[[caption-width-right:300:[-Image by [[http://commons.marymount.edu/en204fa13/2013/10/28/wole-soyinka-death-and-the-kings-horseman/seppuku-2/ Kunikazu Utagawa]]-] ]]

->''A dead silence followed, broken only by the hideous noise of the blood throbbing out of the inert heap before us, which but a moment before had been a brave and chivalrous man. It was horrible.''
-->-- '''Algernon Mitford''', ''Tales Of Old Japan''

You're a {{samurai}} and you're either very depressed, very pissed off, or both. You've been pigeon-holed into choosing between [[MyMasterRightOrWrong obeying foolish/evil orders]] or abandoning your [[ProudWarriorRaceGuy warrior ideals]]. [[SadisticChoice Either way, you're fucked.]]

Time to send a message. Those ''gaijin'' may say it with flowers, but samurai say it with bowels. Their own bowels to be precise. For a true Samurai WarriorPoet, this is the ''only'' [[TakeAThirdOption third option]] you can take and [[HonorBeforeReason preserve your honor]].

''Seppuku'' is a centuries-old Japanese rite of suicide -- literally, "stomach cutting". ''Harakiri'' (often misspelled as "hari-kari" or worse) is a more in-speech term for the same thing. Many people have incorrectly believed that ''harakiri'' is a more vulgar term, but it is not true. The words actually share the same kanji: "seppuku" is the on-yomi reading of those kanji, while "harakiri" is the kun-yomi reading. How and why seppuku is to be performed, what it means, and so on depends on the historical era, gender, and context. TheThemeParkVersion, however, is this:

After a period of meditation, the samurai walks out before the witnesses and sits ''seiza'' on a white sheet or platform; a special knife is set before him and a stern-looking dude stands behind him with a raised sword. The samurai says whatever the drama necessitates, then rams the knife deep into his abdomen, curving up into his chest cavity, and slowly pulls it from left to right. The stern-looking dude (''kaishakunin'', or "second") is expected to be a sport and cut off his head before the samurai loses his composure. It's just bad suicide etiquette for the victim to show '''pain''' as he's disemboweling himself, after all. Bonus points if he can cut the head off in such a way that a tiny strap of skin still connects it to the body ([[Literature/HarryPotter Nearly Headless Nick]]-style) thus preventing it from rolling on the floor. How soon the "second" would do that depends of how much respect he had for the samurai; from having him do (and endure) the entire ritual, to (painlessly) off him as soon as he ''reaches'' for the knife (or a substitute object, like a fan, which is used for samurai who are not trusted to have a sharp object) before he ''actually touches'' it. Needless to say, commonly it fell something in betwen both extremes, but you get the idea.

[[ARareSentence Since disembowelling oneself is considered unladylike]], the female version of this, ''jigai'', is a little different: the suicidal woman sits ''seiza'', ties her legs together so they won't fall open scandalously after death, and [[SlashedThroat slices her jugular vein with a knife]]. It's mainly used when military defeat is imminent, [[BetterToDieThanBeKilled to go out with honor]] rather than suffer either a CruelAndUnusualDeath or a FateWorseThanDeath ([[RapePillageAndBurn amongst other things]]) at the hands of the invading army.

A similar practice, known as ''kagebara'' is a common dramatic device in Japanese theater. In this, a character comes onto the stage, proceeds to [[TheReasonYouSuckSpeech tell off a lord who isn't being particularly smart in his decisions]], and then open his robe to reveal he's ''already'' slit his belly and "punished" himself for his treasonous act. This is linked to ''kanshi'', or a retainer committing seppuku to protest an act by his lord.

The reason for wearing white in both cases is because [[WhiteShirtOfDeath it contrasts so well with red]]. If you're going to die, might as well die in style. White also symbolises death in Japanese culture, showing that one is ready to be buried.

This also counts as the most sincere way to say "I'm sorry", "I'm a dishonorable failure" or "BetterToDieThanBeKilled" to society at large. This is SeriousBusiness, people.

For the Wiki's purposes, ''seppuku'' covers a broad range of ritualized suicides. Basically, whenever a Japanese character (or vaguely Asian one) makes a big deal about how, why, and when they kill themselves, this is what's understood to be happening.

In what may or may not be related to this tradition, the World Health Organization ranks Japan ninth globally in reported suicides (the United States is 45th and the UK 60th, out of 95 candidates). In comparison to countries of similar wealth, these statistics indicate a different attitude toward suicide that might be evident in Japanese honour-centric culture and sensationalist entertainment.

In RealLife Japan, it isn't uncommon, though still shocking, for disgraced officials and politicians to do themselves in, albeit not according to ritual. When a celebrity kills themselves, expect more than a few dedicated fans to follow suit.

Compare LeaveBehindAPistol and BathSuicide for similarly ritualised suicide methods in the West. Sometimes AteHisGun may substitute edged utensils for method of self-termination.

As this is a DeathTrope, '''beware of unmarked spoilers'''.


