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''Oliver!'' is a musical adaptation of ''Literature/OliverTwist'', with book, music, and lyrics all by Lionel Bart. It premiered on London's West End in 1960, and had its first Broadway production in 1963.

TheMovie was released in 1968. It was directed by Creator/CarolReed (''Film/TheThirdMan''). It starred Creator/OliverReed (Carol's nephew) as Bill Sikes, Mark Lester as Oliver (with his songs sung by a girl, Kathe Green), Creator/JackWild as the Artful Dodger and Ron Moody as Fagin. It was the last musical to win the UsefulNotes/AcademyAward for Best Picture until ''Film/{{Chicago}}'' 34 years later, and it remains the ''only'' G-rated movie to win.

!!''Oliver!'' provides examples of:

* AdaptedOut: Monks and the Maylies are omitted.
* AffablyEvil: Fagin and Dodger, who, while genuinely pleasant to the kids under their care, actively look for children to recruit using many of the same criteria as modern cults. [[spoiler: Fagin, however, after seeing how Nancy and Bill turned out, has something of a change of heart and, after some soul-searching and the destruction of his operation, resolves to turn over a new leaf.]]
* AllGirlsWantBadBoys: Nancy sings about her love of Bill Sikes, the best thief, who's a cold, bullying monster. [[spoiler: It turns out bad for her in the end - he winds up killing her.]]
* TheArtfulDodger: Well of course. In fact even more so than in the book.
* BadSamaritan: Fagin, though downplayed from the book. While still somewhat self-serving, he is portrayed as something of a whimsical LoveableRogue who does to some extent care for his gang ([[EvenEvilHasStandards or at least loathes Sikes' treatment of them]]).
* BawdySong: In a sort of meta-example, "Oom Pah-Pah" both refers to this kind of song and is a very mild example itself.
* BeingEvilSucks: Alone, we see Fagin contemplating this during "Reviewing the Situation", but also noting how hard it would be to start over as a good guy.
-->'''Fagin:''' And though I'd be the first one to say that I wasn't a saint\\
I'm finding it hard to be truly as black as they paint...
* BerserkButton: [[BewareTheNiceOnes Do not insult Oliver's dead mother.]] Or call him a liar for that matter, doesn't matter whether you are a "work ass" calling {{jerkass}} or Bill BigBad Sikes himself, you will make an ugly scene.
* BigWordShout:
-->'''Oliver:''' Please sir, I want some more.\\
'''Mr. Bumble:''' [[BigWhat WHAT?!]]\\
'''Oliver:''' Please sir, I want some...more?\\
'''Mr. Bumble:''' ''MORE?!!''
* BreadEggsMilkSquick: "I'd Do Anything" starts out with cute lines about the things the boys would do, like "Would you climb a hill? (Anything!)/ Wear a daffodil? (Anything!)" etc. Then in the third verse:
-->"Would you rob a shop?"\\
"Would you risk the drop?"\\
"Though your eyes go pop"\\
"When you come down, plop!"
* BrokenBird: Nancy. Her plight is summed up in her song, "As Long as He Needs Me" which explains why she stays with Sikes despite his domestic abuse.
* TheBrute: Bill Sikes.
%%* CharacterTitle
* CheerfulChild: Oliver brings out the best in nearly everyone he meets, even Fagin. The exceptions to this [[HumansAreBastards are the completely heartless]].
* ChildhoodFriendRomance: Both Nancy and Sikes grew up in Fagin's gang of child pickpockets, and some stage productions deliberately imply this trope when casting a younger actor as Sikes.
* CompressedAdaptation: A lot of plot convolutions and their related characters, particularly regarding Oliver's tangled family history, get left out.
* ContrivedCoincidence: Oliver witnesses and initially gets blamed for Dodger pick-pocketing, [[spoiler: his own great uncle, no less.]]
* CreepyMortician: The Sowerberrys, a whole family of this. They even get a song, "That's Your Funeral."
* CrowdSong: "Consider Yourself".
* DarkReprise:
** "It's a Fine Life" is first sung by Nancy and Bet as a relatively cheerful song, but is later reprised by Nancy, Bill Sikes, Fagin, and Dodger in a more sarcastic and dark manner.
