-> “All units must get used to having Japanese parties in the rear and, when this happens, regard not themselves, but the Japanese, as surrounded.”
-->-- Lt. General '''Bill Slim''', 14th Army, Burma, WWII

An elite unit of soldiers is cut off behind enemy lines and has to fight their way to safety. It's usually the result of hubris either on the part of the unit or (more often) their higher command.

Common causes:
* An attack went too far, or didn't get sufficient support from other troops, and the enemy cut off their line of retreat.
* Did not retreat quickly enough from an overwhelming attack, and the enemy cut off their line of retreat.
* Transport failure dumped them in the middle of nowhere.
* A raid went awry, cutting off their escape route.
* Prisoners of war escaped.
* In the case of mercenaries (like Creator/{{Xenophon}}), the sudden loss of an employer can do this as well.

May lead to a YouAreInCommandNow situation. Usually contains at least some FieldPromotion. YouShallNotPass may be required -- or worse, a LastStand. If an escape is made, it may be by means of VehicularTurnabout.

See also FightingForAHomeland.
----
!!Examples:

[[foldercontrol]]

[[folder: Comic Strips ]]

* ''ComicStrip/{{Peanuts}}'': During one of Snoopy's many {{Imagine Spot}}s where he's a World War I Flying Ace, he gets trapped behind enemy lines and is rescued by a French girl (really Peppermint Patty).

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[[folder: Film ]]

* ''BAT21''
* ''Film/BehindEnemyLines'' and its sequels.
* ''Film/BlackHawkDown'' - Based on RealLife.
* ''Film/ABridgeTooFar'' - Based on RealLife.
* ''Film/{{Centurion}}''
* ''Film/FlightOfTheIntruder'', both the book and the [[Film/FlightOfTheIntruder movie]].
* ''Film/TheWarriors''
* ''Film/TheWildGeese'' (1978) and its remake (2010). In the 1978 version a group of mercenaries is sent to Africa to free a captured rebel leader. After they succeed, their patron cuts a deal with the local government, cancels their transport home and abandons them to their fate.
* ''Film/TheLostBattalion'' features the eponymous unit of American soldiers surrounded by the Germans in the [[WorldWarI Argonne Forest]].
* The German film ''Film/{{Stalingrad}}'', when the entire German army is cut off and trapped inside Stalingrad by an attack on the flanks. Based on RealLife.

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[[folder: Literature ]]

* The story of Guan Yu's journey through five passes in ''RomanceOfTheThreeKingdoms''.
* Creator/{{Xenophon}}'s ''Literature/{{Anabasis}}'' (on which ''The Warriors'' is loosely based), making this at least OlderThanFeudalism. The alternate English title for the book provides [[TropeNamer the trope's name]].
** Also AndreNorton's novel ''Star Guard'' (1955)
** Also Harold Coyle's novel ''The Ten Thousand'' (1993)
** Also Creator/DavidWeber and Creator/JohnRingo's ''Literature/PrinceRoger'' series of novels, beginning with ''March Upcountry'' (2001), in which the titular prince is stranded on [[DeathWorld Marduk]] by a failed assassination attempt as part of a coup plot.
* Happens in just about every SvenHassel novel, including an obligatory scene where Sven and his colleagues find themselves in the midst of enemy troops and either get mistaken for a special unit (e.g. [[GermanRussians Volga Germans]] or Foreign Legion), or saved by [[CunningLinguist Porta's quick-thinking chatter]].
* The Literature/CiaphasCain novel ''Death or Glory'' starts with the titular protagonist and his faithful aide Jurgen [[EscapePod landing]] in the middle of an Ork-infested continent, half a world away from the front lines. [[AccidentalHero In Cain's attempts to find friendly forces to put between himself and danger]], things snowball until he's [[RagtagBunchOfMisfits cobbled together a small army of soldiers, civilians and militia]] cutting its way out from the heart of Orkish territory and turning the tide of the whole war.
* At the end of the ''Literature/WingCommander'' novel ''Action Stations'', Max Krueger's ship is shot down over a Kilrathi-held human world during a raid on Kilrathi assets in the area.
* Literature/HonorHarrington's fate after the break-out from the StateSec ship ''Tepes'', at the end of ''In Enemy Hands''. Followed in the next book by probably one of the biggest {{prison break}}s in all of history, fictional or RealLife, escaping with roughly half a million prisoners and a [[VehicularTurnabout squadron of large warships]].
** This basically takes UpToEleven a similar (but much smaller) exploit of HoratioHornblower (of whom Honor is an {{Expy}}) in ''Flying Colours''. He brought home twenty men and a tiny cutter.

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[[folder: Live Action TV ]]

* One episode of ''Series/StarTrekDeepSpaceNine'' has Nog and Jake in a shuttle, inside Dominion space, about to be blown up... and then the ''Valiant'', which has been trapped in Dominion space since the start of the war (because of their captain's ego more than anything else, it's a crew of cadets, one of whom was given a field promotion to acting captain and ignored the common sense/orders to return home), shows up and rescues them. The rest of the episode deals with their self-designed mission behind enemy lines.
* The Polish WW2 series ''Czterej pancerni i pies'' had this as a recurring plot device. The titular tank crew would find themselves behind enemy lines either because an enemy counterattack managed to cut off their position or because their mission was to move around the enemy and attack them from behind.
* Parodied in ''Series/MontyPythonsFlyingCircus''. The "Ypres 14" sketch had a group of WorldWarOne British soldiers trapped behind German lines. Since there were five of them and only rations for four, they had to decide who would stay behind and "take the other way out" (commit suicide rather than be captured).