[[folder:Anime and Manga]]
* In ''Manga/LoveHina'', at one point Motoko offers to help with the ritualized suicides of the {{Ronin}} who have not managed to get into Tokyo University. And after a failed attempt at femininity, she misinterprets one of Keitaro's comments as suggesting that she kill herself, and she asks Su to be her second. Thankfully she soon reverts to her normal self.
** [[SuicideAsComedy Something that makes]] [[GallowsHumor this dramatic scene hilarious]] is that Motoko is holding a sharpened knife near her abdomen: a "proper" woman would commit suicide by cutting open her jugular, as stated in the paragraphs above... so if she actually went through with it, [[FemininityFailure she would've failed at femininity]] ''[[FemininityFailure again]]''.
* Ranma's mother Nodoka in ''Manga/RanmaOneHalf'' is charged with carrying around the sword to be used by her as the ''kaishakunin'' [[http://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/RM36-111sepp.gif should her son or husband disgrace themselves]]. Luckily for them, she's not very good with the sword. Unluckily for them, she's ''dead serious'' about her duty. What pushes this into HonorBeforeReason territory (and would push Nodoka into AbusiveParents territory in any series that [[ComedicSociopathy took itself more seriously]]) is that the contract she is so dedicated to following literally consists of a verbal vow from Genma that "I will make Ranma a [[IWantToBeARealMan man among men]]", and a written contract consisting of "I will commit seppuku", signed with Genma's thumb-print and baby-Ranma's handprint.
** In the end, [[spoiler:she accepts Ranma's [[GenderBender female side]] (and it's implied that she forgives the whole "Ranko" deception) on the grounds that, regardless of what Ranma looks like, he's a man through and through. Unmanly ''behavior'' can still make her reach for her sword, though...]]
* ''Manga/LoneWolfAndCub'''s Ogami Itto was the head ''kaishakunin'' of the Shogun before they killed his wife and he became a {{Ronin}}, and in the story several characters are threatened with (and commit) Seppuku should they fail to capture Itto and Daigoro.
* Kumadori of ''Manga/OnePiece'' would frequently claim responsibility for failures that weren't his fault in the first place, and proceed to attempt seppuku -- only to always subconsciously [[InstantArmor harden his body]] and thus survive.
-->'''Kumadori''': I...I'm still alive!\\
'''Jabura''': [[CrowningMomentOfFunny And that's not good news!]]
* ''Manga/BlackLagoon'':
** In the anime, during the flashback segments of the submarine arc, it is revealed the Japanese army officer aboard the ship committed Seppuku rather than die of asphyxiation when it was obvious the submarine would never be able to surface again. (There was no mention of any Japanese officer in the manga.)
** [[spoiler:Yukio Washimine gives herself a ImpromptuTracheotomy with Ginji's katana after Revy kills him in the final episode. It counts as ''seppuku'' as not only she does it right after the death of her only remaining supporter, but it follows [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jigai the traditional suicide rite for women]]: piercing her own throat. Only Yukio, for obvious reasons, does it with a katana instead of a dagger.]]
* This is a common threat from Hijikata of ''Manga/{{Gintama}}''.
* [[{{Ronin}} Hatsu]] and [[TheTrickster Koon]] bicker about the others culture in ''Webcomic/TowerOfGod'', Koon asks if Hatsu's people still perform ''Halbok'', the Korean equivalent to ''seppuku''. Whereas Koon thinks it is a barbaric, idiotic rite, Hatsu believes it is one of the manliest things one can do. He then proceeds to call Koon a sissy for wearing ear-rings.
* In ''Manga/TheFiveStarStories'', Blreno, wracked with guilt over losing both the war against Colus and his entire battalion attempts Seppuku during an audience with his king, only for the king to knock the sword from his hand. Turns out the king is just glad he made it back alive and wants him to keep fighting to learn from his mistakes so he can improve, rather than kill himself over them.
* In ''VideoGame/{{Utawarerumono}}'' the heroes surround and overwhelm a cruel lord's castle. The lord's general, Benawi, realizes that they have lost and he urges his master to "die with honor" and offers to assisst him. The lord doesn't dare, so Benawi kills him himself. Then he unceremoniously tries to cut off his own head. The hero stops him and he asks if he should live in shame. [[GilliganCut Next scene he's feasting happily with the victorious army.]]
* Likely due to changing social mores and Japan's ludicrous suicide rate, it's becoming increasingly common in various Japanese media to deconstruct this. ''Film/TheTwilightSamurai'' (''Tasogare Seibei'' in Japan) features a samurai ordered to kill himself when his master is dishonored; he refuses, and is given a death sentence to be carried out by the title character. Seibei does not particularly hold it against the man that he refuses to kill himself: he simply has been ordered to do something, and he has children and an ailing mother to care for.
* Likewise, Kenshin Himura of ''Manga/RurouniKenshin'' fame has said outright that he began his life as a wanderer as an alternative to suicide, and encourages others to follow his path of atonement. His reasoning is simply that killing himself helps no one and he can do much more good alive. A similar {{Aesop}} pops up in ''VideoGame/TalesOfSymphonia'': all life has value, and death solves nothing.
** Towards the end of the Ganryu Takeda mini-arc, [[spoiler:Megumi was about to commit ''jigai'' with a dagger that Aoshi had given her, thinking the Kenshin-gumi had perished at the hands of the Oniwabashu. Sanosuke gives her a GetAHoldOfYourselfMan to stop her]].
** Also, [[spoiler:VillainousCrossdresser Kamatari]] tries to kill himself through ''jigai'' after losing to [[spoiler:Kaoru and Misao]]. The latter has to knock him out to keep him from taking his own life. Later on his former comrade Chou lies to him about Shishio's last wish so he won't try to kill himself again, now that his master and one-sided crush is dead.
** Shishio's right hand man Houji ends up killing himself in prison after he realizes that he won't be granted a fair trial where he could defend the ideals of his late master. [[DyingMomentOfAwesome He slit his throat and as he was dying he wrote "This world is dead to me now. I go to follow my master to hell." to the wall of his prison cell. With his own blood.]]
** Spoofed on the "About the Author" page of volume four of the manga. Creator/NobuhiroWatsuki draws himself doing this as punishment for failing to live up to a promise he made in volume two. With Kenshin as ''kaishakunin''.
* Early in ''Manga/NurarihyonNoMago'', Gyuuki tries to do this after revealing why he plotted to kill Rikuo, in order to preserve the honor of the Nura clan. However, Rikuo (in his Nurarihyon form) stops him by breaking the blade off his sword, understanding his reasons for doing so.
* In ''Manga/{{Naruto}}'' Kakashi's father Sakumo commits seppuku, having failed a mission as a result of going to save his friends, and being ostracized for his failure, ''even by those he saved''. The act is not witnessed, but a young Kakashi finds his father's body after the deed is done.
** In a filler episode, Koumei is ordered to commit seppuku as the sentence for being behind the cursed warrior incidents [[spoiler:despite being innocent]]. Later in the arc, in a flashback [[spoiler:Toki, seeing her brother dying, contemplates committing seppuku, but his spirit inspires her to keep on living]]. The whole arc was in fact full of this - when Shishima is unable to convince the Hokage to accept his mission, he pulls out a knife and [[spoiler: stabs himself in the... moneybags? They were tied to his stomach, and the reactions of Tsunade and Shizune are [[CrowningMomentOfFunny truly priceless.]]]]
* Kiku Honda aka the MoeAnthropomorphism of ''Japan'' tries to kill himself through seppuku in the second strip of ''Webcomic/AxisPowersHetalia'', thinking it's the standard way to reply when captured. He's ''shocked'' when his partners, Germany and Italy, react differently.
* In ''Manga/UruseiYatsura'', There are a couple of manga chapters/TV episodes that end with Shuutaro Mendou threatening to commit suicide out of shame, though he never follows through for various reasons (mostly concerning a cloud of girls who physically restrain him from doing so).
* In ''Manga/GetBackers'', three different characters attempt suicide during the IL arc, but Juubei's the one everyone compares to a samurai. He tries to kill his best friend and "lord," Kazuki, and, when he loses that fight, begs Kazuki to kill him. When Kazuki refuses, he tries to do it himself and tells Kazuki he always intended to kill himself, win or lose, as atonement.
* Then there is Kai Suwabara from ''Manga/YakitateJapan'', who wanted to commit seppuku because of his inability to win against Azuma, after several tries. He is only stopped because his girlfriend says that she is pregnant and it would bring greater shame to leave her as an alone mother. [[spoiler:She isn't. They have, after all, just hugged eachother.]]
* Seppuku is referenced, quite appropriately, in ''VideoGame/HarukanaruTokiNoNakaDe'''s first OAV and the TV series, where certain characters wonder whether [[{{Samurai}} Minamoto no Yorihisa]] might do this to himself in case he fails to protect the Miko.
* In ''Harakiri'', a one-shot by Shintaro Kago, is about girls performing seppuku, although it's more of a form of self-mutilation than anything.
* Invoked in ''Anime/{{K}}: Stray Dog Story''. After his master dies, Kuroh, a somewhat anachronistic modern samurai, tells the old woman next door about his plan to retrieve his late master's sword and use it to fulfill his late master's dying wish. The old woman asks what he will do if he doesn't manage to make it happen, and he says he will commit harakiri. The old woman just smiles and says, "I don't think that's what the Ichigen Miwa I knew would want you to do."
* The cause of [[Anime/CodeGeass Japanese Prime Minister Genbu Kururugi's]] death, after he fails to stop the invasion of Britannia. [[spoiler:Officially, anyway. Actually, he was stabbed to death by [[SelfMadeOrphan his pre-teen son Suzaku]], in the middle of a heated discussion where the kid tried to dissuade his dad from [[HonorBeforeReason destroying Japan itself]] by leading a last desperate attack on the enemy.]]
** Invoked by a racist commander in ''Anime/CodeGeassAkitoTheExiled'', who justifies sending Japanese soldiers on suicide missions because "Elevens ''love'' to kill themselves".
* ''Anime/ValvraveTheLiberator'', by the same writer as Geass, has the titular HumongousMecha's special weapon - the ''harakiri blade''. The robot plunges its sword through it's midsection and withdraws it with a force powerful enough to take out a fleet of battleships. It sounds just plain ridiculous, until you realize that these are the secret hidden weapons that save JIOR, which is really just Japan under a different name... and it might just be CrossingTheLineTwice into a critique of the whole cultural-suicide-fixation thing. JIOR was also developing them in secret, while telling the rest of the world they were completely pacifist and neutral.
* The hentai manga ''Graduation and Beheading Ceremony'' features something similar, only the kids in question die by ripping each other's hearts out (having been trained for whatever reason to look forward to their impending deaths). [[GallowsHumor That death is but one of many]], [[SerialEscalation and it is not the most memorable]].
** And in ''Applicant for Death'' by the same artist, [[spoiler: a girl commits ''seppuku'' while having sex with her brother's decapitated corpse while his head watches.]]
* ''Manga/TheLegendOfKoizumi'': [[spoiler:When Shinzo Abe fails in an attempt to pass the missing Koizumi's son Kotaro off as his father in a mahjong match with Vladimir Putin, he commits seppuku in front of his maid.]]
* Performed at the beginning of the first issue of ''Mai-Chan's Daily Life'' as an exhibition piece. [[spoiler:Since the main character has a HealingFactor, she survives the experience, but earns the mockery and abuse of her handler for failing to complete the ritual and chop off her own head before fainting from blood loss, setting the tone for one hell of a sadistic series]].
* In ''Manga/FistOfTheNorthStar'', Ryuga commits kagebara before his battle with Kenshiro. Knowing defeat was inevitable especially against the adopted younger brother of Toki (who he had killed only days earlier), Ryuga felt it was better to FaceDeathWithDignity.
* In the ''Anime/LupinIIIRedJacket'' episode "Kooky Kabuki", Goemon betrays Lupin to help a woman, is in turn betrayed himself, and decides seppuku is the only way he can make amends, with Lupin himself doing the beheading part. Lupin can't bear to behead his friend, so he instead punches him, leading to a fist fight and a reconciliation.
* In ''Manga/BladeOfTheImmortal'', [[spoiler:Kensui]] commits sepukku after being ordered to betray [[spoiler:Anotsu]], who acts as his second. Later [[spoiler:Hisoka]] follows by cutting her throat.
** Hibaki is given a month before he is obligated to commit seppuku after failing to prevent an attack on the castle. He uses it to hunt down the remaining Itto-ryu. [[spoiler:During this time, his wife and son kill themselves so they won't be used as hostages.]]
* BoysLoveGenre ShowWithinAShow ''Anime/WinterCicada'' [[spoiler:ends with Akizuki committing seppuku and Kusaka doing the same after finding his body.]]
* In episode 4 of ''Anime/SamuraiChamploo'', a noble {{Yakuza}} leader does this as an act of defiance/taking a third option between his son being killed and losing his territory. At the end of the episode, one of his former lieutenants who had joined his unpleasant rival redeems himself by committing [[SuicideByCop Suicide by Mugen]].
* In ''Manga/{{Ooku}} The Inner Chambers,'' a number of retainers follow Shogun Iemitsu into death. The47Ronin also make an appearance later.
* Parodied in ''Manga/CodenameSailorV'': [[MalaProper Sailor V]], pissed at the MonsterOfTheWeek, sentences him to this, and then [[HalfTheManheUsedToBe cuts him in two]], with Artemis pointing out it's not how it's done.
* ''Anime/MobileSuitGundamUnicorn'' features a HumongousMecha doing this with the barrel of a ''sniper rifle''. In context he was trying to pierce the reactor and blow up the enemies who were surrounding him, but the pose he does it in is meant to be evocative of seppuku.
* In ''Anime/YuGiOh5Ds'', Mizoguchi with his Samurai deck has a card called "Resolve of the Lord and Retainer". The illustration has a man about to commit seppuku, and it inflicts damage to both players by making a blade appear in their hands [[ImpaledPalm with which they stab themselves.]]
* In the anime adaptation of ''Manga/DeathNote'', [[spoiler:Mikami gives himself an ImpromptuTracheotomy ''with a pen'' after Light Yagami reveals his true nature, the former losing faith after the latter's [[VillainousBreakdown spectacular breakdown]]]].
* Attempted by Ira Gamagoori in ''Anime/KillLaKill'', after he loses to Ryuko. [[PetTheDog Satsuki, however]], [[InterruptedSuicide stops him]].
* In ''LightNovel/{{Kampfer}}'', there's a line of [[CreepyDoll very creepy-looking stuffed animals]] that look like they committed {{seppuku}}, with their intestines sticking out and all; two of their names translate to ''Suicide Tiger'' and ''Suicide Black Rabbit''. One of the girls in Natsuru's UnwantedHarem has a room ''full'' of them, and Natsuru once has to spend the night there...
* In Manga/{{Bleach}}, [[spoiler: Giselle Gewelle]] uses her [[BloodMagic po]][[PeoplePuppets wers]] to [[PsychicAssistedSuicide force a bunch of guys to kill themselves]] like this.
-->[[spoiler: '''Giselle''']]: "Okay, everyone! Seppuku ~"
* In the Manga/{{X 1999}} TV series, [[spoiler: Hinoto performs ''jigai'' in the Dream Scape to kill both herself ''and'' [[TakingYouWithMe her]] [[SuperpoweredEvilSide Dark Self]]. As a bonus, Hinoto's body appears mortally wounded in the Real World - quite the feat, considering she's [[IllGirl crippled, deaf and blind]] in here.]]
* [[spoiler:Mimori Togo]] from ''Anime/YukiYunaIsAHero'' attempted to pull ''jigai'' but failed [[spoiler: because her FairyCompanion got in the way.]] She tried suicide in other manners but [[spoiler:her fairy always prevented her.]] When she reveals the AwfulTruth to two of her friends, she does it by attempting ''jigai'' again.
* In a ''Manga/DetectiveConan'' case, a female culprit grabs a ''katana'' that belongs to her husband [[spoiler: and victim]] and points it at her neck as if she's about to commit ''jigai'' with it. Then [[VillainousBreakdown she changes her mind]] and [[UnstoppableRage starts to madly swing it around]], but [[YamatoNadeshiko another woman]] [[LadyOfWar who is a kendo expert]] manages to stop her. [[CrowningMomentOfAwesome Using only]] [[PaperFanOfDoom a paper fan]]. Then, [[NervesOfSteel she gives the culprit]] a TheReasonYouSuckSpeech and disuades her from trying to kill herself again. [[spoiler: The second woman is Shizuka Hattori (nèe Ikenami), Heiji's AlmightyMom.]]
* In ''Manga/{{Basilisk}}'', the deaths of [[spoiler: the StarCrossedLovers Oboro and Gennosuke]] don't follow the rituals ([[spoiler: she stabs herself in the chest and he later does the same]]) but count as this since [[spoiler: Oboro killed 'self to not have to kill Gennosuke in a fixed duel ''and'' to free herself from Lady Ofuku's plans]] and [[spoiler: Gennosuke commited suicide after Oboro's death, having lost literally ''everything'' in this CrapsackWorld despite being the SoleSurvivor.]]
* The hilariously infamous [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7vhOjmwlB2g "POTATO-DONO!"]] [[LetsMeetTheMeat scene]] from ''Anime/DaiMahouTouge'' is a rather... epic parody of this. "Potato-dono" (Mr. Potato) speaks like an old-school samurai, is seen sitting in ''seiza'' in front of a peeler in a way that mirrors a samurai preparing to go through seppuku (white blanket included!), peels himself rather epically to encourage the other talking veggies and ultimately is thrown into the curry pot by a carrot (as a sort-of ''kaishakunin''). He even gets to GoOutWithASmile as he falls, saluting his fellow vegetables before "dying".
* Seppuku is referenced in ''Manga/{{Drifters}}''. Shimazu Toyohisa convinces a group of Orte soldiers to surrender after he has their backs to the wall. Although Toyohisa promised to spare the surrendering soldiers, he intended for the Orte commander to commit seppuku with himself acting as his kaishakunin. Being from the Sengoku era, Toyohisa offered this so that the commander and his forces would keep their honor after the defeat, but the soldier was horrified that Toyohisa would demand such a barbaric thing from him. Shimazu decides then that the Orte are honorless and simply slaughters all of them.
* In ''Manga/MedakaBox'', Zenkichi has to turn down his classmate Emukae's long-standing LoveConfession and chooses to do so in possibly the most manly and over-the-top fashion ever: to repay the emotional pain she's suffered from his indecision, he inflicts equal physical pain upon himself by committing ''seppuku'' right then and there, all while reassuring her that she's a wonderful person who deserves all the love in the world, but he can't be the one to give it because already in love with Medaka. However, he doesn't die because their teammate Kumagawa can "heal" him by [[RetGone erasing the injuries from existence]].