*** When you look at Bill's treatment of Nancy, the original becomes pretty dark on its own: "Though you sometimes do come by/The occasional black eye/You can always cover one/'Till he blacks the other one/But you don't dare cry!"
*** In the original version (and subsequently mounted productions of the show) the orchestration, similar in tone to the rowdy, cheerful way it was sung earlier, gives this moment in the show a severe case of LyricalDissonance. The Cameron Mackintosh revival, mounted in the West End in 1994 and 2008, remedied this unfortunate imbalance, thanks largely to orchestrator Bill Brohn and arranger Chris Walker.
** "As Long As He Needs Me" is another example: the first time Nancy sings it to demonstrate how she won't give up Bill despite his abuse, the second is right before [[spoiler:Bill decides he doesn't need her anymore - and murders her in cold blood]].
* DemotedToExtra: Charley Bates. His role is greatly reduced from the novel. Likely done to put more emphasis on the Artful Dodger.
* DisproportionateRetribution: Speaking Bill Sikes' name aloud is, apparently, grounds for being killed, even if it's a whisper. He claims he actually followed through and ''did'' kill someone for boasting that he could his name in vain.
* DomesticAbuser: Bill Sikes to Nancy.
* DoubleEntendre: The entirety of "Oom-Pah-Pah" is a glorious pileup of double entendres, with [[GettingCrapPastTheRadar just enough subtlety]] to avoid being cut from even the most kid-friendly productions. Though it's up to the viewer to decide whether "oom-pah-pah" is meant to be alcohol, sex, or both.
-->'''Nancy:''' [[LampshadeHanging They all suppose what they want to suppose]]\\
When they hear "oom-pah-pah"!
* DownerEnding: The only character who has a happy ending is Oliver himself. And that's ''after'' watching Nancy killed by Bill Sikes, who is then killed trying to escape with Oliver. Must've been pretty traumatic to be a part of...
* TheDreaded: Sikes. The moment he arrives in the tavern after "Oom-Pah-Pah" the whole place goes dead quiet, seguing perfectly into his VillainSong.
-->'''Sikes:''' Strong men tremble when they hear it\\
They've got cause enough to fear it\\
It's much blacker than they smear it\\
Nobody mentions... my name.
* DrunkenSong: "Oom-Pah-Pah": "There's a little ditty they're singing in the city, espec'lly when they've been on the gin or the beer..."
* TheElevenOClockNumber: "Reviewing the Situation".
* EvenEvilHasStandards: Fagin seems to dislike Bill Sikes's penchant for violence and his treatment of Nancy. The thieves and pickpockets under his care also react with horror when Sikes beats Nancy in front of them. Also, [[spoiler:when Sikes tells the gang that he murdered Nancy, Fagin is visibly horrified and refuses to help him escape]].
* EverythingHasRhythm: During "Consider Yourself", everyone does this with whatever it is they happen to be doing. Except maybe Dodger and Oliver.
* ExcitedShowTitle: ''Oliver!''
* ExplainExplainOhCrap: "Reviewing the Situation" is this trope in musical form. Having realized that the life of a criminal, with all its "trials and tribulations", might not be the best thing for him, and he muses over possible alternatives: getting married, living in society, getting an honest job. Each time, though, he comes to the realization halfway through that the "solution" he's describing would not be an improvement, leading him to conclude:
-->I think I'd better think it out again.
* TheFagin: Obviously.
* FatalFlaw: Nancy's misplaced UndyingLoyalty to the monstrous Bill Sikes.
* FoodSongsAreFunny: "Food, Glorious Food". A bunch of starving workhouse boys sing of having all the food they want.
* HakunaMatata: "Consider Yourself".
* HaveAGayOldTime: "Who Will Buy" sports the line "I'm so high, I swear I could fly." (He's just happy.)
* HaventYouSeenXBefore:
-->'''The Artful Dodger:''' ''[to Oliver, who has just arrived in London]'' Whatchu starin' at? 'Aven't you never seen a toff?
* HeelFaceTurn:
** Nancy is forced by Sikes to lead Oliver into a trap so he can be brought back to Fagin. Later she risks her own life to save Oliver from Sikes.
** Sikes's dog Bullseye. [[spoiler:After Sikes murders Nancy, Bullseye runs back to the crowd and leads them to Sikes and Oliver]].
