->''The higher energy videogame system''

The [=TurboGrafx=]-16, known as PC Engine in Japan, was a [[The16bitEraOfConsoleVideoGames 16-bit]] console developed by Creator/HudsonSoft and sold by NEC that was released first in Japan in [[TheEighties 1987]] and in North America in 1989. Far more successful in Japan than it ever was elsewhere. Its mascot character was VideoGame/{{Bonk}}, or PC Genjin in Japan where the name was a clear pun on the system's name.

The most unique characteristic of the system was that the games did not come on bulky plastic cartridges but rather on thin [=TurboChips=] ([=HuCards=] in Japan), plastic game cards with connectors clearly visible on the end.

Discontinued? Yes indeed, the system did not sell very well in North America, competing as it did with massively successful Creator/{{Nintendo}} and Creator/{{Sega}} contemporaries. However its game library's inclusion on the [[VirtualConsole Wii Virtual Console]] has lit the fires of nostalgia in the hearts of the few gamers who played and loved the thing, as well as introducing these old gems to a newer audience. The system was, however, extremely popular in Japan, outselling the original Famicom. It was particularly favored for its [[ShootEmUp shoot 'em ups]], which could offer nearly {{arcade|PerfectPort}}-perfect graphics.

Like all the venerable systems, this one had a few add-ons of its own. One, the Turbo Tap, was a connector for up to five controllers; since the [=TurboGrafx=], unlike its competitors, only had one built-in controller port, this was necessary to enable multi-player in the (admittedly few) games that supported them. Another was the [=TurboGrafx-CD=] (PC Engine CD-ROM[[superscript:2]]) expansion, which opened more possibilities for the game library, especially with the Super System Card. The CD attachment was very successful in Japan, where it helped prolonged the lifespan of the system, but not so much elsewhere, to the point that [[NoExportForYou only a handful of games were ever exported]]. NEC later released the Turbo Duo, which was a [=TurboGrafx=] with a little extra RAM and the CD drive and Super System Card built-in. The American release is infamous for its advertising campaign, ''ComicBook/JohnnyTurbo''. You can read the comics in their entirety [[http://sardoose.rustedlogic.net/reviews/jturbo/index.htm here]], as well as more info [[http://www.pinkgorillagames.com/pink_gorilla_news/johnny_turbo_vs_sega.php here]].

One of the extensions of the PC Engine that was only released in Japan was the [=SuperGrafx=], which was simply a [=TurboGrafx=] with a extra video chip and more RAM. The hardware revision was a complete failure, only having five games specifically made for it. Slightly more successful was the Arcade Card, released in 1994 in a late attempt to upgrade the capacities of the system; it was mostly noted for ports of NeoGeo games.

Finally, in the portable market, [=TurboGrafx=] had a clear advantage thanks to its slim game cards. The [=TurboExpress=] handheld console (PC Engine GT in Japan) was able to use exactly the same cards as the main console, so that it was essentially a small, portable [=TG16=] with a screen attached. Yes it was heavy, and yes it was a battery-guzzler, but it still was nice to have a lot of those games on the go.



[[folder: Processors: ]]

* UsefulNotes/{{C|entralProcessingUnit}}PU runs at a maximum 7.16Mhz, although games could switch it down to 3.58Mhz or 1.79Mhz; most Hu Card games run at 3.58Mhz to avoid overheating the system (as the Japanese PC Engine was quite small), though it runs at full speed for CD games. It's also an 8-bit processor, which led some to doubt it was really a 16-bit system.
* The actual graphics are generated by a {{GPU}}, which is 16-bit. It actually has two of them, but they are practically identical, and just split color and display between them.


[[folder: Memory: ]]

* 8 KB of main RAM, 64 KB of VideoRAM, additional 192 KB of RAM (Turbo Duo only)
* The CD-Rom2 1.0 Hu-Card (and 2.0 and the bug fixed 2.1) adds another 64KB.
* The Super CD-Rom2 3.0 Hu-Card beefs up the 64KB to 256KB.
* The Arcade Hu-Card (still at 3.0 oddly) beefs it up more to 2 MB (for the Arcade Card Duo, 2.2MB for the Arcade Card Pro; the Arcade Card Duo is for the Duo models only, while the Arcade Card Pro was for the pre-Duo models)
* [=SuperGrafx=] has 32 KB of main, and 128 KB of Video.
* Games on Hu-Cards could be up to 2.5 MB.


[[folder: Sprites: ]]

* 64 sprites on screen (128 for the [=SuperGrafx=]), with 16 single-width sprites per scanline.
* Sprite size is a minimum of 16x16 and a maximum of 32x64.


[[folder: Display: ]]

* Resolution is variable, but most games ran at 256x240.
* One background layer (two on the [=SuperGrafx=]) composed of 8x8 tiles.
* 512 total colors, but the sprite layer and the background layer each could have up to 241 at once (the two background layers on the [=SuperGrafx=] shared those).
* [[http://www.chrismcovell.com/PowerConsole/index.html The SuperGrafx was able to run 2 screens]]; however, it was never used in any retail software due to the system's bombing.