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Video Games ]]

* ''VideoGame/MechWarrior 3'', not so much "Behind Enemy Lines" as it is "Stuck on Enemy's Planet".
* The last mission of ''HaloReach'' is this. [[spoiler: The player character is the last surviving member of Noble team on Reach. The mission is a desperate LastStand.]]
* ''ShadowCompany: Left For Dead'' begins with your employer abandoning your mercenary group in the middle of enemy territory after a mission goes awry.
* Subverted by ''VideoGame/TalesOfTheAbyss''. It could've been played this way, but Tear uses her "[[DiplomaticImpunity I'm from the Order of Lorelei]]" card, which ropes [[ColonelBadass Jade]] (who ''should've'' been skewering Luke since their nations are at war) into helping out instead. (And Jade's [[ReasonableAuthorityFigure reasonable enough]] to ask some questions first anyhow.)
* ''FreeSpace 2'' has a bonus mission that drops a small group of starfighters at an unknown jumpgate deep inside enemy space to explore where it leads to record anything they can. The extraction ship drop from hyperspace exactly 15 minutes later and leave immediately if the pilots are not back by then.
* ''CallOfDuty 4: ModernWarfare'' has the missions "Hunted" and "Death from Above" where the player's SAS Squad must fight to the evacuation point after their helicopter is shot down. Ironically, they were heading home after rescuing someone else from enemy hands. The missions "Heat" and "One Shot, One Kill" also count.
** ''Modern Warfare 2'' does this with the Escape from the favelas mission.
* The main story of ''VideoGame/ValkyriaChronicles'' has this happen to Welkin and Alicia after a mortar causes them to fall of a cliff. One of the [=DLC=]s has this happen to Edy Nelson and some of the squad after she goes LeeroyJenkins on some Imperials and [[ColdSniper Marina]] [[NotSoStoic gets distracted by a puppy]], pulling them even further in.
* ''OperationFlashpoint'' : ''And how !'' Nearly in ''every other'' mission of the campaign...

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[[folder: Tabletop Games ]]

* ''TabletopGame/{{Diplomacy}}'', a pre-WWI simulator (sort of): subversion. If this happens to one of your units, it can actually '''strengthen''' your position.

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Web Original ]]

* Happens quite a bit in the first book of ''TheSalvationWar'', seeing as everyone who dies ends up in {{Hell}}. Leads to the formation of LaResistance, with the odd historical character or twelve joining, no less.

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Real Life ]]

* The 1st Marine Division at the Chosin Reservoir during the Korean War.
* The Czech Legions escape from Siberia during the Russian Civil War
** And on a smaller scale, other RCW operations and escapes, including the Ice March and the evacuation of various allied contingents at the war's end.
* The Battle of Mogadishu, which was the direct basis of the aforementioned ''Film/BlackHawkDown''.
* Creator/{{Xenophon}} and the 'Ten Thousand' after the battle of Cunaxa.
* World War II's large-scale airborne invasion Operation Market Garden. It pretty much caused twice the losses to the Allies than the Axis.
* To a (somewhat) lesser degree, the airborne landings during the Battle of Normandy. Due to the transport pilots attempting to avoid anti-aircraft fire (or sometimes failing to avoid it), Allied paratroopers were scattered all over the French countryside, lost and confused. The fact that they were able to rally and improvise (and generally cause massive confusion to the Germans trying to figure out just what the equally confused paratroopers were trying to accomplish), led to the military concept of Little Groups of Paratroopers ([=LGOPs=] for short), describing the resulting units as "A bunch of nineteen year olds, poorly supervised, pissed off, armed to the teeth, and vaguely recalling their orders as "Shoot anyone who is dressed differently."" Those troops that managed to link up with Allied forces moving inland from the beaches were able to pass on valuable intel, in addition to delaying German counter-attacks against the beachheads.
** And occasionally nabbing unsuspecting Germans who didn't expect Americans behind their lines. The commander of the German 91st Infantry Division was ambushed and killed by one such group of paratroopers, for example.
* Several of the Wehrmacht's 'moving pocket' operations on the Russian Front.
** This is the basis of the "hedgehog" system of defense, which has long roots in siege warfare, but modernized during World War II with the introduction of the possibility of resupply by air. Defending troops would be concentrated at strategic locations that are easily defensible, even if they can also be easily surrounded. Supply would be conducted by air and large numbers of enemy troops would be tied down and exhaust themselves besieging these positions. If done well, this can be very effective--for example, the Demyansk pocket during World War 2. If the defenses cannot hold, they can be a disaster, as the surrounded troops would have nowhere to retreat and are certain to be annihilated--eg. Dien Bien Phu during the French War in Vietnam.
* The Battle of Timor in 1942, in which several hundred survivors of the Dutch/Australian defense of the island (mostly commandos from the 2/2nd Independent Company) fell back into Portuguese East Timor and held out there, eventually being withdrawn in January 1943 after keeping an entire Japanese ''division'' busy for ten months.
** The man who trained the Australian commandos, Freddie Spencer Chapman, was himself trapped behind enemy lines in Malaya for over three years. Like the Australians on Timor, he was presumed dead, but lived out the war with Communist guerrillas and wrote a memoir, ''The Jungle Is Neutral.''
** The trope probably applies to commando operations in general, as these troops are usually trained to infiltrate behind enemy lines and conduct sabotage--essentially, trapping themselves behind enemy lines intentionally, with the expectation that they may not be extricated easily if at all.
* The British 14th Army under Bill Slim turned this concept into a science. When cut off in its first major battles at Kohima and Imphal, the British forces held out against attack, supplied by airdrop, until the Japanese - who had ''not'' provided for supply - were worn out.