->"''A writer cannot do too much research... though sometimes it is a mistake to try and cram too much of what you learned into your novel. Research gives you a foundation to build on, but in the end it's only the story that matters.''"
Although many talents in fictional media show they didn't do their research, some actually did. In fact, sometimes they learned so much and worked so hard to learn it that it would hardly seem fitting to just not show it off.
The Shown Their Work trope comes in when the creators tweak their stories to show the viewer/reader what they have learned. The trick is to do it so this advances the story instead of stopping it cold. When it's done right in a well made work, awards for its educational value can be just as nifty as the artistic awards.
This often happens in older, harder SciFi books, wherein the authors try to keep the science as consistent as possible with currently-understood scientific theories. Of course, since ScienceMarchesOn, this may date the book badly.
When an author shows off work they haven't actually done, you've been DanBrowned. Any examples of that list are there, here is about it being done right.
Note that this does not include explicitly educational productions, since they obviously have to be both accurate and explanatory to be effective.
Compare DoingItForTheArt, NarrativeFiligree (both also about going above and beyond in regards to production quality), LampshadedTheObscureReference.
Note that this is only as good as the writer makes it. Just because you did the research, doesn't mean it adds to the story. Likewise, sometimes it's better just to make things up. Remember that one of the reasons why the SciFiGhetto existed in the first place was because Authors of old (and some still do) overused this trope, creating walls of InfoDump instead of stories. If people wanted to have a lecture in Science, they would grab scientific essays in the first place.
Also keep in mind that referencing things doesn't by default make a work smarter than one that doesn't.
'''Try to keep this page from becoming GushingAboutShowsYouLike.'''
[[http://little-details.livejournal.com/ There]]'s a LiveJournal community for authors conducting such research on non-trivial topics.
If the work is simply using real locations as backgrounds, consider using RealPlaceBackground. If the work contains both real backgrounds and other research, then by all means include it here as well.
Contrast CriticalResearchFailure, TheyJustDidntCare.