[[folder:Comic Books]]
* At the end of the ''Franchise/{{Tintin}}'' story ''The Blue Lotus'', it's stated that BigBad Mitsuhirato committed hara-kiri (as it was usually known in the West at the time).
* Parodied in the Latin-American comic strip of TheSeventies ''ComicStrip/{{Mafalda}}'':
--> '''[[HonestJohnsDealership Manolito]]''': I heard that the Japanese slice their bellies open and FWOOOSH [makes a gesture on his stomach] they commit [[{{Malaproper}} Ikebana]]!
--> '''[[LittleMissSnarker Mafalda]]''': What the Hell, that's hara-kiri! Ikebana has to do with flowers! (leaves)
--> '''Manolito''': That's their ''wake'', you MORON!
** Later when Felipe confirms the act is indeed named hara-kiri, Manolito says that having to admit that he was wrong is "pride's hara-kiri".
* Appears regularly in ''Comicbook/UsagiYojimbo'', since the series is based on historical Japan.
** A unique case is Usagi finding a town haunted by the ghost of a general who was killed before he could complete the ceremony. Usagi waits for the ghost to make his nightly arrival, respectfully saying they both served the same lord and "I would be honored to be your second." As the ghost makes the belly cuts, Usagi uses his sword (blessed in holy water) to "behead" the spirit and finally let the general be at peace.
* In an issue of ''Comicbook/{{Daredevil}}'' (set just before Shadowland), DD is the head of The Hand, a cult of ninjas. One of his lieutenants is getting too ambitious and would rather be the head, so some of DD's other lieutenants kill him, and later claim he committed suppuku since he failed to become leader of The Hand.
* This is an important plotpoint in ''Comicbook/{{Ronin}}''.
* In the very first issue of ''Comicbook/{{Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles|Mirage}}'' the four heroes offer Shredder the chance to commit Seppuku so that he may die with honor. (In most versions of the Turtles' continuity, the term ''bushido'' is used liberally and is a code that can be followed by Ninja as well as Samurai.) Instead [[TakingYouWithMe Shredder opts to blow them all up with a grenade]].
* In one ''ComicStrip/CalvinAndHobbes'' strip, Calvin asks Hobbes if this would be the appropriate response to breaking his father's prized binoculars, or if running away from home would be sufficient. Hobbes suggests both.
* In ''ComicBook/{{Noob}}'', most of comic 9 consists of a battle in which each side's commander is randomly chosen among participants. The randomly chosen commander for the Empire is ManipulativeBitch and DirtyCoward Gaea, whose strategy inevitably includes WeHaveReserves. At the end of the battle, the protagonists decide to participate in another battle and Omega Zell, who hates Gaea, [[TemptingFate comments that there's no way the next commander of their side can be any worse than her]]. Cut to the last panel of the comic showing the Empire commander being chosen for the next battle: it's Sparadrap, everyone's favorite StupidGood KindheartedSimpleton and Omega Zell is seen in the background pointing a dagger towards his own stomach.
* In "Vow of the Samurai" in ''ComicBook/JonahHex'' #39 (original series), a samurai commits hara-kiri after he discovers that his daughter has had a child with an outlaw. He forces Jonah to fulfill an oath he made earlier by acting as kaishakunin and cutting his head off.