** Fagin decides at the end that, with the breaking up and arrest of his gang, along with the loss of his precious treasures, there has never been a better time to change his ways.
* IAmSong: Bill Sikes' "My Name".
* IAmVeryBritish: In the first half, the difference is made stronger due to a juxtaposition of 'proper' and Cockney English.
* IAmWhatIAm:
** Fagin seems to always come back to the IAmWhatIAm decision.
** Nancy is fully aware of the fact that Bill is a [[{{Jerkass}} complete bastard]], but she can't help [[AllGirlsWantBadBoys loving him]], complete with song. [[spoiler:And then, to top off the love fest, he kills her.]]
* IgnoredEpiphany: Fagin, while "Reviewing the Situation," considered going straight and the situations it might result in, but finally decided:
-->I'm reviewing the situation.\\
I'm a bad 'un and a bad 'un I shall stay!\\
You'll be seeing no transformation,\\
But it's wrong to be a rogue in ev'ry way.
* ImGoingToHellForThis: Bill Sikes has this to say:
-->Once bad, what's the good of turning?\\
In Hell, I'll be there a-burning\\
Meanwhile, think of what I'm earning\\
all on account of my name.
* InnocentFlowerGirl: Though unnamed, the Rose Seller has one of the loveliest solos in the show. The part is often cast and costumed to evoke this character archetype.
-->Who will buy my sweet red roses\\
Two blooms for a penny?
* IrrelevantActOpener: "Oom Pah Pah" is a drinking song. Looks like it's named after everyone's favorite thing, too.
* {{Jerkass}}:
** Noah Claypole [[KickTheDog cheerfully insults Oliver's dead mother.]]
** Bill Sikes takes this to an extreme.
* KickTheDog: Bill tries to kill Bullseye, but he not only runs away, but leads the chase right to him.
* KnightOfCerebus: Bill Sikes. The show gets ''much'' darker once he shows up.
* LargeHam: Fagin.
%%* LaughablyEvil: Fagin.
* LighterAndSofter: Granted, most musicals are this by nature, but still, the original book is pretty grim.
* LoveableRogue:
** Fagin, [[AdaptationalHeroism de-emphasizing]] his GreedyJew characterization in the original. Particularly notable is Ron Moody's cheerfully hammy performance in the 1968 film version. (He even stands up for Oliver on two occasions.)
** Jack Dawkins, aka the Artful Dodger, is also a "kinder gentler" version; he steals to survive but bears no malice. In fact, the [[TokenEvilTeammate only truly evil gang member]] is Sikes.
* LoveMartyr: Poor Nancy has this BAD for Bill Sikes. She recognises this in "As Long As He Needs Me", but even though he's a murderous thug and robber who beats her and plans to kill Oliver, she still can't bring herself to hand him over to the law.
-->As long as life is long\\
I'll love him, right or wrong\\
And somehow I'll be strong\\
As long as he needs me.
* LukeIAmYourFather: The musical simplifies matters from the book enormously by making Mr. Brownlow Oliver's grandfather and leaving Monks and the Mayleys out entirely.
* MassiveMultiplayerEnsembleNumber: "Who Will Buy?"
* MusicalWorldHypotheses: The musical is mostly Alternate Universe, though the songs Nancy sings at the Three Cripples Inn ("It's a Fine Life" and "Oom Pah Pah") can fit into Diegetic.
* NobleDemon: Fagin is a thief, who trains others to be thieves, and works with Bill Sikes, but deep down he doesn't like his life and wishes the things he does weren't necessary, and tries his best not to be too bad. This trope is exemplified in the song "Reviewing the Situation":
-->Though I'd be the first one to say that I wasn't a saint\\
I'm finding it hard to be really as black as they paint\\
I'm reviewing the situation\\
Can a fellow be a villain all his life?...\\
I'm a bad 'un and a bad 'un I shall stay\\
You'll be seeing no transformation\\
But it's wrong to be a rogue in every way\\
I don't want nobody hurt for me\\
Or made to do the dirt for me\\
This rotten life is not for me\\
It's getting far too hot for me\\
There is no in-between for me\\
But who will change the scene for me?\\
I think I'd better think it out again!
