''Madame Butterfly'' (''Madama Butterfly'' in Italian) is a three-act opera by GiacomoPuccini. Based on both the short story ''Madame Chrysanthème'' and ''Madame Butterfly'', it tells the story of Cio-Cio San (nicknamed Butterfly) in 1904, Nagasaki, Japan. Cio-Cio San, a soprano and beautiful 15 year old girl, is engaged to be married to a U.S. Naval Officer named Pinkerton. He admires her for her innocence and beauty, like a young delicate butterfly, and the fact that he can just as easily pluck her wings. He only wants to temporarily marry her until he finds an American bride, but lets the lovestruck Butterfly believe that the marriage is permanent. The wedding takes place, but Butterfly's uncle disapproves of the fact that she renounced her religion for her husband. Her family disowns her, but Pinkerton comforts her.

In the next act, three years have passed and Pinkerton is off and gone. Butterfly is alone, and Suzuki shows up to her home with a letter from Pinkerton. Butterfly thinks the letter says he will return, and Sharpless is not sure what to say to her. He doesn't know if Pinkerton will actually return or not. Butterfly had a child back at home without him, and calls him Sorrow, until her husband comes home, saying then when he returns the child will be called Joy.

Pinkerton comes home, only to have Butterfly find out that in these past three years, he's married a woman named Kate. He has only come back to collect his and Butterfly's child. With hardly any other choice, Butterfly accepts this, gives up her child, and turns to all that she has left: To die with honour when one can no longer live with honour.

[[TrueArtIsAngsty It's an opera.]] [[DownerEnding What do you expect?]] [[WesternAnimation/WhatsOperaDoc A happy ending?]]

This opera has had countless adaptations, one with a page on this wiki being ''Theatre/MissSaigon'' and ''Manga/MademoiselleButterfly''. It also inspired the play ''Theatre/MButterfly'', and received quite a few references in Music/{{Weezer}}'s album ''Music/{{Pinkerton}}''.
!!Tropes used by the opera:

* AbsenceMakesTheHeartGoYonder
* AsianBabymama: The main character, odd for the trope.
* BreakTheCutie: More like "pulverize".
* ButNotTooForeign: The half-American child is cast as blond, usually.
** As the lyrics request.
--> '''Sharpless:''' Egli è suo?[[labelnote:English]]Is it his (Pinkerton's)?[[/labelnote]]
--> '''Butterfly:''' Chi mai vide a bimbo del Giappone occhi azzurrini? E il labbro? E i ricciolini d'oro schietto? [[labelnote:English]]Who ever saw blue eyes on a Japanese boy? And the lip? And the clear golden curls?[[/labelnote]]
* CassandraTruth: Sharpless warns Pinkerton he'll devastate Butterfly if he abandons her. Suzuki tries to tell Butterfly that Pinkerton isn't coming back. Nobody listens to either of them.
* ChekhovsGun: [[spoiler:The dagger]].
* ConvertingForLove: An especially drastic example, since a) Butterfly's family disowns her over it, and b) Pinkerton never asked her to, and totally doesn't care that she did.
* DawsonCasting: As is the norm for opera, 15-year old Cio-Cio San is never played by an actual teenager. An interesting variation occurs with her three-year old son, Sorrow, who almost always appears "big for his age", with actors around 5-7.
* DownerEnding
* {{Eagleland}}, flavor 1: Butterfly's concept of America as a land of freedom, and Christianity as the One True Faith. The composer mocks it by introducing Pinkerton with a "Star Spangled Banner" theme.
* EvilSoundsDeep: Inverted. Contrary to common operatic tradition, the jerk Pinkerton is played by a tenor. Meanwhile, the kindly Sharpless is played by a baritone.
* FamousNamedForeigner: The American BenjaminFranklin [[PinkertonDetective Pinkerton]] (remember the opera was written in Italy).
* FourthDateMarriage: More like first.
* {{Geisha}}: Cio-Cio San was one before Pinkerton married her, and finds the thought of returning to that profession shameful.
* [[spoiler:GiveHimANormalLife]]: What happens to Butterfly's son.
* HorribleJudgeOfCharacter: Oh god, Butterfly is this UpToEleven.
* IHaveNoSon: Butterfly's family's reaction when they find out she converted to Christianity.
* TheIngenue: Poor Butterfly.
* KarmaHoudini: In the end Pinkerton essentially gets everything he wanted -- his proper American life with an inconvenient Japanese wife no longer in the picture. However, his wife Kate has promised Butterfly to care for her son as her own, leaving Pinkerton a child whose very presence will always remind him that his rashness and cruelty killed the boy's mother.
* {{Leitmotif}}: Several. There's one for Butterfly's father's knife as well as Pinkerton's already-mentioned "Star Spangled Banner", just to name two.
* LoveMartyr: Butterfly is a resounding example.
* MeaningfulName: Pinkerton, as noted above, but also the ineffectual Sharpless and the fragile Butterfly.
* MightyWhiteyAndMellowYellow: The TropeCodifier for the "exotic, submissive Asian woman falls in love with Western man" plot.
* OnlySaneMan: Suzuki and Sharpless.
* ParentalAbandonment: Butterfly's child now has a MissingMom and a dad who's got his own wife.
* [[spoiler:{{Seppuku}}]]: Butterfly's father's knife is used for this.
** [[spoiler:SpurnedIntoSuicide]]
* PlayingGertrude: Inverted. Butterfly is 15 years old but usually the actresses are much older.
* TheSoprano: Cio-Cio San
* UntranslatedTitle: In Italy, or any non-English speaking country. The Italian word for butterfly is "farfalla", yet the English word is used for the character's name.
* WhatHaveIDone: Pinkerton's reaction upon finding out Butterfly has waited three years for his return.
** However, some versions and/or translations have Pinkerton [[{{Angst}} angsting]] not so much about how he hurt Butterfly, but about [[ItsAllAboutMe how much the guilt hurts him]].
* YamatoNadeshiko: Massively subverted. Butterfly is ''supposed'' to be a "proper Japanese woman" and a sympathetic victim of Western racism. However, technically speaking she ''fails'' at being a YamatoNadeshiko, as [[LoveMartyr she]] [[TheIngenue completely]] [[UnrequitedTragicMaiden lacks]] [[SilkHidingSteel the required core of steel]]; nowadays, poor Butterfly is seen as a TropeCodifier on [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stereotypes_of_East_Asians_in_the_Western_world#.22China_doll.22_stereotype how NOT to write any East Asian female character]].
** Of course, Butterfly's submissiveness and naivete could just as easily be attributed to the fact that she is only 15 years old at the beginning of the story and 18 by the end.