[[folder:Fan Fiction]]
* An ''Manga/InuYasha'' one-shot, ''[[https://www.fanfiction.net/s/6151695/1/Sisters-Forever Sisters, Forever]]'', states that Kikyo's father, blaming himself for her mother's death, left a young Kaede in Kikyo's care before committing seppuku.
* In ''Fanfic/SystemRestore'', Kuzuryu tries this for reasons similar to the ''VisualNovel/SuperDanganRonpa2'' example below, but in this fic, he fails because [[spoiler:his hands are badly burned from a failed attempt to save Pekoyama's life]].
* In a flashback in Episode 74 of ''FanFic/SonicXDarkChaos'', Cosmo's mother Hertia committed seppeku with a plasma knife after Maledict devolved her to her original form. It's actually a case of BetterToDieThanBeKilled - Maledict explicitly gave her the choice between suicide or a FateWorseThanDeath. And in an interesting case of ShownTheirWork, Maledict ends her suffering by decapitating her as well.
* Discussed (semi-jokingly) by Shinji in ''Fanfic/DoingItRightThisTime'', as he is rather sore about being essentially press-ganged into being Kaworu's ''kaishakunin'', and avows that if they end up going through the whole "ICannotSelfTerminate" thing again [[PeggySue this time around]] he's going to make him observe the proper ceremonies first.
* Parodied in the ''Literature/{{Discworld}}'' of Creator/AAPessimal. The Prospectus issued as a guide to prospective parents and students of the Assassins' guild School devotes [[https://www.fanfiction.net/s/10383608/3/The-Prospectus a proud chapter]] to its brand-new Agatean Studies Department. Set texts are issued to students explaining the purpose and philosophy underlying seppuko. however, titles like ''Today is a Good Day for '''Somebody Else''' to Commit Seppuko'' suggest the particular slant the assassins put on the practice. Assisted seppuko for others, most certainly...

* ''Film/ThirteenAssassins'' has a few instances of seppuku, including one which kicks off the whole plot.
* ''Film/{{Airplane}}'': PlayedForLaughs ([[RapidFireComedy as is pretty much everything else in the film]]) when a Japanese general does this rather than listen to another one of [[TheBore Ted's stories.]]
* ''Film/{{Harakiri}}'' (1962) is a black and white JidaiGeki and massive TakeThat to the seppuku ritual and its portrayal in fiction. In it, {{ronin}} request permission of ''daimyo'' (local magistrates) to kill themselves and be buried on their property, hoping to be turned away and given sympathy money; one young samurai is called on the bluff and forced to complete the ritual -- ''with a blunt stick of bamboo.'' Bloody, poetic justice is enacted by [[spoiler:the young samurai's father-in-law, who realised his son-in-law had already sold his swords to pay for medicine for his sick wife and child. The ''entire movie'' revolves around the father's revenge, although at the end he shows his honour by cutting his belly just before his enemies gun him down.]] It is an ''EXTREMELY'' good movie.
* In ''Film/HaroldAndMaude'', this is how Harold stages one of his elaborate fake suicides. Amusingly, instead of scaring off his would-be date, as intended, she recognizes it as a performance and joins in.
* In ''Film/TheHouseWhereEvilDwells'', an American couple and their best friend are possessed by the spirit of three Japanese people who haunt the house the couple moved into when the man was transferred to Japan. Due to the possession, the two guys eventually fight due to the wife and friend's affair, the man killing the friend, then his wife, then he commits seppuku. ''Then'' the spirits get up and leave the bodies lying on the floor.
* In the film version of ''Film/TheHungerGames'', [[spoiler: Seneca, having been in charge of the Games and allowing two winners, is lead to a room, with a bowl of the poisonous nightshade berries that Katniss used to save herself and Peeta.]]
* General Hasegawa from ''Film/TheLastSamurai'', a member of the samurai class who leads the modernized army against the rebels, commits seppuku after his forces lose the battle. Katsumoto, the opposing leader and one of his old friends, is "honored to take his head". Algren, who sees it from the back, misses the stomach-cutting, and thus thinks it was just Katsumoto murdering an unarmed man.
** Later, [[spoiler:Algren helps the defeated Katsumoto kill himself after the samurai are horribly slaughtered in a charge against a number of Gatling guns. This is in the understanding that he is taking his own life after his service to his Emperor is complete, the samurai rebellion crushed, which, really, Katsumoto knew was going to happen anyway. His sacrifice succeeds: the Emperor finally pushes back against the Westernization of Japan.]]
** This is mentioned after Katsumoto is attacked by assassins during a theater performance, when Algren suspects the Emperor. Katsumoto rejects the idea, saying that if the Emperor wants his life, all he has to do is ask.
* ''Film/LettersFromIwoJima'' contains a lot of this, including various suicides by grenade.
* In ''Film/LiarLiar'', Fletcher stabs himself in the gut with his phone after he accidentally hung up on a judge.
* Creator/YukioMishima had an obsession with this as shown in ''Film/MishimaALifeInFourChapters''.
* ''Film/{{Ran}}'' includes several instances of seppuku, but perhaps the most significant is [[spoiler:the one that Lord Hidetora never commits. He can't, because his sword is broken and he is unable find another blade to do it with. Instead he goes insane inside his burning castle.]]
* Seppuku and the legend of The47Ronin are spoken about in the (distinctly non-Japanese film) ''Film/{{Ronin}}''.
* Played for laughs in ''Film/ScaryMovie4'': The Japanese UN delegate runs himself through after the President accidentally uses an alien weapon to remove his clothes.
* In ''Film/{{Serenity}}'', the Operative references both ''seppuku'' and Roman generals falling on their swords when talking with a [[YouHaveFailedMe scientist who has screwed up hardcore.]] When said scientist doesn't take the hint, the Operative forcefully helps him out with regaining his lost honor.
* In ''Film/RikiOhTheStoryOfRicky'' an evil minion commits seppuku and then ''tries to strangle the hero with his intestines.'' The rest of the movie has the same {{Gorn}} vibe.
** It becomes [[{{Narm}} absolutely hilarious]] when the assistant warden in the dub shouts:
--->"Alright, you got a lotta guts Oscar!!"
* ''Film/TokyoGorePolice'' has a spoof PSA decrying the practice, filmed in the usual surreal Japanese advertisement fashion. In it, a disgraced businessman is egged on into Hara-Kiri, by both his boss and a man covered in blue spots. He commits it, and is then shown with his intestines pouring out (a deliberate SpecialEffectFailure), before reminding us that it's actually suicide.
* In ''Film/TheWolverine'' the Japanese military leaders preferred to die with honor through this rather than in [[UsefulNotes/AtomicBombingsOfHiroshimaAndNagasaki the atomic explosion that was coming.]]
* In ''Film/{{Machete}}'', when Machete mortally wounds [[BigBad Torrez]], Torrez scornfully finishes himself off this way, to deny Machete to glory of killing him. Torrez has to pause, saying it hurts more than he thought it would, before pulling the blade all the way through.
* In ''Film/ShowdownInLittleTokyo'', the DamselInDistress Minako attempts to commit this after the BigBad is strongly implied to have raped her.
* ''Film/KinjiteForbiddenSubjects'' ends [[{{DownerEnding}} on a dark note]] because [[{{BreakTheCutie}} the little Japanese girl]] that [[{{CowboyCop}} Charles Bronson's character]] had saved from child prostitution uses this method of expiating her shame at [[{{DefiledForever}} having been raped]].
* Obviously, this takes place in ''Film/FortySevenRonin'' (a very, ''very'' fictionalised version of the story). [[spoiler: Kai, the half-MightyWhitey protagonist, goes through it with the ronin themselves.]]
* Ditto ''Film/The47Ronin'', the 1941 Japanese version of the story. Asano is forced to commit seppuku at the beginning of the story. The 47 ronin are forced to commit it at the end, after finally getting revenge for their master and killing Lord Kira.
* After the remaining villain Yamashita is defeated in a duel in ''Film/SamuraiCop'', he performs a seppuku in accordance with his samurai code.
* Done by the Japanese commanders at Okinawa at the end of ''Film/HacksawRidge'' to demonstrate that the Japanese have finally lost the battle and aren't about to commit another suicidal charge against the Americans.

