[[quoteright:319:[[VideoGame/RiseOfNations http://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/rontechtree_960.png]]]]

->''"Technological advance is an inherently iterative process. One does not simply take sand from the beach and produce a Dataprobe. We use crude tools to fashion better tools, and then our better tools to fashion more precise tools, and so on. Each minor refinement is a step in the process, and all of the steps must be taken."''
-->-- '''Chairman Shen-Ji Yang''', ''[[SidMeiersAlphaCentauri "Looking God in the Eye"]]''

In Hollywood, people seem to believe that technology starts at fire and ends in [[AscendToAHigherPlaneOfExistence people turning into energy]]; the interim would follow [[InexplicableCulturalTies the exact same steps on every possible world]]. Often, this takes the form of people not from Earth creating exact replicas of Earth technology right down to the last detail -- such as interface panels ripped right out of the Apollo missions on an alien space station. These copies are often similar enough that people who are from Earth often have no trouble at all using the device, or even [[PlugNPlayTechnology interfacing their own hardware with it]].

Similarly, seemingly distinct, diverse technologies will always develop at the same rate. An alien world with 'Renaissance' era technology (ignoring for the moment that the Renaissance spanned four centuries and giant changes in technology) in, say, firearms, will also possess lenses, ships, building materials and mathematical principles identical to those that Earth (read: the inter-continental trade powers of north-western Europe) possessed along with said firearms.

It's only rarely that a civilization will break off the path, and usually as a result of external forces [[LowCultureHighTech providing them with something outside their capabilities]] (intentionally, accidentally or incidentally), such as a 1920s planet with fusion power, or a 1700s planet with radios. However, mastering this technology does not actually give them an understanding of related concepts, or even concepts which would be required to use this technology in the first place (thus averting PossessionImpliesMastery).

Remember, don't think path, think ''[[TechTree tree]]'', just as with the evolution of biological lifeforms. Except, in this case the distant descendants of unrelated branches can inspire and influence the future of others. For inspiring viewing, see the James Burke documentary series ''Series/{{Connections}}'', which shows the sometimes ludicrously unlikely places where inspiration and discovery come from, and the web-like connections between seemingly-unrelated inventions.

[[MemeticMutation I, for one,]] can only look forward to the day that [[CrystalSpiresAndTogas crystal-based technology]] paves the way for our conversion into [[EnergyBeings energy]].

See also: EnforcedTechnologyLevels, EvolutionaryLevels, InSpiteOfANail. Contrast SchizoTech, AliensNeverInventedTheWheel, SufficientlyAdvancedBambooTechnology, AlternateTechline, AnachronismStew and/or FantasyGunControl.

This has some actual reference in the real world [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kardashev_scale Kardashev Scale]] (''how much'' total energy one get to play with, no matter ''how''). The other wiki used to have a list. See AbusingTheKardashevScaleForFunAndProfit for some fun speculation.



[[folder:Comic Books]]
* An interesting take on this trope happens in one of [[ComicBook/DisneyDucksComicUniverse Disney Ducks]] comics, where it is played as a natural result of reaching consequent EvolutionaryLevels. While robbing Gyro's laboratory, one of the Beagle Boys gets accidentally hit in the head by Gyro's experimental "[[DevolutionDevice evolutionary ray]]". Over the next couple of days, he uses his newly heightened intelligence to develop a flawless bank robbery plan. This prompts the other Boys to give him the next dose. The hyper-intelligent Boy then turns to [[TheCracker cyber-crime and ATM machine cracking]]. Amazed with the results, the other Boys ignore his warnings and break into Gyro's lab for the [[RuleOfThree third time...]] only to discover the next day that he had reached the CrystalSpiresAndTogas level of intellectual development, gave all their money to charity, and went on to the UN to give a lecture on the elimination of crime and poverty. (They manage to reverse the effect, [[FrazettaMan but the switch gets stuck]].)

[[folder:Films -- Live-Action]]
* The movie version of ''HarrisonBergeron'' created an elaborate setting where, while technology's capability was late-21st century, everything appeared to be set in the mid-'50s of the US, as people seemed to be "happiest" then, according to the SpaceClothes wearing people who managed the conspiracy of the average.
* Mentioned poetically in ''Film/{{Godzilla 2014}}'' for dramatic effect by Joseph Brody when he screams that the EMP coming from Janjira NPP's ruins will "send us back to the Stone Age".

