One baby, often a newborn, is secretly exchanged for another.

May be a living baby for a dead one, the son of a [[BlueBlood rich family]] for the baby of a beggar, or an accidental swap in the hospital nursery. In any case, the problem is that the babies were swapped, and they won't find out until later in life. Usually, in the worst moment. Frequently, the finding ''is'' the worst moment.

Favorite of {{Soap Opera}}s around the world. With all the use this trope has had, you'd think that it would be a DeadHorseTrope by now, but it's [[UndeadHorseTrope still alive and kicking]].

Compare MosesInTheBullrushes and the [[TwinTropes twin specific]] version SeparatedAtBirth.

Someone who [[IJustWantToBeSpecial fantasizes]] they were SwitchedAtBirth has a ChangelingFantasy.

ChangelingTale is an [[OlderThanPrint older]] subtrope involving [[TheFairFolk elves]] [[InvasionOfTheBabySnatchers snatching babies]]. They will often replace it with a {{doppelganger}}. Related to PrinceAndPauper.
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!!Examples:

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[[folder: Anime & Manga ]]

* In ''Manga/JoJosBizarreAdventure: Stone Ocean'', a mother whose new-born died after birth swap hers for a living child... in the process splitting up two fraternal twins. This comes back in the end, when the sibling relationship is revealed.
* The final arc of ''Manga/{{Kinnikuman}}'' revolves around the revelation that there was a fire in the hospital on the day the prince of Planet Kinniku was born -- and in the confusion he may have been switched with any one of five other newborn boys. A tournament between the six now-grown possible princes is organized to determine the real deal; as it turns out [[spoiler:the Kinnikuman we're familiar with, Suguru, was the real prince all along.]]
* In ''PandoraHearts'', [[spoiler:[[BrokenHero protagonist]] Oz Vessalius is revealed to be the [[OurMonstersAreDifferent chain]] Oz the B-rabbit inhabiting the [[MerlinSickness cursed body]] of TragicVillain and ManipulativeBastard Jack Vessalius]]. He was switched with [[spoiler:Zai Vessalius's real, stillborn child at birth as part of Jack's plan to reunite Alice and the B-rabbit]]. He ''[[BreakTheCutie does not]]'' take [[LossOfIdentity this revelation]] well [[HeroicBSOD at all]].
* ''Manga/BlackJack'' gives us the chapter "Switched". A mother is blackmailed by a particularly unpleasant woman, who claims to have seen her switch her baby with another one in the maternity ward shortly after discovering that her son had a rare, most likely terminal condition. Once she can no longer make the payments, the mother allows her blackmailer to accuse her of kidnapping. The key witness is Dr. Black Jack, who [[spoiler:reveals that it's a subversion - he states that he operated on the child, curing his condition, and that the scar on the child is proof that he belongs to his mother. On the way out, he informs the the blackmailer that after the operation, he saw the child's unknowing mother switch the babies... and ''switched them back''.]]

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[[folder: Comic Books ]]

* ''ComicBook/{{Invincible}}'' heroine Atom Eve has this as her backstory. The scientist in charge of the SuperSoldier project that created Eve felt guilty about condemning the unborn Eve to life as a lab experiment and had her SwitchedAtBirth with a stillborn child. The parents were initially surprised to see Eve after being told their baby hadn't survived, but quickly decided it wasn't important -- their daughter was alive and that was all that mattered.
* It was retconned that [[TheFlash Barry Allen]] had a twin brother who was believed stillborn; however, the doctor actually switched his twin with another couple's dead baby to keep them from pressing charges for botching the delivery, and he was raised as Malcolm Thawne. When Malcolm realized this was one of the reasons for his [[AbusiveParents terrible childhood]], he [[StartOfDarkness killed the doctor in a rage]], demanding to know why ''he'' was the one to be taken.
* The last part of the prologue of the ''UsagiYojimbo'' "Grass-Cutter" arc mentions a ''daimyo'' who, according to legend, was the result of his grandmother switching her actual granddaughter for the son of an umbrella merchant so their domain would have a male heir. As his cowardice brings ruin to his land, the old woman, preparing to sacrifice the emperor's child to keep him from falling into enemy hands, tells the empress that the story was true.

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Fairy Tales ]]

* The original sprawling story of "Literature/BeautyAndTheBeast" used this in Beauty's case; her (fairy) mother exchanged her as an infant with the merchant's dead daughter. In the [[TheReveal grand reveal]] at the end, she learns of her noble birth and first-cousin relationship to the former Beast.