* In ''Literature/TheManchurianCandidate'', the death of [[spoiler: Raymond]] has undertones of this. After [[spoiler: breaking out of his mind control at the last minute and shooting the Soviet conspirators, he explains himself to his commanding officer before shooting himself in the head. Said officer, Marco, actually orders him to committ suicide rather than go on trial for the murders he did not willingly commit.]]
* A similar ritual is observed in ''Tsurannuanni,'' the Oriental FantasyCounterpartCulture in ''Literature/TheRiftwarCycle''. For example, in ''Daughter of the Empire'', Papewaio asks permission to fall on his sword for entering the family's sacred grove (the alternative being a decidedly less honorable hanging).
* Several characters in Jessica Amanda Salmonson's ''Tomoe Gozen Saga''[[spoiler:, including the title character's husband]].
* In ''Literature/AlyzonWhitestarr'' by Creator/IsobelleCarmody, Alyzon researches seppuku as part of an assignment.
* As seen in a textbook example of the act in the novel ''Warrior: Coupe'' (and occasionally brought up in later ones), the tradition is alive and well in the 31st century in the Draconis Combine of the ''TabletopGame/BattleTech'' universe.
** A stronger dramatic example would be in the novel ''Wolves On The Border'', with the seppuku at the end [[ChekhovsGun an inevitable consequence]] of an act of kindness at the very beginning. Notable for deviating from the absolute tradition of the act (the second does not have a sword, using a more modern weapon) as well as effectively ''causing an entire war'' unto itself, with repercussions all the way into the novel ''Wolf Pack'' and beyond.
** This happens again in ''Wolf Pack'', except that it's happening to the Coordinator of the Draconis Combine, who put himself into a situation which would have weakened his nation and the entire Inner Sphere no matter how it ended...[[TakeAThirdOption unless he died before this no-win scenario played out]].
** A woman's version of the event, as described above, is set up in ''Grave Covenant'', broadcast live across the entire capital planet of the Draconis Combine. Unusual in that she is given a second, in the person of the man who saved her life from assassins. While it's stated the broadcast is more for political show than an actual instance of the act (the woman involved was never meant to take her own life), the people involved go from playing their parts to living them, and are interrupted ''very'' dramatically before the act can take place.
* As anyone would expect, seppuku is a Very SeriousBusiness Indeed in ''Literature/{{Shogun}}'':
** Early in the novel, at the end of a battle a small group of samurai found themselves surrounded by the victors, and having no chance to escape or even cause meaningful damage. Thus, they quickly paired off and began performing a hasty form of seppuku, with the survivors then pairing off until only one remained. At that point, one of the victorious samurai stepped forward and helped the last maintain his honor. The victors treated this with full respect and the bodies were treated with full honor for their act.
** [[spoiler: John "Anjin" Blackthorne]]'s attempt at seppuku is a life-changing event that wins him the respect of the other samurai, specially since he did it to save a whole village from mass execution and to prove a point to said samurai.
** Now Hatamoto (a trusted advisor) and head of a household, Blackthorne catches and guts a pheasant, intending to have a Western-style feast and leaving it out to ripen. Trouble is, with events unfolding with Toranaga, Omi, Mariko and Yabu, he forgets all about it and it starts to rot and attract flies - a cardinal sin in Japan as it upsets the village's harmony. As Blackthorne has given orders no-one touch it bar him, one old gardener volunteers to dispose of it, knowing full well he must then commit {{seppuku}} for disobeying Blackthorne's instructions. Blackthorne is aghast and wracked with guilt and rage when he finds out, but Toranaga makes clear that not only was the old gardener in immense pain from arthritis and [[FaceDeathWithDignity proud to serve Blackthorne to the point of death]], he even dispatched one of his own samurai [[AGoodWayToDie to make the death as swift and honourable as possible]].
** Toranaga's entire BatmanGambit in Osaka hangs or falls on [[spoiler:Mariko]]'s seppuku. [[spoiler: Mariko ultimately goes through, openly stating that her death shall be seen as seppuku before throwing herself in a fire, so Toranaga wins.]]
** Towards the end, [[spoiler: [[SmugSnake Yabu]] has [[TheStarscream his treachery]] revealed at a time [[YouHaveOutlivedYourUsefulness when he has also ceased to be useful]], and is ordered to do this by Toranaga. For all his many faults, everyone who attended the suicide said [[FaceDeathWithDignity his was the most dignified and graceful they had ever seen]].]]
* ''Literature/TalesOfTheOtori'': A fantasy set in a world based on Sengoku period Japan, also plays this as SeriousBusiness.
* In the Creator/MichaelCrichton thriller ''Literature/RisingSun'', the amoral Japanese executive who was behind all the murder and cover ups of the story asks for a moment alone to collect himself after indisputable evidence of his guilt is presented. When he is left alone, he jumps off the very tall balcony he's on and into wet cement, killing himself. Interestingly, the protagonists (who are LA police officers) knew exactly what he was about to do, and let him do it on purpose (the evidence they had likely wouldn't have held up in trial, due to experimental techniques).
* ''Literature/QuidditchThroughTheAges'', a [[{{Defictionalization}} defictionalized]] ''Literature/HarryPotter'' book, has a non-fatal version: Apparently Japanese [[FictionalSport Quidditch]] players tend to destroy their brooms should they lose a match. Costly, yes, but not fatal. The international Quidditch community considers it a waste of good wood.
* The CorruptCorporateExecutive who instigated a war between the United States and Japan in Creator/TomClancy's ''[[Literature/JackRyan Debt of Honor]]'', when captured, asks for a few moments alone to prepare himself for capture. His request is refused, however, and the general capturing even says that he is not allowed to have that particular escape.
* In ''Literature/TheBible'', King Saul fell on his sword to avoid being captured by the Philistines.
* In the Literature/FightingFantasy gamebook ''Sword of the Samurai'', where the Player Character is -- what else? -- a Samurai -- you do this automatically if your Honor Score drops to 0 (which means, naturally, you lose).
* ''Atrocity Week'' by Andrew [=McCoy=]. The wife of a Japanese businessman kills herself in the ''jigai'' manner [[DefiledForever after being raped by a guerrilla raiding party]]. No one tries to stop her, figuring she'll just do it later when they're not around.
* A CultureClash example occurs in ''Literature/{{Temeraire}}''. Lawrence is facing execution in Japan for trespassing; however, his host offers to let him commit Seppuku in order to preserve his honor (and the host's honor). Lawrence is aghast at the suggestion since as a devout Christian and an OfficerAndAGentleman he regards suicide as a cowardly act and (more importantly) a mortal sin.
* In ''Discworld/InterestingTimes'', the Agatean Empire's equivalent to Cut-Me-Own-Throat Dibbler is named Disembowel-Myself-Honorably Dhibala in reference to this. Nobody actually performs seppuku in the book, though, the more common method of suicide being telling Cohen the Barbarian [[ExactWords you would rather die than betray your Emperor.]]
* The main villain of the ''Literature/JamesBond'' novel ''Literature/TheManWithTheRedTattoo'' has dedicated himself to follow the old Samurai ethics, and in the climax, he follows his failure to defeat Bond in a duel with seppuku.
* In the ''Literature/ChooseYourOwnAdventure'' book ''Secret of the Ninja'', TheProtagonist and their best friend Danai pull TimeTravel to evade a powerful curse. One of the paths leads them to meet the samurai Sashami, who's about to abandon a village he was ordered to protect since he knows it's a hopeless mission. Choosing to run away with him will lead to the three being caught by a local lord who will give them a TheReasonYouSuckSpeech, force the time travelers to become his servants, and order Sashami to commit seppuku as punishment. [[note]](Conversely, helping the guy to fight back will lead to the group's victory and a Good End where he lives to tell and the protagonists undo the curse.)[[/note]]