* OrphanageOfFear: The workhouse.
* OurNudityIsDifferent: The hooker-advertising-her-wares strip tease described by Nancy:
-->Pretty little Sally\\
Goes walking down the alley\\
Displays her pretty ankles for all of the men\\
They can see her garters\\
But ''not'' for free and gratis --\\
An inch or two, and then she knows when to say when!
* PinballProtagonist: Oliver's an orphan, gets passed from orphanage, to a funeral home, then gets kicked out and gets picked up by the thieves guild, then is taken in by a rich old man. It's a musical, and the characters mostly sing around him as well.
* PleaseIWillDoAnything: "I'd Do Anything" is mostly one guy saying he'd do anything for a girl, and the girl making ridiculous or strange suggestions, to all of which he agrees. Then Fagin co-opts it, and does the routine with his gang of loyal street urchins, and his suggestions are a little darker.
%%* ProtagonistTitle
* RollingPinOfDoom: "Only it's wise to be handy with a rolling pin when the landlord comes to call!"
* ARoundOfDrinksForTheHouse: {{Discussed}} (optimistically) in "Consider Yourself".
--> Always a chance we'll meet somebody to foot the bill \\
Then the drinks are on the house!
* SayMyName: ''Oliver!''
** But especially in "[[VillainSong My Name]]"
--->'''Sikes:''' What is it?
* SidekickSong:
** "You've Got To Pick A Pocket Or Two" serves as an AntiVillain Song for Fagin.
** "Consider Yourself" sung by The Artful Dodger.
** Fagin also gets arguably the most fun song in the entire show, "Reviewing the Situation." He shares the reprise with Dodger.
* SparedByTheAdaptation:
** [[spoiler:Fagin]] avoids capture and execution in the end.
** [[spoiler:The Artful Dodger]] avoids arrest and being sent to Australia.
** [[spoiler:Bullseye]] does not fall to his death leaping up at [[spoiler:Sikes' body]] as in the novel.
* {{Undertaker}}: The Sowerberries get to sing about how wonderful their work looks at the funeral.
* UnholyMatrimony: Subverted with the Bumbles. In their early scenes, they flirt a lot and get a whole silly love song to themselves, but by the end of the play when they reappear, having finally tied the knot, it's clear that, being awful people, they have only managed to [[AwfulWeddedLife make one another miserable]].
* VillainSong: "[[VillainousAdviceSong You've Got to Pick a Pocket or Two]]" for Fagin, "My Name" for Sikes. Other characters who have villainous traits such as the Bumbles and the Sowerberries have their own in "Oliver" and "That's Your Funeral" respectively.
* VillainousAdviceSong: "You've Got to Pick a Pocket or Two".
* WelcomingSong: The boys sing "Consider Yourself" to welcome Oliver into their gang.
* WhenImGoneSong: "Be Back Soon". The pickpocket boys sing to Fagin and he sings back as they prepare go out into the street to pickpocket. The song mainly references returning, but considering that stealing at the time could conceivably carry a death sentence by hanging, an ominous cloud hangs behind the cheery tune and lyrics. Some examples:
** From Fagin:
--->Fare thee well, but be back soon\\
Who can tell where danger's lurking
** and
--->Give me one long, last look, bless you
** And the boys:
--->We must disappear\\
We'll be back here\\
Today... perhaps tomorrow
* WhenYouSnatchThePebble: During the "You've Got to Pick a Pocket or Two", Fagin lets his urchins demonstrate pick pocketing to Oliver by letting them steal things from his coat. He's not trying that hard to stop them, though, since he's not training them.
* WideEyedIdealist: The title character.
* WouldHitAGirl: Throughout the play, Nancy is a punching bag for Bill Sikes and the beatings grow progressively worse. In the end, Nancy tries to leave with Oliver, but Bill follows them and confronts them by London Bridge. Oliver tries to stop Bill from trying to grab Nancy, but is unsuccessful; Bill in an unprecedented display of barbaric savagery brutally clubs Nancy to death (in the original stage play; she has also been strangled, stabbed and/or had her throat slit). Bill takes Oliver hostage and uses the lad as a bargaining tool to ensure his freedom, but Bill is still caught and killed.
* YourMom: Noah insults Oliver's mom and outright calls him a bastard.