* {{Parodied}} by ''Franchise/TheHitchhikersGuideToTheGalaxy,'' where a species with a lot of arms is specifically cited as being the only species to invent the underarm deodorant before the wheel.
** Likewise in ''IrregularWebcomic'', possibly as an homage to the former. When asked about the low population of elves, a PC replies, "Elven children breast feed for 30 years, teethe for 20 years, throw tantrums for about 100 years... and don't take to toilet training until they're about 200." "Yeah. Elves invented effective contraception before we could use fire."
* A Larry Niven short story takes a jab at this when the Kzinti encounter puny humans, who are still stuck with rockets when the Kzinti acquired the next step however long ago. It turns out that humans, having more experience with them, have ''much better'' rockets. Later they turn a Bussard Ram-Jet [[WeaponizedExhaust into a guided missile]].
** Granted, the Kzinti skipped straight from the bronze age to reactionless drives thanks to a high-tech race that thought they'd make good soldiers. [[LowCultureHighTech Their culture is still hopelessly archaic.]]
* Averted, at least on the primitive end of the scale, in ''The Ringworld Throne''. Discussing whether or not a troublesome species of {{Ringworld}} hominid is sentient or non-sentient, it's mentioned that different borderline species have developed different skills: an aquatic variety can't use fire in its native habitat, but has developed flaked stone tools; a raw-meat-eating species doesn't ''need'' fire, but raises livestock; and so on.
* In the Icerigger trilogy of Creator/AlanDeanFoster, the residents of Tran-Ky-Ky are an Iron Age culture that never invented the wheel. That's because Tran-Ky-Ky is an [[SingleBiomePlanet Ice World]], and the natives mount anything heavy that needs to be transported on ice skates.
* Creator/JackChalker's Literature/WellWorld series name-checks this trope. "[Each hex on the planet] is also maintained at a given technological level.... Anything beyond it just won't work, like Hain's pistol yesterday."
* This gets brought up in Creator/VernorVinge's ''Literature/AFireUponTheDeep'' when the protagonists are trying to send aid by remotely uplifting an alien species on the planet they are traveling to. It is remarked that technological progress is much less like a ladder and more like a rock climbing wall, there are many possible routes to the same types of technology and they need to figure out what the aliens already have in order to figure out how to give them the secrets behind constructing shortwave radios and firearms.
* Literature/{{Discworld}} has been thumbing its nose at this trope ever since ''[[Literature/{{Discworld}} Moving Pictures]]''. Notably, while the invention of film in that novel was a result of alchemists' being [[TouchedByVorlons infected by the spirit of Holy Wood]], it's also straight-up subverted when the resulting industry invents color movies before sound. Creator/TerryPratchett's view of Technology Levels is "There's no reason why worlds should develop the same way. The Greeks had all the necessary theoretical knowledge and technical ability to invent the wind-up gramophone. The steam-powered gramophone, come to that. They just never did."
** Several different processes of color photography were invented during and even ''before'' mute movies era. They just didn't happen to be ones easily applicable to a long reel.
* ''Literature/MythAdventures'' has vastly different dimensions, but also trade in both technology (dimension travelers posing as inventors) and ready goods. So there's obvious difference between "rustic" and "advanced" places, but whether any given world is stronger or weaker in magical, technological or [[{{Magitek}} combined]] areas depends on tastes of its denizens, local resources and chance. And it can be [[PlanetOfHats specialized]], of course.
* Creator/GregEgan's ''Incandescence'' gleefully avoids this. Mostly it concerns itself with physics concepts -- when you're a pre-industrial civilization orbiting a black hole, physics is ''really important'' -- but, for example, the aliens in question discover the Kerr metric for a rotating black hole (which we derived in 1963) slightly before they figure out universal gravitation (discovered by some guy named IsaacNewton in the late 17th century).
* Somehow, in ''Literature/{{Animorphs}}'', the Andalites invented computers before books. They consider books to be more convenient. [[SarcasmMode Apparently they have yet to invent a "Search" function.]]
* In ''Literature/DragonsEgg'', while the Cheela's technological evolution is loosely patterned after mankind's, some of it is necessarily influenced by their environment -- mostly the ''huge'' gravity and magnetic field of the Cheela home world. So they [[AliensNeverInventedTheWheel invent the sleigh instead of the wheel]] because gravity makes axles impractical and in their "metal casting"[[note]]using crystalline materials found on their star rather than actual metals[[/note]] the molds need to be oriented along the magnetic field.
** Even after their FirstContact with humans, where they model their culture and technology after mankind's, there are some things they just have to do differently -- such as developing AntiGravity ''before'' space flight, because there's no other way to get off their world.
* In the E3 universe in Ian [=McDonald=]'s ''Planesrunner'' the electric motor was invented before the steam engine and everything is powered by coal because there is no oil.
* {{Subverted}} in ''[[Literature/DykstrasWar Dykstra's War]]'' by Jeffrey D. Kooistra. The Phinons have had space travel for eons, but [[spoiler: they are a species with barely animal-level intelligence. They naturally live in the comet clouds between solar systems, and they evolved spacecraft-building as an instinctive behavior, like bees building a hive or beavers building a dam. Their ships' "design" is incredibly weird-looking and their "technology" extremely counter-intuitive, because it's not the product of engineering in the human sense.]]
* The novel ''Where Sea Meets Sky'' in the Captain's Table series has the Federation debating whether a species that has simply domesticated [[OrganicTechnology living star ships]] counts, since they have warp travel, but not based on technology. The ''Literature/StarTrekTitan''[=/=]''[[Literature/StarTrekTyphonPact Typhon Pact]]'' novel ''Seize the Fire'' has a similar debate about a species that has developed power plants based on the same principles as the warp drive, but has no interest in space travel.
* The Centran civilization of Christopher Anvil's ''Pandora's Planet'' has a scale for this, introduced by a mention that the latest Centran conquest is at 0.9 Centra-level. One problem with the concept is highlighted with the words that come directly after that introduction: "In some respects higher."