[[folder:Live Action TV]]
* A ([[BlatantLies supposedly]]) RippedFromTheHeadlines case from ''Series/OneThousandWaysToDie'' features a Japanese rock star who, after causing [[FatalMethodActing the death of his group's lead singer onstage]] ([[ContinuityNod also featured earlier]]) and then thinking of himself as a total disgrace for the music industry, kills himself through ''seppuku''. He slits his belly open with a knife, and then one of his bandmates (acting as his ''kaishakunnin'') [[OffWithHisHead decapitates him.]] The case itself is called "Bull-Shido", a PunnyName based on ''bushido'' and [[PrecisionFStrike "bullshit"]].
* In one skit on ''ComedyInc'', a Japanese man is playing golf and misses a visibly easy shot. He then proceeds to break his golf bat and uses it to commit seppuku. His two white opponents watch him with complete composure; once he’s dead, one of them says, ‘Well, there goes the deal.’
* Done in a {{Flashback}} in ''Series/{{Highlander}}: The Series'', when Duncan washes up on a Japanese island after his ship sinks in a storm. During that [[HollywoodMedievalJapan time]], all ''gaijin'' were supposed to be killed on sight by order of the Emperor, but a local lord takes him in instead, even teaching him some Japanese ways. When the Emperor finds out, he lets the lord know his displeasure. The lord then asks Duncan to help him commit seppuku, who is, at first, reluctant, but then agrees to do the honor of chopping the head. He gets to keep the sword too, which is what he uses throughout the show.
* On ''Series/HowIMetYourMother'' Barney mimes committing suicide several times when he feels Ted and Robin are being too [[SickeninglySweethearts lovey-dovey]] with each other; at one point this includes miming seppuku.
* In the TV adaptation of ''Series/TheManInTheHighCastle'', seppuku is still used in Imperial Japan and its territories in the former US. An Imperial Guard officer is seen committing public seppuku after [[spoiler:the crown prince's attempted assassination]], and Kido is expected to do so if he can't find the would-be assassin.
* Mentioned in ''Series/MysteryScienceTheater3000'' occasionally by Tom Servo, although he was asking for help due to having nonfunctional arms. (This was, of course, a reaction to the movie that week being particularly bad.)
* In the ''Series/RedDwarf'' episode "Back to Reality", one of the Despair Squid's victims kills himself in this manner.
** In the Series 10 episode ''The Beginning'' a simulant who has failed the boss thinks he's being told to do this and does. Then the exasperated boss explains he was actually only asking him to clean his sword.
* One episode of ''Series/StarTrekTheNextGeneration'' had Worf getting crippled from the waist down by a falling crate. Since he's [[ProudWarriorRaceGuy a Klingon]], he feels that the only honorable thing for him to do would be to commit ritual suicide, and asks Riker to be his second. Everyone aboard objects strenuously, and Worf is nearly convinced that life is still worth living -- Until a rogue surgeon offers him a possibly deadly operation, [[DebateAndSwitch which he almost instantly takes them up on]], and it works perfectly.
** Technically, Worf was almost convinced to live when Riker found out that, according to Klingon tradition, Worf's second was supposed to be his six-year-old son Alexander. Also, the operation is actually botched; Worf only survives because Klingons are MadeOfIron, and he hadn't quite hurt himself badly enough for his backup spinal cord to kick in.
** Worf also attempts this in "Night Terrors", when the ''Enterprise'' is stuck in a [[NegativeSpaceWedgie Tyken's Rift]] and the crew are faced with the prospect of being slowly driven insane by a lack of REM sleep. Troi manages to stop him just before he goes through with it.
** Worf's brother, Kurn asks that Worf assist him in performing this ritual after Worf dishonors his family in ''[[Series/StarTrekDeepSpaceNine Deep Space Nine]]''. Dax realizes Worf's intent and tries to stop it, just a moment too late. Odo claims that Worf could be charged with murder if Kurn doesn't survive.
** Also from [=DS9=], the Jem'Hadar are a species born and bred to serve the Founders, a race of GodGuise shapeshifters. The Jem'Hadar were programmed from birth to revere their masters, and would commit suicide en masse if a Founder died on their watch. ("The Ship)
* In the [=WW2=] period drama ''Series/{{Tenko}}'' the Japanese internment camp guard [[TheDragon Sato]] commits seppuku rather than acknowledge the allied victory. It's a strangely chilling, yet dignified, scene.
* An American admiral stationed in Japan commits suicide in the ''Series/{{JAG}}'' episode "Innocence" for what he perceived to be a failure on his part. The characters can't help but comment on how Japanese it all was.
* In the Japanese series ''Series/{{Oshin}}'', one of the many pains that Shin ''"Oshin"'' Tanekura goes through is [[spoiler: her husband Ryuuzou's suicide around the end of UsefulNotes/WorldWarII. It counts at this because he does so out of grief after the death of his and Oshin's eldest son Yuu in the war and the definitive ruin of his government-sponsored business, [[DespairEventHorizon so he feels that he has failed to his wife in an absolutely unforgivable way]].]]
* On ''Series/GoodEats'', after having been called out for giving Alton erroneous information, the owner of the [[spoiler:simulated]] Asian market attempts this. Alton stops him.
** Alton himself does this while dressed as a sunflower, in order to explain the concept of plant starch.
* In ''Series/{{MASH}}'', the episode "Goodbye, Cruel World" featured a guilt-ridden Asian-American soldier who, despite being sent home a war hero, kept trying to commit suicide. In the words of the psychiatrist, Major Freedman, he had to kill Asians "to be a good American," but then had to kill himself "[[InterchangeableAsianCultures to be a good Asian.]]"
* In the ''Series/{{Haven}}'' episode "Burned", a man named Lance kills himself this way when [[CompellingVoice Ginger]] tells him, "I hate your guts!"
* ''Series/GoodNewsWeek'': Paul [=McDermott=] on the subject of the Japanese Prime Minister's resignation:
--> "I think the resignation took a lot of guts... but not as much guts as a ''traditional'' Japanese resignation!"
* Mentioned in an episode of ''Series/LegendsOfTomorrow'', when the team accidentally ends up in Edo-period Japan. An old man named Ichiro explains that his son Oda used to be a great samurai. Unfortunately, his popularity among the troops made the Shogun jealous, so he ordered Oda to take his own life. Being a loyal samurai, Oda obliged. The Shogun even went on to demand that Ichiro destroy Oda's sword, which Ichiro forged himself, but Ichiro hid the weapon instead.

* In the Chinese manhua, ''Manhua/RavagesOfTime'' (an adaptation of the ''RomanceOfTheThreeKingdoms''), the idea of a ritualized suicide to redeem yourself is mocked by several characters. The ultimate example would be, [[spoiler: Lu Bu, once he was defeated by Cao Cao and was about to be executed. He was even willing to bow and beg for his life at random spectators; Cao Cao respected him, for that since it take more courage to ''live'' than to die. The only reason it didn't work was because Liu Bei pointed out his ChronicBackStabbingDisorder to Cao Cao.]]

* Minamoto no Yoshitsune committed seppuku to avoid the disgrace of capture or falling to an unworthy foe. His vastly outnumbered followers, because of their dedication, were able to hold off the ZergRush of his brother's soldiers, who were inferior not in training but in dedication, and buy him the time for this. (Although Yoshitsune is a historical figure, the accounts of his death are mostly legendary.)
[[folder:Tabletop Games]]
* In ''TabletopGame/BattleTech'', the Draconis Combine brings back Seppuku, particularly among its mechwarriors. The "Total Warfare" rulebook contains a passage about a Draconis Commander who very nearly commits suicide after successfully withdrawing his forces from a Lyran blitzkrieg. The crime is having withdrawn without permission. The reprieve is that the attack was part of a larger conflict, and the Combine would need every commander and Mechwarrior it had.
* The german Boardgame "Bushido: Der Weg des Kriegers" has this as an option. Every turn the title of daimyo changes to the next player in turn order. First order of the day is to appoint someone of the other players as general, someone as advisor and someone as buke (Read: Target). The generals job is to attack a region owned by the buke player with the current daimyos forces. The buke tries it's best to defend. The side that wins gains honor (points) for doing so. If your general loses the battle though, the advisor can suggest several punishments for the insubordinate samurai, based on handcards. One of those options is seppuku, which can be a HUGE loss in points. This can lead to doomed missions, where the dishonorable daimyo sends the general on an unwinnable mission, with the intent to take out his point lead.
* ''TabletopGame/LegendOfTheFiveRings'', set in a FantasyCounterpartCulture to medieval Japan, naturally has seppuku as a plot element, and several cards and even basic game mechanics in the CollectibleCardGame revolve around it. It also reinforced the idea that in most cases, seppuku was more to cleanse the family/clan/empire's honor rather than the one who was committing seppuku.
** The most notable character to commit seppuku within the storyline was Emperor Toturi I, who did so to purify his soul of the Lying Darkness' corruption.
** Prior he acted as kaishakunin to Matsu Tsuku, who had succeeded him as daimyo of the Lion Clan, only to see the consequences of choosing loyalty to the (corrupted) Emperor rather than to the Empire itself. This allowed the Lion Clan to honorably reverse its stance and join in the overthrow of said Emperor.
* In ''TabletopGame/NinjaBurger'', a ninja who loses all honor has to apologize to his ancestors. "This requires you to go to visit them, and unfortunately it will not be possible for you to come back." (The unfortunate player discards all cards and has to start with a new character.)
* The Tau of ''TabletopGame/{{Warhammer 40000}}'' have something like this. It's called "Malk'la", and is occasionally demanded by Ethereals as a punishment for a high-ranking Tau who has seriously breached conduct or otherwise failed the empire in a spectacular fashion. The ritual is not described, [[TakeOurWordForIt but it is said that all who see it are permanently scarred]].
* The Sotoha in ''TabletopGame/VampireTheRequiem'' are a vampire Bloodline founded by a 16[[superscript:th]]-century Japanese nobleman based on the code of Bushido. Public seppuku in protest against a Sotoha Lord's conduct is the only way for a vassal to sever their MyMasterRightOrWrong obligations and free them from service -- though, being a vampire, it only leaves them comatose for a while. In the most extreme case, a vassal can condemn themself to FinalDeath to release ''all'' of their Lord's other subjects from their oaths of loyalty.

* Cio-Cio-San in the [[TearJerker tear-jerking]] finale of the opera ''Theatre/MadameButterfly''. She commits ''jigai'' by cutting her throat with the ceremonial dagger presented to her father by the Mikado, bearing the inscription: "To die with honor when one can no longer live with honor."
* In ''Theatre/TheMikado'', Nanki-Poo threatens to perform "the Happy Despatch" with a dagger if Ko-Ko tries to prevent him from hanging himself.