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Film ]]

* A similar theme is used in the 1988 film ''[[http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0094739/ Big Business]]'' with Lilly Tomlin and Bette Midler playing the mismatched sets of twins - each named Rose (Tomlin) and Sadie (Midler) - of a rural working family and a wealthy urban family. Unusually, in the end neither birth nor upbringing turns out to provide the stronger link between the women; instead, urban Rose and country Sadie are {{Wide Eyed Idealist}}s while country Rose and urban Sadie are aggressive and cynical.
* The very same year, French black comedy ''[[http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0096386/ La vie est un long fleuve tranquille]]'' mixed this theme with {{Slobs Versus Snobs}}. On Christmas Eve, as she was rejected by her married OB-GYN lover, a midwife switched two babies born that night, a white-trash girl and a well-bred boy. After a final betrayal, twelve years later, the midwife reveals the ugly truth, and the boy comes to live with his rightful family. But as he was raised within a family of crass thieves - but loving ones anyway -, soon, the kid teaches his wealthy parents they should have thought about it twice before taking him back...
* Parodied in the film ''Delirious'', where a man trapped inside a soap opera is outraged with the changes its current head writer is making. One of them is the show's idealistic heroine being revealed to have been switched at birth with the daughter of the rich villainous family that runs the whole town, causing her to INSTANTLY become exactly like them.
* ''TheOmen'' began with an swap between a dead baby and a mysterious newborn.
* The most mind-hurting example is in the 1970 movie ''[[http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0066402/ Start The Revolution Without Me]]''. In pre-Revolutionary France, two sets of identical twins are born on the same night and delivered by the same doctor, so there are ''four'' babies. The midwife and doctor can't remember which is which, so they shuffle them a bit so "at least we'll be ''half'' right". They grow up as two sets of fraternal twins, one aristocratic, one revolutionary peasant. Then the French Revolution comes around ...
** This is pretty bizarre, and seems to relate to the belief that nature always trumps nurture, as seen mostly on cop shows.
* The EricIdle-RickMoranis vehicle SplittingHeirs was a pretty straightforward take on this.
* The aptly titled 1991 TV movie ''Switched at Birth'' (no relation to the TV series) is based on the true story of Kimberly Mays and Arlena Twigg.
* This happens in ''WesternAnimation/ThePrincessAndThePea''. Daria (the princess) was switched by Laird with his daughter, Hildegard, so that he could get his vengeance on his brother, Heath. Part of Laird's plan was to pretend that their baby died shortly after birth so that his wife could help raise their daughter to grow up into a RoyalBrat. Meanwhile, Daria was sent to live with pig farmer peasants.
* 1991's ''Toto the Hero'' features the main protagonist believing that he was switched at birth with the neighbour's baby, and setting out to get the life that he believed was his.

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[[folder: Literature ]]