!!The movie adds examples of:
* AnimalReactionShot: When Oliver first enters the hideout of Fagin's thieves, everyone stops talking and stares at him, including an owl.
* CharacterDevelopment: Fagin provides a very interesting case study in the movie adaptation. When Oliver first meets him, he's a loud and frightening stranger who emerges from a cloud of smoke like the very Devil from Hell, bellowing at some random youngster who complains about the food to "Shut up and drink your gin!" Then, as Oliver gets introduced to everyone and he shows him around, Fagin starts looking a lot more like a [[LaughablyEvil comical villain]], particularly during the song "You've Got to Pick a Pocket Or Two" where he hams up his whole GreedyJew motif to pull some laughs. Later, as things get more serious, he reveals in his song "Reviewing the Situation" that he's tired of his whole criminal enterprise and wants out, but truly has nowhere to go, making him quite a sympathetic character indeed. By the end, he's pretty much run the entire range of Jewish villain characterizations from Shakespeare's time to ours.
* DarkReprise: "Reviewing The Situation" is first sung by Fagin as he tries and fails to convince himself to abandon his criminal ways, later reprised with the Artful Dodger as they pledge their dedication to a life of crime. Though the ''original'' version has Fagin realizing at the end of each verse that the situation he's imagining is actually ''unimaginable'', so it's debatable how "dark" the reprise is, given that Fagin and Dodger both seem genuinely happy about the prospect:
-->Together till our dying day\\
The living proof that crime can pay
* FingerlessGloves: Fagin wears them.
* FlashMobCoverUp: {{Inverted}} in that it's done to prevent a crime. Nancy starts giving out beer and getting her customers to sing a rather lively bawdy ballad, in order to let Oliver, who'd been kidnapped by Sikes, escape unnoticed. It doesn't fool Sikes' dog, however.
* GrayRainOfDepression: The rain pours as Oliver wearily tredges a muddy road to London after escaping from Mr. Sowerberry.
* HeelFaceTurn: Subverted with [[spoiler:Fagin]]. He plans to do this, but [[spoiler:instead chooses to leave with Dodger and continue a life of pickpocketing]].
* {{Intermission}}: The film version kept the intermission from the stage play. On the DVD, the intermission also doubles as a prompt to turn the disc over to continue the film.
* NoSongForTheWicked: In the film, Bill Sikes never sings, although other people sing about him.
* ThatRemindsMeOfASong: Nancy starts up "Oom-Pah-Pah" as a distraction to let Oliver escape from Bill Sikes.
* WheelOfPain: The film adaptation briefly shows a variation on the theme during the opening scene.

!!Other specific productions add examples of:
* BreakingTheFourthWall: In a London revival, Fagin breaks the fourth wall during a few of his monologues, especially when he is play acting with his 'treasures'. For example, he was looking through an opera glass and pretending he was at a theatre, gesturing towards the Stalls in the actual theatre (where the most expensive seats are) and mentioning that was where all the rich people were, then gesturing at the top tier and saying that was full of poor people. In the second monologue he started recounting the story of the musical and ended up saying: "What the Dickens am I going on about?"
* FakeFood: In some productions applesauce stands in for the gruel eaten by the workhouse orphans in the opening scene. It's easy to "set up" (no cooking required), easy to clean off of prop bowls and spoons, is readily gobbled by a group of 8-14 year-old kids, and looks "truly disgusting" from the audience.
* GenderFlip: In some productions, the Artful Dodger is played by a girl.
* LeaningOnTheFourthWall: In some productions , the lyrics for "Reviewing the Situation" end with "There is no in between for me/But who will change the scene for me?", whereupon the set immediately starts to revolve as Fagin heads back to the fireplace to count his money.
* MediumAwareness: In one production in London, the orchestration uses a violin soloist during "Reviewing the Situation". Since a violin is one of the items that Fagin has in his box of treasures, there were several PlayedForLaughs moments where Fagin, apparently hearing the violin solo, would stop and stare at the violin, and pick it up to examine it. The same part also featured a long monologue by Fagin where he seemed perfectly aware that he was on stage in a theatre.
* SparedByTheAdaptation: Some productions leave [[spoiler:Nancy]]'s death ambiguous, implying there's a chance she survived.