[[folder:Video Games]]
* Spoofed in ''VideoGame/{{Disgaea 2|CursedMemories}}''. Yukimaru threatens impromptu seppuku upon losing to the main characters in the InevitableTournament. After several seconds of the ninja standing there with herself at knife-point, Taro and Hanako point out that she's obviously expecting someone to talk her out of it for dramatic effect. Adell begrudgingly obliges, accidentally [[ChickMagnet charming the pants off of her]] in the process.
** This takes special note because Yukimaru is supposed to be a {{ninja}}, and Adell's suggestion for how she could carry out her assault on Zenon is, ironically, what a real ninja would do; work their way into any group that bests her to ensure that they get close to their mark. Yukimaru shows that she has learned from this by talking Fubuki out of his own seppuku attempt later on.
* The dwarves in ''Franchise/DragonAge'' have their own variation of this. When faced with either exile to the surface or a lonely death in the Deep Roads, many criminals in Orzammar decide [[TakeAThirdOption to instead]] join the [[BadassArmy Legion of the Dead]] as a way to regain their lost honour. After a ceremony where they are declared to be ''already'' dead, they descend into the furthest reaches of the Deep Roads to hold back the Darkspawn horde for the rest of their natural lives, or until they fall in battle.
** Female Grey Wardens are also given the option to do a variation on this when they get their Calling and the Darkspawn taint starts to overpower them, with the other choice for both female and male Grey Wardens is to [[DefiantToTheEnd go out taking out as many Darkspawn as they can]]. The reason is [[spoiler:that female Grey Wardens are at risk for becoming [[BabyFactory Broodmothers]] for the Darkspawn, a FateWorseThanDeath that horribly mutates them]].
* This is the only thing you can do with the [[SwordOfPlotAdvancement Godsbane]] of ''VideoGame/DragonsDogma''. [[spoiler: You'll need it to [[DrivenToSuicide guide yourself to a true freedom]] once you're stuck in the void beyond the Rift.]]
* Evil sports fanatic [[MeaningfulName Harakiri Seppukumaru]] from the ''GanbareGoemon'' series considers seppuku to be the ultimate extreme sport, making various failed attempts to commit the ritual after being thwarted by the heroes. He manages to go through with it in the anime adaptation, but...[[spoiler: the knife turns out to be retractable.]]
** Additionally, it's revealed in ''Ganbare Goemon 4'' that if Seppukumaru succeeds, it will cause the powerful bomb inside his body to explode (which would obviously be a [[EarthShatteringKaboom very bad thing]]). He was [[SealedEvilInACan imprisoned]] on Planet Impact by his own henchmen before the heroes came along and accidentally freed him by removing the barriers surrounding the planet. But why seppuku, of all things? Because he wanted to try something new. Seriously.
* ''MortalKombat: [[VideoGame/MortalKombatDeception Deception]]'' has the [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=exB9itI7gO4 "Hara-Kiri"]] as a companion to the Fatality. During the typical "FINISH HIM/HER!" moment where the winner can perform a Fatality, the loser can input a special button combination and do a Hara-Kiri instead, essentially committing suicide in various ways before the opponent can finish them off. (The most common methods involve doing... all kinds of unpleasant thing to the character's own head. [[OffWithHisHead Beheading]] is just the ''beginning''.)
** Of the above, however, [[VideoGame/MortalKombatDeadlyAlliance Kenshi Takeda]] is the only character who actually performs a seppuku.(Though he only goes through the first cut and has no ''kaishakunnin'', obviously.) It makes sense: Kenshi likely comes closer to fitting the description of a Samurai more than any other character in the franchise does.
*** In ''Videogame/MortalKombatX'', [[spoiler: Hanzo aka Scorpion seriously considers this in his Arcade ending when he realises how his desire for revenge on Quan Chi nearly caused Shinnok's victory, as well as condemning Liu Kang and the others to an eternity as revenants. Dark Raiden stops him, then pinishes him by making him the guardian of the Jinsei instead.]]
* Kazuhira Miller of ''Videogame/MetalGear'' fame completely flips the idea of an honorable death the bird when, upon being soundly defeated by Big Boss, he asks him to be his kaishakunin. Except this was actually a ploy to get Big Boss to walk close enough for Kaz to blow both of them up with a grenade. It doesn't work, but needless to say, the fact that Kaz was willing to kick honor to the curb just to go out in a blaze of glory really makes an impression on Snake.
* ''[[VideoGame/SoulSeries Soulcalibur IV]]'' modeled Yoshimitsu's Critical Finish attack after seppuku, with Yoshi playing the role of the ''kaishakunin''.
** Additionally, several of his unblockable attacks come in the form of stabbing himself in the stomach. One is done from a stance where he would have his back turned to his enemy, and thus would be able to hit his opponent with the sword coming out of the other side. Another is done from the typical sitting stance one would associate with seppuku, but can be followed up with him ripping his sword out of him and delivering a quick unblockable attack to his opponent. Needless to say, Yoshimitsu is one of the few characters with ways to heal himself, if only because he's also one of the few characters that can do so much damage to themselves.
** And his ''VideoGame/{{Tekken}}''-entering descendant Yoshimitsu continues the tradition with the standing suicide (which can be followed up by spinning like a spinning blade at your opponent--hits do 2 damage to both of you, while the actual stab does ''60'' to whoever's hit--especially you), and the Turning Suicide (dash in, turn, gut yourself for 100 points of damage)..and the Double Stab (after taking the earlier 100, take another--and you have 140 hit points to play with, at most).
* In the old Commodore 64 game of ''ComicBook/UsagiYojimbo'', if the eponymous {{ronin}}'s honor got below a certain point, he would commit suicide right there.
* Done in ''VideoGame/TalesOfVesperia'' with [[spoiler:Don Whitehorse, leader of the guild Altosk, after learning some bad information given to his grandson, Harry, resulted in the death of the Duce of Pallestralle and longtime friend and ally, Belius. The CoolOldGuy commits seppuku to balance things out and prevent a war between the two guilds. Yuri himself volunteers to be his ''kaishakunin''.]]
* In the original ''VideoGame/{{Tenchu}}'', one of the missions involves executing a corrupt minister, but if the player is using the Rikimaru character, he will plead in a cinematic with the minister to take the honourable route and perform seppuku, which he will and Rikimaru will assist by decapitating him. If the player chooses the Ayame character however, she will insult and agitate the minister until he lashes out, resulting in a boss battle.
* Occasionally crops up in games of ''VideoGame/TeamFortress2'' thanks to the Soldier's new suicide taunt: When a round ends, the losing team loses their weapons, granting free kills to any nearby winners. However, they can still taunt. Any Soldiers who had the Equalizer out at the time are liable to kill themselves to avoid adding another point to the opposing team, and occasionally manage to [[TakingYouWithMe add a point to their own]] in the bargain (since taunt kills are [[CherryTapping always]] [[LethalJokeItem fatal]] when they connect).
* Due to the high number of {{Mythology Gag}}s present, ''VideoGame/FistOfTheNorthStarTwinBlueStarsOfJudgment'' has the character [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U8zx9qxCSvM Shin able to perform a self-inflicted Fatal KO]], as a nod to the series on him [[BetterToDieThanBeKilled opting to commit suicide rather than die by protagonist Kenshiro's techniques]].
* In ''VideoGame/{{Boppin}}'', player 1 would commit seppuku every time he lost a life, and player 2 would [[AteHisGun shot himself in the mouth]]. It's all an {{anvilicious}} commentary about violence in video games... No, really.
* In ''VideoGame/ShadowWarrior1997'', the mutant ninja enemies sometimes point an uzi to their heads. The manual states that enemies will commit seppuku if "dishonored."
* ''VideoGame/SwordOfTheSamurai'' had this as an option if the player character was ever caught doing something horribly dishonorable, like attempting to assassinate a rival or plant false evidence against them. It would remove the stain on the PC's family's honor, giving the PC's son (and next PC) a better chance. The player is free to ignore the order, [[ButThouMust but this causes instant defeat]] as the player's entire family is eradicated.
* In ''[[VideoGame/GundamVsSeries Gundam Extreme Vs.]]'', the [[Anime/MobileSuitGundam00 Susanoo]] has a ''seppuku'' move much like [[VideoGame/{{Tekken}} Yoshimitsu's]] (above), where the machine turns around and stabs itself with its swords. It does big damage if an enemy is right behind, but whether or not it connects the Susanoo takes damage. Despite the fact that its pilot is American, he's also a huge Japanese culture {{Otaku}}, justifying the existence of this move.
* Seppuku is treated as a fact of life in ''VideoGame/{{Hakuouki}}'', given that it's a VisualNovel about the {{Shinsengumi}}. Harada Sanosuke has a scar across his abdomen from a failed attempt at it, and following the Choshu assault on the Imperial Palace, Hijikata takes a number of men in pursuit of the escaping leaders of the rebellion specifically with the intention of arresting them before they commit seppuku. And when the main characters learn that [[spoiler:Kondou]] was beheaded rather than being allowed to commit seppuku, they're deeply distressed over it.
* In the first ''VideoGame/SamuraiShodown'' game, after [[spoiler: failing to rescue his son Shinzo (whom Amakusa performed a GrandTheftMe on)]], [[{{Ninja}} Hanzo]] [[http://www.vgmuseum.com/end/neogeo/c/sshohan.htm gets ready to commit seppuku.]] A group of ninja trainees [[InterruptedSuicide stop him]] and then beg him to become their sensei.
* In ''VideoGame/TheLastNinja'', some guards will perform seppuku on the spot if you run past them.
* Samurai in ''VideoGame/BattleRealms'' commit seppuku as their death animation, meaning they [[HeroicSpirit essentially kill themselves rather than be defeated when they run out of HP]] (they still count as the enemy's kill). This lengthy death animation serves to warn the opponent of the samurai's death, as they [[TakingYouWithMe unleash area-of-effect damage when they die]] as their unconquered spirits lash back at their aggressors on their way to the afterlife.
* In ''VideoGame/{{Fallout 3}}'''s {{expansion pack}} ''Operation Anchorage'', [[BigBad General Jingwei]] can be convinced to fall on his sword with a high Speech skill, [[SkippableBoss bypassing]] [[MarathonBoss a rather long boss fight]]. A possible in universe research failure as Jingwei is Chinese.
** In ''VideoGame/FalloutNewVegas'', Arcade Gannon does this with a scalpel in the ending if you sell him to the Legion as a slave and Caesar survives. As Gannon is himself classically trained, he's probably doing it as a direct homage to Cato (mentioned in Real Life below) and for the same reasons.
* In ''VideoGame/SplinterCellChaosTheory'', [[InsaneAdmiral Admiral]] Otomo turns out to be a Japanese Nationalist, and the plot of the game mostly centers around his attempt to make Japan an Imperial power again. So it is no surprise that when his plans go up in smoke, he attempts to commit seppuku. Sam manages to save his life (and shows quite a bit of respect towards the ritual while doing so, for that matter).
* In ''VisualNovel/SuperDanganRonpa2'', Fuyuhiko "Ultimate Yakuza" Kuzuryu attempts this in chapter three, when trying to make amends for his behavior in the previous trial. His classmates are horrified and drag him to the hospital, where his wounds are seen to.
* In ''VideoGame/DeadRising2'', in the DualBoss battle against Amber and Crystal Bailey, once you kill one of them, the other will curse you and then run herself through with a katana to join her sister in death.
* A tanto appears in ''VideoGame/{{Nioh}}'' as the game's answer to the [[VideoGame/DarkSouls Darksign]] or [[VideoGame/{{Bloodborne}} Hunter's Mark]]; that is to say, an item that will warp the player back to the last shrine checkpoint they visited at the cost of all the Amrita they're holding. Not something the player would use all that often, but handy on the off-chance they get hopelessly lost or [[GameBreakingBug stuck in the scenery]].
* In ''VideoGame/TotalWarShogun2'', the leaders of defeated clans perform seppuku in the cinematic scenes.
* In ''VideoGame/DarkSoulsII'', if the player defeats Sir Alonne under a set amount of time without taking any damage, Alonne stabs himself out of shame.
* In ''VideoGame/FireEmblemFates'', [[spoiler:Prince Ryoma chooses to stab himself to death after his fight with the Avatar in the Nohr/Conquest route]]. It counts as seppuku, nevermind the lack of ''kaishakunnin''[[note]]Likely because at that point, he's the only one on his side left alive[[/note]] and rituals, because [[spoiler:Ryoma (a {{samurai}} and comes from the land of Hoshido which is modeled after [[{{Wutai}} Medieval Japan]]) not only stabs himself through the stomach while sitting in the ''seiza'' position]], but does so to [[spoiler:keep the Avatar from having to make the choice of killing him with his/her own hands, and possibly getting killed by [[BigBad Garon]] [[IfYoureSoEvilEatThiskitten for refusing]]. His FamousLastWords even lampshade the trope, as he claims that he will die to preserve his samurai honor.]] In fact, even the ''name'' of the cutscene is "Samurai's Duty".
-->[[spoiler:'''Ryoma''': I cannot fall into the hands of an enemy. So I... fulfill a samurai's... final duty! I'm counting on you.]]
* In ''VideoGame/AgeOfEmpires II'', the death animation of the samurai units is to stab themselves with their swords.
* ''VideoGame/{{Warcraft}} III''. when the Night Elf Demon Hunter hero is killed he kneels and stabs himself with his blade.
* In ''Videogame/XCOM2'''s ''War Of The Chosen'' ExpansionPack, the Chosen Assassin [[GracefulLoser will wish you luck]] in overthrowing her masters and then commit seppuku upon defeat.
* In ''[[VisualNovel/ShallWeDateNinjaShadow Shall We Date?: Ninja Shadow]], seppuku isn't really treated until Hijikata and Okita from UsefulNotes/TheShinsengumi join the cast:
** Mentioned [[PlayedforLaughs for]] [[SuicideAsComedy laughs]] in the ''That's what I call Summer'' even, as Hijikata tells Asagi "disembowel yourself!" when the other man [[BerserkButton teases him too much]]. His profile has the trope as one of his "likes" (according to his companion Okita) and mentions that he's a skillful ''kaishakunnin'' (again, according to Okita). [[BlackComedy This phrase sums all up]]:
-->'''Okita''': "Just so you know, Toshi's hobby is ritual suicide, so be careful, [[PlayerCharacter Saori.]]"
** According to Hijikata himself in his own route, the Shinsengumi has a set of very strict rules. If a member of the group breaks them, he is to commit {{seppuku}} on the spot.