[[folder:Live-Action TV]]
* ''Franchise/StarTrek'':
** The [[AlienNonInterferenceClause Prime Directive]] prevents them from interfering with cultures "below the [[SubspaceOrHyperspace warp drive]] level."
** The Ferengi, who have super-sensitive hearing and live on a planet of frequent rainstorms, invented soundproofing before they invented the steam engine.
** And then there are the Vulcans, who had very little metal and as a result skipped right to making a spacecraft to get some from off-world.
* ''Series/StargateSG1'' is pretty much built around this premise. Although the plot explains that [[SufficientlyAdvancedAlien aliens posing as gods]] are purposely shaping development across the galaxy, this usually constitutes keeping people from becoming advanced enough to be a threat, and cultures which have broken-off from alien control continue to advance "as expected".
* On ''Series/BabylonFive'' the step before "become energy" is "OrganicTechnology".

[[folder:Tabletop Games]]
* More or less justified in the ''TabletopGame/{{Warhammer 40000}}'' universe, where human civilizations in different parts of the galaxy pretty much had their technological progress railroaded by the use of Standard Template Construct systems. In the past ten thousand years or so, humans haven't really developed their technology at ''all'', so they avert this trope by side-stepping it.
* ''{{Traveller}}'''s first edition [[TropeCodifier originated (or at least popularized) the idea]] in [=RPGs=].
* The ''d20 Future'' supplement of the ''d20Modern'' RPG gives technology based on "Progress Levels." Modern humans, depending on geography and infrastructure, go from about PL 4 to (late) PL 5. These, along with most of the supplement's flavor, were transposed directly from ''TabletopGame/{{Alternity}}'', which was previously published by the same publisher.
* The ''{{GURPS}}'' RPG has a similar system of tech levels. It's very helpful when calculating whether a certain piece of equipment is available for purchase (and what it costs). Crafty game masters are advised to assign different tech levels to various sections of society. Tech Level 5, for example, is the Industrial Revolution, while modern developed countries would be at [=TL8=] [[TechnologyMarchesOn (although when the game was created in the early 1990s, "modern" tech was [=TL7=])]].
** The system also introduces the concept of divergent tech levels, with the notation "TL('x'+'y')". TL (5+1) is {{steampunk}} tech, for example, while the BambooTechnology of [[WesternAnimation/TheFlintstones a certain modern Stone Age family]] would be TL(0+7).
* The 3E TabletopGame/{{Ravenloft}} products use "Culture Levels", which combine technological progress with social changes in a sequence that's closely parallel to that of IRL European history. Unlike many fantasy settings, the Land of Mists is ''intended'' to capture the authentic flavor of Gothic fiction's classics, thus needs to at least somewhat emulate the real-world historical past.
* Tech levels are an integral part of the tabletop war game ''Starfire''. Your tech level determines what systems you're allowed to install on a starship. At Tech Level I, you get ion drive engines, nuclear missiles, lasers, and basic {{deflector shields}}. By Tech Level X, you're sporting 3rd-generation shields and armor, heterodyne lasers, charged particle beams (and overload dampeners that can absorb the impact of such beams), tractor beams (and tractor-nullifying shear planes), narrowly-focused force beams that ignore shields and armor, and space fighters.
* ''Tomorrow's War'' has three tech levels, however they're meant to be relative to one another, depending on the scenario a given TL can mean anything from [[AKA47 AK-147s]] to [[PlasmaCannon plasma rifles]].
* ''Torg'' had levels not just for a universes allowed technology level but also for magic, social development and the influence deities could wield on the material world.
* In ''TabletopGame/BattleTech'' a faction's tech level is based largely on how much LostTechnology they possess. The Successor States barely remember how to make Mechs and rely on antique Jumpships and [=ComStar's=] similarly ancient network. As for [=ComStar=] and their militant faction the Word of Blake they religiously grab and hoard most examples of [=LosTek=] in the Inner Sphere. While the Clans are descendants of the Star League's military who took a lot of their technology with them and ensured that their factories and scientist caste would be safe from the constant warfare, so they have the most advanced technology in the known galaxy.
* ''TabletopGame/StarsWithoutNumber'' has seven tech levels. At 0, your most advanced technology is a sharp rock. At 2, you've invented gunpowder. At 4, you have hyperdrive, and a lot of the stuff that made the Mandate workable and has been lost in the Scream (jump gates, psitech) was TL 5. TL 6 is reserved for the ''really'' rare and impressive stuff.