!!Games released on [=HuCard=] and/or [=TurboChip=]:
* ''[[VideoGame/NineteenFortyTwo 1943 Kai]]''
** ''1941: Counter Attack'' ([=SuperGrafx=] only)
* ''VideoGame/AfterBurner II''
* ''VideoGame/AlteredBeast'' (also released on CD-ROM)
* ''VideoGame/BatmanSunsoft''
* ''[[VideoGame/WonderBoyInMonsterLand Bikkuriman World]]''
* ''VideoGame/BlazingLazers''
* ''Bloody Wolf''
* ''VideoGame/{{Bomberman}}''
** ''[[VideoGame/{{Bomberman93}} Bomberman '93]]''
** ''[[VideoGame/{{Bomberman94}} Bomberman '94]]''
* ''VideoGame/{{Bonk}}'' series
** ''Bonk's Adventure''
** ''Bonk's Revenge''
** ''Bonk 3: Bonk's Big Adventure'' (also released on CD-ROM in the US)
** ''VideoGame/AirZonk''
* ''[[VideoGame/{{Sokoban}} Boxyboy]]''
* ''VideoGame/{{Bravoman}}''
* ''VideoGame/{{Cadash}}''
* ''VideoGame/{{Columns}}''
* ''VideoGame/CrushPinball'' series:
** ''Alien Crush''
** ''Devil's Crush''
* ''[[VideoGame/GhostsNGoblins Daimakaimura]]'' ([=SuperGrafx=] only)
* ''VideoGame/{{Darius}} Plus'' (rereleased on CD-ROM as ''Super Darius'')
* ''Detana!! VideoGame/{{Twinbee}}'' (Japan-only until its release on Virtual Console)
* ''[[VideoGame/WonderBoyIIITheDragonsTrap Dragon's Curse]]''
* ''Dragon Spirit''
* ''Dungeon Explorer''
* ''VideoGame/FantasyZone''
* ''[[VideoGame/FireProWrestling Fire Pro Wrestling Combination Tag]]'' ([[TropeMaker First game]] in [[VideoGameLongRunners the entire series]])
** ''Fire Pro Wrestling 2nd Bout''
** ''Fire Pro Wrestling 3 Legend Bout''
* ''VideoGame/{{Galaga}} '88'' (''Galaga '90'' outside of Japan)
* ''VideoGame/GenpeiToumaDen''
* ''VideoGame/{{Gradius}}''
** ''Salamander''
* ''[[VideoGame/MontyMole Impossamole]]''
* ''VideoGame/JackieChansActionKungFu''
* ''VideoGame/KeithCourageInAlphaZones''
* ''VideoGame/KikiKaiKai''
* ''VideoGame/{{Klax}}''
* ''[[VideoGame/TwinCobra Kyuukyoku Tiger]]''
* ''The Legendary Axe''
* ''VideoGame/LodeRunner: Lost Labyrinth''
** ''Battle Lode Runner''
* ''VideoGame/MagicalChase''
* ''Military Madness'' (a.k.a. ''Nectaris'')
* ''[[VideoGame/SuperDodgeBall Nekketsu Koukou Dodgeball Bu: PC Bangai-hen]]''
* ''VideoGame/{{Neutopia}}''
* ''[[VideoGame/AdventureIsland New Adventure Island]]''
* ''VideoGame/TheNewZealandStory''
* ''[[VideoGame/NinjaGaiden Ninja Ryukenden]]'' (Japan-only port of the NES game)
* ''Ninja Spirit''
* ''VideoGame/TheNinjaWarriors'' (Japan-only)
* ''VideoGame/OperationWolf''
* ''VideoGame/OutRun''
* ''[[VideoGame/BubbleBobble Parasol Stars: The Story of Bubble Bobble 3]]''
* ''VideoGame/{{Parodius}} Da!''
* ''VideoGame/RabioLepus Special''
* ''VideoGame/{{Raiden}}'' (rereleased on CD-ROM as ''Super Raiden'')
* ''VideoGame/{{R-Type}}'' [[/index]](DividedForPublication in Japan, then rereleased on CD-ROM as ''R-Type Complete CD'')
* ''VideoGame/{{Shinobi}}''
* ''VideoGame/SpaceHarrier''
* ''VideoGame/{{Splatterhouse}}''
* ''[[VideoGame/StarSoldier Super Star Soldier]]''
** ''Final Soldier''
** ''Soldier Blade''
* ''VideoGame/StreetFighterII Dash: Champion Edition'' (Japan-only until its release on Virtual Console)
* ''VideoGame/TimeCruise''
* ''VideoGame/TheTowerOfDruaga'' (Japan-only remake)
* ''VideoGame/{{Turrican}}''
* ''VideoGame/{{Vigilante}}''
* ''VideoGame/{{Volfied}}''
* ''VideoGame/{{Xevious}}: Fardraut Densetsu''
* ''[[VideoGame/SolomonsKey Zipang]]''