* In an obvious nod to ''TheOmen'', ''Literature/GoodOmens'' starts with a baby swap that [[SpannerInTheWorks doesn't go quite the way the swappers plan]].
** To be fair, they had to deal with three babies, not two; "a golden-haired male baby we will call Baby A," "a golden-haired male baby we will call Baby B," and "a golden-haired male baby we will call the Adversary, Destroyer of Kings, Angel of the Bottomless Pit, Great Beast that is called Dragon, Prince of This World, Father of Lies, Spawn of Satan, and Lord of Darkness".
* This is part of the plot of Creator/MarkTwain's novel ''Pudd'nhead Wilson'', involving two sons of a white plantation owner, one by his wife and one by a slave woman, being switched at birth by the slave so her son could live a life of privilege. [[spoiler: The titular Wilson finds out ''almost twenty years later'', when he takes the defense of an Italian man (himself a twin) who has been mistakenly accused of murder -- and the slave's son is the culprit. In the end, after Wilson reveals the whole switch to save his client, the slave's son is formally enslaved and sold down the river, and the wife's kid is brought back into the family... but he's a FishOutOfWater and not happy about it.]]
* Creator/PGWodehouse's ''If I Were You''.
* In "Lady Clare," a lengthy poem by Alfred, Lord Tennyson, the titular noblewoman discovers that her nursemaid Alice is actually her biological mother, who had been the nursemaid of the real Lady Clare. When the earl's daughter died, Alice switched the infants and claimed the dead baby as her own so as not to deprive the noble family of their only child.
* In AndreNorton's ''Jargoon Pard'', Kethan is switched at birth for a woman's daughter, because [[HeirClubForMen only a son can inherit]]. [[spoiler:At the climax, this is revealed to the woman and his parents; they reveal that actually, they knew it for a long time. Kethan nearly [[DarkestHour despairs]] because his purported mother no longer wants him, because she can no longer use him. After the fight, however, his parents eagerly lay claim both to their biological son and the daughter they raised.]]
* The protagonist of TadWilliams' ''TheWarOfTheFlowers'' was born in the MagicalLand, but switched at birth for a child from the mundane world in an EquivalentExchange.
* As was the protagonist of RogerZelazny's ''Madwand''. In the end the two changelings end up making war on each other.
* The fantasy novel Split Heirs involves a royal set of boy/girl triplets, where the girl, and younger boy triplet were supposed to be secretly sent off to be raised by the queens brother, while the firstborn boy was to be raised to be the heir to a warrior kingdom. A mix up occurs, and the girl is raised as a prince, and becomes a fearsome warrior, while one boy becomes a shepherd, and the other a wizard's apprentice. The culture of the story thought that multiple births meant the queen had been unfaithful, which would have meant her execution. Also, a girl would not have been able to inherit the throne, so the queen kept the girl's sex a secret [[spoiler: even to the girl herself.]]
* A lot of baby-shuffling occurs in ''Literature/SeptimusHeap''. [[spoiler: The title character is pronounced dead at birth by the midwife, but she actually steals him and he ends up getting switched with her own son. Meanwhile, Septimus' father finds an abandoned baby girl, and since his wife is known to have been pregnant and they think their baby is dead, they adopt the girl and pretend she's their own daughter.]]
* In LMMontgomery's ''Literature/AnneOfGreenGables'' series (Anne of Ingleside), a mean little girl convinces one of Anne and Gilbert's twin daughters, Nan, that she was switched at birth with a fisherman's daughter. The girl insists that twins always look alike, and the fact that Nan and her twin Di don't, being fraternal twins, it proves that they were switched at birth. Nan does the honorable thing and tries to switch back, only to be told by the fisherman's wife that her daughter is nearly a year older than she is, and therefore they could not have been switched. Quite relieved, Nan turns to go home and gets caught in a storm before returning safely. Anne and Gilbert are understandably upset.
* At least two instances in ''Literature/ASongOfIceAndFire''. In ''A Feast for Crows'', Mance Rayder's son is switched with Gilly's son in order to prevent Melisandre from taking advantage of his "royal blood" as a sacrifice to R'hllor. ''A Dance with Dragons'' reveals that [[spoiler:Aegon Targaryen is still alive because of a baby swap.]]

* The Norse ''Tale of Geirmund Heljarskin'' has a queen swap her babies with her slave's child.

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Live Action TV ]]