[[folder:Video Games]]
* The ''VideoGame/{{Civilization}}'' series is a mishmash of historical accuracy and ridiculous(ly well-working) deviations for game play. Its {{Tech Tree}}s rigidly follow Earth (Western) development on maps that are likely to look nothing like Earth. ''Civ III'' was particularly {{egregious}}.
** It is possible to focus too much on one branch of the tech tree. In ''Civilization Revolution'', it is possible to develop bombers, nukes and ''electronics'' before electricity. Likewise, in ''Call to Power'', it's possible to develop fusion (giving you 23rd-century Fusion Tanks) before tank warfare (needed for 20th-century Tanks).
** It can get worse. In CivRev, the British can get knights before most nations have Alphabet. Knights are pretty much superior to anything that isn't a industrial or modern unit. One wonder might let you learn Advanced Flight ahead of flight. This can lead to you learning Space Flight before your nation has steel, electricity, combustion, or flight. How did we launch a spaceship without that?
** While not as egregious as some of these examples, in FreeCiv, it is perfectly possible to build Ironclad units without having researched Iron Working, and to build and launch a spaceship without ever having discovered Sanitation.
* ''VideoGame/{{Age of Empires|I}}'' has four technological levels: Stone Age, Tool Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age. Its sequels follow suit, as do many RealTimeStrategy games inspired by it.
** In particular, while it would be hard to go straight to making stone tools without using unmodified stones as tools first, parts of Africa skipped the Bronze Age altogether, and a Bronze Age setting with good heavy trade could similarly skip the Iron Age. For geological reasons, copper ore tends to be far from ores that would make decent bronze with it - so when metal trade is interrupted, or never gets going in the first place, humans turned to the softer iron.
* ''RiseOfNations'', which covers a much broader range of history (from the Stone Age right through to TwentyMinutesIntoTheFuture), has eight - three of which are in the 20th century.
* Averted by the latest ''VideoGame/GalacticCivilizations'' ''2'' version, but followed by the rest of them.
** Right down to the last detail, in fact. The "Technological Victory" condition literally involves researching a set path of technology until the entire race ascends to a higher plane of existence. Although choosing ones alignment (Good, Neutral, Evil) does alter the technology tree ''very'' slightly.
* ''VideoGame/MasterOfOrion'' has a highly developed technological system that allows development in different directions in different games. There are disciplines with independent levels -- 6 in the first game, 8 in the second.
** Only in the third game is it made explicit that later technologies rely on earlier research, however. While some technologies are said to be extensions of earlier tech, one could go, for an example from the first game, to Scatter Pack X missiles tech without having access to the option to research the Stinger missiles on which they're based.
* ''Franchise/MassEffect'' plays with this. [[spoiler: The Reapers deliberately expose and spread mass effect technology, along with the mass relays and the Citadel, to deliberately guide organic technological evolution along the paths they prefer. They then cut this off when they invade and wipe out all advanced life while their tech is still at a limited, controlled state.]] It is implied that [[spoiler: the geth, being a purely synthetic species, are developing along a different path than that set by the Reapers.]]
* Averted by the Shee of ''{{Creatures}}.'' Both said aversion and the Shee's [[AbsentMindedProfessor general]] [[CloudCuckooLander mindset]] are best explained by a quote:
