarky]].
* SpiritedYoungLady: Cecily; watch her in the tea scene.
* SpotOfTea: Almost every single scene.
* StandardSnippet: Algernon strikes up the Wedding March--prematurely, it [[ParentalMarriageVeto turns out]]--after Jack proposes.
* TalkAboutTheWeather: Gwendolen can tell Jack is working up to something serious when he starts out by commenting on the weather.
* TechnicianVersusPerformer: Algernon claims to be the latter.
-->I don't play accurately--anyone can play accurately--but I play with wonderful expression.
* ThatMakesMeFeelAngry: Cecily at one point announces that she "feel[s] very happy."
* ThickerThanWater: Inverted. When Jack apologizes for insulting Algernon's aunt, Algernon reassures him that he can't stand his relatives and loves hearing people insult them.
* TitleDrop: The last line.
-->'''Lady Bracknell:''' My nephew, you seem to be displaying distressing signs of triviality.
-->'''[[strike:Jack]]Ernest:''' On the contrary, Aunt Augusta -- I've now realised for the first time in my life the vital Importance of Being Earnest.
* TrialBalloonQuestion: "Couldn't you love me if my name wasn't Ernest?"
* TurnOutLikeHisFather: "All women become like their mothers. That is their tragedy."
** {{averted}}: "No man does; that's his."
* TheVicar: Dr. Chasuble
* VerbalBackspace: "I must get christened at once--I mean we must get married at once."
** There's also "Oh! I killed Bunbury this afternoon. I mean poor Bunbury died this afternoon."
* VitriolicBestBuds: Jack and Algernon.
* WifeHusbandry: {{Lampshaded}} and {{averted}}. Jack has a nubile ward, whom he ''isn't'' planning on marrying--although Gwendolen suspects otherwise when she first meets Cecily, and it doesn't help that Jack has hidden Cecily's existence from her and from Algy.
* ZanyScheme
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