* The premise of the Drama TV Series Series/SwitchedAtBirth, which is about two teenage girls, Bay Kennish and Daphne Vasquez, who were [[ExactlyWhatItSaysontheTin switched at birth]].
* In the Brazilian SoapOpera ''Por Amor'', a mother switched her newborn for the dead baby of her first daughter. The mother did it in order to relieve the bad news that her daughter became sterile through her difficult birthing. When the daughter, the daughter's husband, ''and'' the mother's husband (the baby's father) found out, they were less than pleased.
* An episode of ''{{Dinosaurs}}'' revolved around the possibility that Baby Sinclair had been Switched At [[strike:Birth]]Laying. It's heavily implied that this is in fact the case (the other baby is even green, like the rest of the family) but [[StatusQuoIsGod of course]] he ends up remaining with the Sinclair family.
* ''HomeAndAway'' where we learn Jade was accidently swapped with another baby, who turns out to be identical to Jade's (previously though to be) fraternal twin Kirsty
* On ''RoadToAvonlea'' (broadcast in the U.S. as simply "Avonlea"), Felicity and her friend Sally were born on the same day with the same flighty doctor present. When they harass her about not having a mother, Sarah forges a letter from the doctor confessing to switching the babies by accident. Aunt Hetty catches on, but first suggests that they switch the girls back, since the mothers had earlier made a big point of her not being able to understand motherhood, having never given birth.
* ''{{Veronica Mars}}'' contains an example. [[spoiler: Veronica discovers that her friend Mac was switched at birth with Madison Sinclair.]]
* ''OneLifeToLive'' is the baby switch headquarters of American soaps. In the early 80s, Karen Wolek switched her sister's dead baby for a living one, a switch that went on for ''years''. Later, Gabrielle switched Alicia's dead baby with Brenda's living son. In 2004, a major CrossOver with ''AllMyChildren'' saw Kelly from ''OLTL'' raising the child of Babe from ''AMC'', who in turn had best friend Bianca's baby. The most recent involves Bess, an alternate personality of Jessica, who switched Jessica's dead baby for Starr's.
* Happened in an episode of ''Series/GhostWhisperer'', where the ghost of the week discovers she'd been switched at birth shortly after her death, and plans to tell the girl she was switched with, despite both their parents not wanting her to know.
* This trope is what [[NotBloodSiblings prevents]] straight BrotherSisterIncest in the Korean drama ''AutumnInMyHeart'': the main couple were raised as biological siblings, and in their teenage years, when their feelings become muddy, it's revealed that she was inadvertently exchanged with another baby girl because her older brother, a toddler back then, entered in the nursery and exchanged the name tags.
* Done on ''{{Neighbours}}'' when Bree is revealed to have been switched with another baby at birth.
* On ''TheDickVanDykeShow'' episode "That's My Boy?!" Rob was convinced that Richie had been switched with another baby at the hospital, because the the hospital kept confusing Richie Petrie with Richie Peters (delivering the wrong flowers etc.) and baby Richie didn't look like either parent. That is, until he met the Peters family, [[spoiler:who were black]] resulting in one of the longest laughs in TV history.
-->'''Rob Petrie:''' Why didn't you tell me on the phone?
-->'''Mr. Peters:''' And miss the expression on your face? [[spoiler: He's played by Greg Morris, later known for his work as Barney Collier on MissionImpossible.]]
** The end scenes had Rob say the Peters' son, Jimmy is a straight-A top student, while Richie...isn't. He then insists, "I still think we got the wrong kid!" Laura playfully hits him with a sofa pillow.
* ''Series/{{Castle}}'' has an episode where two babies were switched at birth because one of the fathers knew that his child had an always-fatal hereditary disease.
* Used in ''TheAmandaShow'' on ''[[ShowWithinAShow Moody's Point]]''; the title character was apparently switched at birth with a child of circus performers, which the doctor [[RuleOfFunny explains casually to the family while eating a snack.]] Of course, [[CutShort the other side is never resolved]] [[NoEnding but this was probably intentional.]]
* Subverted in an episode of ''KenanAndKel'', in which Kenan Rockmore thinks that he was switched at birth with another baby born at the same time named Kevin Rockmore. At the end, [[TheReveal the other Rockmores are shown to be Asian-American.]]
* This is the central hook to the Creator/ABCFamily melodrama ''Series/SwitchedAtBirth'' ([[CaptainObvious obviously]]), with a well-to-do Caucasian family finding out after sixteen years that their daughter was switched at birth with the daughter of a single Puerto Rican hairdresser.
* In ''YoungDracula'', Robin has a ChangelingFantasy that centres around the idea that he and Vlad were swapped at birth. They weren't, but Ingrid fakes a diary to convince everyone that they were. HilarityEnsues.
* ''DaysOfOurLives'' does this quite frequently.
** Nicole Walker for instance switched the baby of Mia that she would adopt, with the baby of Sami Brady.
** Stefano DiMera switched Zack Brady with J.T. Reiber.

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Newspaper Comics ]]

* [[CalvinAndHobbes Calvin's]] dad has once commented about how he's certain that some nurse switched the basinettes.

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Theater ]]

* Creator/GilbertAndSullivan used (and parodied) this one frequently; it shows up in ''Theatre/HMSPinafore'' (where the heroine's boyfriend is revealed to have been switched with her ''father,'' who in turn goes on to marry his former wet-nurse) and ''Theatre/TheGondoliers'' (which actually involves multiple switches).
* Shakespeare's Theatre/HenryIV wishes out loud that [[InadequateInheritor his wayward son Hal]] had been switched at birth with [[HonorBeforeReason the honorable rebel Hotspur]].

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Video Games ]]

* This was a major story point in ''ShadowOfDestiny'', where [[spoiler: the two female characters in the game (one from the past, one from the present)]] turned out to have been switched at birth by [[spoiler: the "Homunculus" as part of his scheme to ensure that history turns out exactly as he wants it to]].
* In ''VideoGame/TalesOfTheAbyss'', it turns out that [[spoiler: Natalia was actually not the blood princess of Kimlasca--the real princess was stillborn, and the midwife switched the infant with her daughter's child. To make matters worse, her real father was one of the Six God Generals, Largo the Black Lion.]]

