When the game of Chaturanga moved into China, it was merged with another game to produce Xiangqi, pronounced roughly ''shiang-chee'' in Mandarin [[note]]Or something like "jeung-kei" in Cantonese, which is the common language of quite a few Chinatowns.[[/note]], and known in English as "Chinese Chess". The disk-shaped pieces[[note]]The checker-like shape of xiangqi pieces leads to people occasionally confusing xiangqi and the very, very different Chinese checkers, which is played with marbles and was invented in the American Midwest in the 19th century and is in fact not Chinese at all.[[/note]] are placed on the vertices rather than in the squares. The board has ten ranks and nine files. Between the fifth and sixth files is a feature called the river. A 3x3 square in the middle back of each player's side is referred to as the palace. [[note]]There is also a Western-style board using Staunton-like pieces called the Cambaluc (after an old Mongol name for Beijing). It was only produced by one company and is fairly rare.[[/note]]

Chinese chess uses a different notation from western chess. Each player counts columns from the right and rows from their side, thus the right column for each player is column 1 and column 9 for the opponent. The rows are not marked. Movement is noted by the piece's name's first letter (P, C, R, H, E, A, or G), a number denoting the piece's column, a symbol for the type of movement (+, -, . ) and a number. If 2 pieces of the same type are in the same column, + or - is used to denote the more forward or the less forward pieces respectively. For pieces that move along the lines (ie. the rook), the . symbol is used to show which column the rook moved to and the +/- is used to show how many rows forwards or backwards the piece moved. For example, r1+2 means the rook in column 1 moved forward 2 spaces and r+.5 means the more forwards rook in column 7 moves sideways to column 5. For pieces that do not move along the lines, the same numbering system is used to denote the pieces. + and - are used to show whether the piece moves forwards or backwards and the final number, the column the piece moves to. For example, a horse in its starting position might move h2+3, meaning it moved forwards and into column 3, or h2+4, meaning it moved forwards but into column 4, further left.

* The Pawn moves and captures one square forward until it crosses the river, whereupon it moves either forwards or horizontally. It does not promote(Justified, The Xiangqi Pawns can be considered to promote to "Promoted Pawns" after crossing the river, gaining the additional ability to move horizontally.). Each player has five.
* The Cannon moves like a rook. It leaps over another piece to capture. (It can capture any piece with another piece between them, on the lines of movement.) It cannot leap unless it captures. Each player has two.
* The Rook (Chariot) moves and captures like in TabletopGame/{{Chess}}. Each player has two. It is called Rook in English to distinguish it from the cannon in game notations.
* The Horse moves and captures like the knight in chess, except that it cannot jump [[note]]Technically, it moves forward one square, then diagonally one square, which results in the same end position, and ''looks'' like it jumped a piece two squares away. However, it cannot move through a piece directly beside it, whether it's friend or foe[[/note]]. Each player has two.
* The Elephant moves two point diagonally and cannot jump. It cannot cross the river. Each player has two, which are confined to the same seven points. It captures as it moves.
* The Advisor moves one square diagonally and can only travel the diagonal lines denoting the palace. Each player has two. It captures as it moves.
* The General moves one square orthogonally and cannot leave the palace. When he is in check without a legal move, it is checkmate. The Generals cannot face each other in a column directly. This could be visualized as the General possessing the ability to shoot him/herself into the opponent's camp, instantly killing the opponent general. There is a story (of uncertain accuracy) to the effect that the piece was called an Emperor until the actual Emperor [[PoorCommunicationKills overheard two players talking about killing or capturing the Emperor piece and misunderstood them]].

Perpetual check is a forfeit, and a player with no legal moves has lost.

Much as you'll see Western chess players congregated around cafes and park tables, nearly any Chinatown will have people gathered in parks and cafes to play xiangqi. [[note]]In Boston's Chinatown, one such park has a paved section with a gigantic xiangqi board embedded into the pavement.[[/note]] If you'd like to play for yourself, there's a [[ printable PDF version here]], and a number of computerized versions for all major platforms.

* AllThereInTheManual: Averted for anyone who doesn't read Chinese. Although there are chess books in Chinese, most are relatively recent and in Chinese only, and there's only a very few scattered books written in other languages. The pages and pages of hyperfocused analysis that make up western chess literature isn't nearly as vast (or obsessive) for xiangqi.
* AuthorityEqualsAsskicking: In some rules of the game, the general can OneHitKill the enemy general if you have a clear line of sight.
* AlternateCharacterReading: The character on a Chariot piece is read ''jū.'' (no, it sounds nothing like "Jew"), but is nowadays more commonly read ''che'' meaning car.
* ButNotTooForeign: The typical design is perhaps a bit alien to westerners, and the use of the intersections rather than the squares for piece placement is distinctly Chinese, but the family resemblance with western chess is fairly obvious.
* ColorCodedForYourConvenience: The two sides are conventionally red and black (sometimes green or another colour).
* GambitPileup: What else could a Chaturanga-based game be?
* GlassCannon: The Chariot (Rook) is the most powerful piece -- but even a Pawn can take it down.
* TheGuardsMustBeCrazy: One's own Advisors often get in one's own General's way.
* IdiotBall: Even grand masters carry it from time to time.
* JustForPun: Many of the same pieces on opposite sides are labeled with homophones, except the ones with completely different names.
** The Pawns and Generals have different names for opposite sides.
* {{Nerf}}: The General can only move orthogonally, and is stuck inside the palace.
* OneHitPointWonder
* {{Oh Crap}} / {{Didnt See That Coming}}: the Cannon, one wrong piece placement and your once impregnable defenses gets a massive hole blown in it.
** The Cannon has no distance limit, so it can take pieces from the other side of the board.
* TookALevelInBadass: Pawns when they cross the river.
* TheChessmaster: You, if you're good enough