--> "The Shee were a race unique in their mindset, most likely having invented the steam engine as an offshoot of an attempt to design a better way of brewing tea before they invented the wheel."
* In ''Franchise/{{Halo}}'', the [[{{Precursors}} Forerunners]] and the [[ScaryDogmaticAliens Covenant]] use a seven-tiered scale to categorize civilizations based on their technology levels, ranging from basic tool-construction (7) to world-creation (1).
** Humans have been all over the place on this; [[spoiler:while prehistoric humanity was one of only four known species to make it to at least Tier 1]], humanity circa 2552 (the original trilogy) were merely at Tier 3. By 2557 (''[[{{VideoGame/Halo4}} Halo 4]]''), however, [[TheFederation the UNSC]] seems to have reached Tier 2, making it the strongest single military power in the galaxy now that the Covenant has split apart.
** The scale also has a Tier 0 ("Transsentient"); while the Forerunners mostly considered it a theoretical ceiling, [[spoiler:their own Precursors actually pulled it off.]]
** An amusing species on the scale are the Brutes, who successfully climbed to the tier involving space-flight only to drop back down to the pre-industrial level again; hyper-aggression and nukes don't combine well.
* ''VideoGame/{{Ascendancy}}'' doesn't have it explicitly, but pushes from MinMaxing toward a general sequence. Theoretically, after a few must-have picks the TechTree allows very lopsided development as long as prerequisites are met. Practically, to climb up with sensible speed you need to generate lots of research points, so you need Prosperity to have more people working in labs and factories (at least until Automation is invented -- after that, population growth is only necessary for colonization), you need production to build facilities that actually give you research, population, prosperity and more production.
** Since [[LostTechnology alien ruins]] located on a number of planets give you random technologies, it is possible to get something from the very end of the tech tree at the very beginning of the game, without prerequisites. Facilities and improvements usually are immediately useful, though most need production. Good drives, shields and weapons on ships tend to cost a lot and/or need more powerful reactors - you could have a superweapon in a basic small hull, but at the cost of stuffing all possible slots with weak reactors - while better one on one, it won't have decent defence or mobility and normal cheap basic ships still can trash it after one shot.
* In ''{{Diggles}}'', the first buildings are made from wood and stones, then require sturdier materials like metal, then require mechanical energy, and in the last stages the power source of choice is a pseudo-nuclear reactor.
* ''VideoGame/AdvancedStrategicCommand'' has "Technology Level N" entries on TechTree, though mostly for easy limiting units availability to a certain level.
* The original ''VideoGame/{{Elite}}'', which owes rather a lot to ''Traveller'', used this trope in the background fluff. It doesn't have much effect in-game; certain after-market upgrades for your ship aren't available in worlds below a certain Tech Level, and you can turn a good profit shipping electronic goods from the local HigherTechSpecies to its less advanced neighbours.

[[folder:Web Original]]
* OrionsArm carefully lays out post-{{Singularity}} tech levels based around the relative intelligence levels of ever more complex transhuman and AI minds. Pre-Singularity humans can at best make basic nanotech and antimatter drives. At S1 BrainUploading and matter-to-energy conversion drives become possible. S3 minds can create Wormholes, and S4 or higher can produce {{Reactionless Drive}}s.