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Visual Novels ]]

* In ''UminekoNoNakuKoroNi'', [[spoiler:Rudolf Ushiromiya switched the babies of his wife, whose child was stillborn, and his mistress, and the child would grow up to be his son Battler. For years Rudolf was the only one who knew about this.]]
* ''VisualNovel/HatofulBoyfriend'' has [[spoiler: Sakuya, though it's not "switched" so much as "replaced". His brother Yuuya was supposed to kill him in the egg, but held on to him, switched his egg with his purebred half-brother's, and smashed ''that''.]]

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Webcomics ]]

* Sal Walters, the DarkActionGirl of ''Webcomic/ItsWalky'' was switched at birth with the boy in the next bassinet as part of a BatmanGambit intended to conceal her [[SeparatedAtBirth twin brother's]] true nature.
* Twix in ''NamirDeiter'' was SwitchedAtBirth, explaining why he is the only cat in a family of slugs.

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Real Life ]]

* Modern, western hospitals go through ''extraordinary'' measures to prevent this from happening, after some well-publicized (and very expensive) cases that came to light with the advent of DNA testing.
** In Russia, it recently happened to two infants girls. The families still see each others frequently, and the girls still say "Mama"! when they see the other's family mother. Who miss them actually.
* In ''Series/BeyondBeliefFactOrFiction'', this story was introduced as true: A woman discovered, thanks to her premarital exam, that her blood group wasn't like her parents'. She came to the hospital with her fiancÚ who was born the same day and at the same place on a confusing night (New Year's Eve, during a tempest). The mess led the nurses to write the wrong sex on minute books. So she was switched at birth, [[ItsASmallWorldAfterAll with her own future husband, no less.]]
** Believable if you consider the fact that people tend to marry those who remind them of their parents, and who better to remind you of Daddy than his own son, and of Mommy than her own daughter?
* As mentioned under Film, this happened to Kimberly Mays and Arlena Twigg which inspired the aformentioned TV film ''Switched at Birth''.
* Brood parasitism is a strategy used by certain bird species, most famously the Common Cuckoo, as well as some species of bee and wasps.
** This is a darker variant of this trope since there isn't any actual "switching" involved. The cuckoo chick simply hatches earlier than the other eggs (cuckoos incubate their eggs in their bodies longer than other birds to make sure this happens) and ''pushes the other eggs out of the nest to their doom''. This strategy only works because most birds are too stupid to tell the difference between a chick of their species and a cuckoo chick (who is sometimes larger than the "parents"). If the parents ''are'' smart enough to ditch the cuckoo chick, a bunch of adult cuckoos attack them according to what is seriously called the "Cuckoo Mafia Theory". Cuckoos are ''creepy''.
*** This seems even more cruel when you consider that since cuckoo chicks are even larger than the "parents" much of the time, the "parents" struggle to get enough food to feed it.
*** Some cuckoos don't push out the other eggs, but they're generally larger and stronger-voiced than their hosts' chicks, so they get fed more and are often the only ones that make it.
** Interestingly enough, humans trying to save an endangered bird species will do something similar to this. A bird species that very nearly went extinct would only lay and watch one egg at a time, but if the egg was removed, it would lay another egg. So conservationists would take the egg from the endangered bird, and put it in the nest of another bird of similar size and diet. Said bird will raise the chick as it's own. This technique saved a bird species from extinction, with literally only a few specimens to start with, the population is now at a few hundred.
*** This was done with the California Condor. A lot of the extra chicks were raised by life-sized condor puppets so they would imprint correctly.
*** The rare whooping cranes' eggs, one or ''maybe'' two at a time, were put in the nests of the common sandhill cranes. The whooping cranes laid more eggs, the transplanted chicks were raised by the sandhills, and the numbers went up.
**** ...though those whooping cranes [[LikeParentLikeSpouse thought they were sandhills and would only breed with sandhill cranes]], producing sterile hybrids. Cuckoos know they are cuckoos and not part of their foster parents' species, other birds not so much.
* Inverted in the case of Patricia Noonan and Shawn Lake, two similar-looking teen girls who were involved in a car crash. Lake died and Noonan was in a coma; Noonan's parents were informed that their daughter had died and Lake's that theirs was in a coma.
* A similar case happened with Laura VanRyn and Whitney Cerak in 2006. After a horrific car accident, Whitney and Laura were misidentified and the mix-up was not discovered for five weeks. Whitney Cerak was believed dead, and was alive; Laura VanRyn's family had thought that the girl they had cared for was actually Whitney. A book, Mistaken Identity, was written about the event.
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