!!Games released on CD-ROM:
* ''VideoGame/AdvancedVariableGeo''
* ''[[VideoGame/{{Shadowgate}} Beyond Shadowgate]]''
* ''VideoGame/BonanzaBros''
* ''VideoGame/{{Brandish}}''
* ''[[VideoGame/{{Pang}} Buster Bros.]]''
* ''VideoGame/CastlevaniaRondoOfBlood'' (Super CD, [[NoExportForYou Japan only]]; re-released elsewhere in 2010 on Virtual Console and ported to {{P|layStationPortable}}SP as ''[[VideoGame/CastlevaniaTheDraculaXChronicles The Dracula X Chronicles]]''.)
* ''VideoGame/ChoAniki'' ([[http://www.pspworld.com/sony-psp/games/challenge-write-cho-aniki-press-release-without-using-the-word-gay-011910.php The gayest]] [[http://www.i-mockery.com/minimocks/sexual-games/10.php game to]] [[WidgetSeries ever exist]].)
* ''VideoGame/CosmicFantasy'' series (Japan-only save for the second game)
* ''VideoGame/DoubleDragonII: The Revenge'' (Japan only, a remake of the NES version)
* ''[[VideoGame/RiverCityRansom Downtown Nekketsu Monogatari]]''
* ''Dragon Slayer: The Legend of Heroes''
* ''VideoGame/DungeonMaster: Theron's Quest''
* ''[[VideoGame/WonderBoyInMonsterWorld The Dynastic Hero]]''
* ''Exile''
* ''VideoGame/FantasticNightDreamsCotton''
* ''[[VideoGame/StreetFighter Fighting Street]]''
* ''[[VideoGame/FireProWrestling Fire Pro Women: Dome Super Female Big Battle: All Japan Women VS J.W.P.]]'' (Arcade CD)
* ''VideoGame/ForgottenWorlds''
* ''VideoGame/GalaxyFrauleinYuna''
* ''[[VideoGame/FatalFury Garou Densetsu 2]]'' (Arcade CD)
** ''Garou Densetsu Special'' (Arcade CD)
* ''Gates of Thunder''
* ''VideoGame/{{Genocide}}'' (Super CD, Japan-only, based on the Sharp X68000 version)
* ''VideoGame/GoldenAxe''
* ''VideoGame/{{Gradius}} II''
* ''VideoGame/ItCameFromTheDesert''
* ''J.B. Harold Murder Club''
* ''VideoGame/{{Langrisser}}: Hikari no Matsuei''
* ''VideoGame/LastAlert''
* ''VideoGame/{{Lemmings}}''
* ''VideoGame/{{Loom}}''
* ''Lords of Thunder''
* ''VideoGame/MadStalkerFullMetalForce'' (Arcade CD, Japan-only, an enhanced port of the Sharp X68000 game)
* ''VideoGame/MightAndMagic III: Isles of Terra''
* ''VideoGame/{{Minesweeper}}''
* ''VideoGame/PopfulMail''
* ''VideoGame/{{Populous}}: The Promised Lands''
* ''VideoGame/{{Prince of Persia|1}}''
* ''VideoGame/PrincessMaker 1-2''
* ''VideoGame/PuyoPuyo CD''
** ''Puyo Puyo CD Tsuu''
** ''Madou Monogatari I'' (Arcade CD)
* ''VideoGame/RainbowIslands: The Story of Bubble Bobble 2''
* ''[[VideoGame/ArtOfFighting Ryuuko no Ken]]'' (Arcade CD)
* ''VideoGame/ShadowOfTheBeast''
* ''VideoGame/SimEarth''
* ''VisualNovel/{{Snatcher}} [=CD-ROMantic=]'' (Japan only, released for the [[SegaGenesis Sega CD]] in North America and Europe)
* ''VideoGame/SpaceInvaders: The Original Game''
* ''[[VideoGame/StarSoldier Star Parodier]]''
* ''[[VideoGame/{{Strider}} Strider Hiryu]]'' (Arcade CD)
* ''[[VideoGame/AirZonk Super Air Zonk: Rockabilly Paradise]]''
* ''[[VideoGame/{{Darius}} Super Darius II]]''
* ''[[VideoGame/FantasyZone Super Fantasy Zone]]'' (unreleased)
* ''VideoGame/TengaiMakyou'' series
** ''Tengai Makyou Ziria''
** ''Tengai Makyou II: Manjimaru''
** ''Tengai Makyou: Fuun Kabuki Den''
** ''Kabuki Ittou Ryoudan'' (Arcade CD)
* ''Franchise/TokimekiMemorial'' (Japan only, the first game was released here, and the franchise would later move on and thrive on {{PlayStation}}).
* ''VideoGame/{{Valis}}'' ''I''-''IV''
* ''Vasteel''
* ''VideoGame/WonderBoyIIIMonsterLair''
* ''VideoGame/WorldHeroes 2'' (Arcade CD)
* ''VideoGame/WrestleAngels: Double Impact''
* ''Franchise/{{Ys}}'' series
** ''Ys Book I & II''
** ''Ys III: Wanderers from Ys''
** ''Ys IV: The Dawn of Ys'' (Japan only)
* ''VideoGame/ZeroWing''