[[folder:Western Animation]]
* At first glance, [[Franchise/AvatarTheLastAirbender the Avatar franchise]] seems to play this straight. The nations use their bending powers to help create technology- for example, [[PlayingWithFire Fire Benders]] use their head to power the steam industry. There is a clear progression in technology; in [[WesternAnimation/AvatarTheLastAirbender the original series]], we see a nation having their industrial revolution while the majority of people used more old fashioned methods, while by ''WesternAnimation/TheLegendOfKorra'' they've got things such as cars and motorcycles readily available. In the end, its subverted. Although there's a progression in technology, it seems rather chaotic. Lampshaded by the [[AvatarTheAbridgedSeries abridged series]] as follows.
--> '''Sokka''': LetMeGetThisStraight. You can invent tanks, jet skies, and a GIGANTIC freaking ''drill'', but the concept of a hot air balloon eeellluuudddesss you?
* Played with in ''WesternAnimation/{{Ben 10}}''. On one hand, most planets do follow a near-fixed path of technological discovery. On the other hand, said path is ''very'' unlike Earth's -- [[TranslatorMicrobes universal translators]] are usually invented about at the same time as combustion engines, and radio transmissions rarely predate nuclear fusion. Some technologies on earth are far in advance of what we should be able to produce.

[[folder:Real Life]]
* Steam power is a good example of a real-life instance of this trope: [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heron_of_Alexandria Heron of Alexandria]] was messing around with steam expansion and pistons by 80AD but never quite put the two together outside of a few novelty toys. In fact, the Romans appear to have invented steam power at least three separate times, and were extremely advanced ''theoretically'' in many aspects of engineering. They understood that an "engine" which could replace slaves you have to feed, house, and keep happy enough that they don't kill you in your sleep might be possible and useful in the same way we understand that a fusion reactor might be possible and useful. So why didn't they have an industrial revolution in 200BC? Beyond the economic hurdle of competing with slave labor and animal power, [[RequiredSecondaryPowers they lacked calculus and certain physics formulas needed to engineer large-scale engines, the metallurgy to contain the pressure, accessible fuel deposits]], and a ''need'' for more mechanical power than simpler industrial-level power sources like waterwheels or windmills could provide. Lacking these things, the steam engine remained a curiosity fondly used by tinkerers to power devices like singing mechanical birds for centuries before the world hit the "critical mass" of related technologies and economic incentive required to turn theory into fact.
* The [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antikythera_mechanism Antikythera mechanism]] is an example of a real life aversion, an analog computer containing gearing more complicated than anything which would be seen for over a thousand years thereafter. The Greeks never did anything more powerful with it, potentially in an enforcement of technology levels as they lacked many intermediate technologies we take for granted, and the technology was lost and reinvented later on.
* The Incans had a system of roads that spanned their entire empire... but never invented the wheel. ItMakesSenseInContext: the Incans lived in the steep Andes, so most of their roads involved steps up a mountain. Wheels would be inconvenient compared to walking or riding animals.
** They had wheels, but they were only used on toys.
** The Incans had no traction animals, so even if they'd built carts and wagons, they had nothing to pull them with. As with the steam engine example above, while the theory existed, the support structure necessary to make the technology practical just wasn't there, and so the Incans never built carts or wagons.
* Writing in general is an aversion of this trope. Most societies (e.g. the Inca, above) with more than one city and a centralized government of any kind end up inventing a system for representing numbers and identifying objects, so that tax reports can be filed and the empire maintained; only very, ''very'' few times has anyone independently had the idea to take this to the next level and try to represent sentence structures, so that narrative structure could also be recorded. We know it happened at least twice, in Mesoamerica (Olmec pictograms) and Mesopotamia (Sumerian cuneiform). All other known writing systems ''could have'' gotten the idea from one of these two; the most likely candidate to have been a third independent invention is Chinese oracle bone script, but it's possible that the ''idea'', if not the format, was carried to China by traders. Likewise, it is unknown if Egyptian writing was inspired by Sumerian cuneiform or was an independent invention as well - indeed, there are some indications their phonetic writing may even ''predate'' cuneiform, and the symbolic basis for their language is known to be independent. Rongorongo may or may not be yet another (semi) independent invention of writing, though whether Rongorongo even represents "true" writing is unknown, and there is a great deal of suspicion that if it does represent writing, it was inspired by seeing instances of writing in the past.