[[folder:Web Comics]]
* This would not be complete without a mention of the [[http://dndorks.com/comics/10%2f20%2f2004.aspx Seppuku Joe arc]] of ''Webcomic/DnDorks''.
* Not exactly seppuku, but similar: Oggie and Maxim of ''Webcomic/GirlGenius'' once claimed that after having broken the solemn oath of the Jagerkin their only option was a "svift, ''painful,'' honourable death!" and attempted to slit each other's throats. It's unclear whether they actually meant it or were just kidding around (the [[ChewingTheScenery overdramatic nature of the delivery]] suggests the latter), as they changed their minds as soon as Dimo pointed out that they hadn't been ''caught'' breaking the oath.
* ''Webcomic/LeastICouldDo'' references this.
--> "Uncle, what's the smallest sword for?"\\
"I'll tell you when you lose."
* In ''Webcomic/TheOrderOfTheStick'', one of the Sapphire Guard commits Seppuku after [[spoiler:being tricked into [[http://www.giantitp.com/comics/oots0448.html killing her comrades by Xykon]].]]
* In ''Webcomic/{{Sinfest}}'', [[http://www.sinfest.net/archive_page.php?comicID=1598 a failure goes to commit robot seppuku, to have his mistress suggesting just grounding him instead.]]
* Parodied in ''{{Wulffmorgenthaler}}'': apparently, seppuku is the reason [[http://wulffmorgenthaler.com/2010/01/21/ samurais are banned from all quiz shows]].
* After the [[TraumaCongaLine Nidraa'chal War]] one member of the Dutan'vir clan named Fel'kir in ''{{Webcomic/Drowtales}}'' [[http://www.drowtales.com/mainarchive.php?sid=5506 picked this]] after his clan was destroyed and disgraced. [[http://www.drowtales.com/mainarchive.php?sid=10304 Later]] in the story a member of the same clan, [[spoiler:Lulianne]], does the same thing [[spoiler:in an attempted TakingYouWithMe after she realizes she's been possessed by the FaceStealer Khaless and briefly overpowers her to avoid having to kill her clanmate]].
* Attempted by the Running Gag in ''Webcomic/OneOverZero'' when Andy dies, but it can't quite jump high enough to impale itself successfully. It runs off into the distance instead. Later in the comic, Junior.

[[folder:Web Original]]
* [[spoiler:Keiji Tanaka]]'s death in ''Roleplay/SurvivalOfTheFittest'' was basically seppuku. Oddly, Lenny Priestly, [[spoiler:the one who fatally wounded him to begin with]], acted as his second.
** Shinya Motomura also committed seppuku in V1. However, he did not have a second.
* In the Flash cartoon ''[[Music/UltimateShowdownOfUltimateDestiny The Ultimate Showdown]]'' by Lemon Demon, [[spoiler:Mr. Rogers commits seppuku after being the final pop culture icon left alive.]]
* Parodied in ''Literature/RealUltimatePower'', where seppuku consists of bending a lubricated Frisbee in half and swallowing it after "getting ''really'' [[UnstoppableRage super pissed]]".

[[folder:Western Animation]]
* In ''WesternAnimation/BeastWars'', Dinobot once attempted seppuku but backed out at the last minute, allowing him to go on to his HeroicSacrifice. While suicide was never overtly mentioned (this is a kid's show, after all), kneeling while holding your sword upside down towards your body and trembling in intense concentration is a bit hard to interpret any other way.
* In ''WesternAnimation/CodeMonkeys'', after Gameavision breaks [[Creator/{{Nintendo}} Protendo's]] one-day efficiency record, every Protendo employee still on the Gameavision premises simply pulls out a katana and rams it into their stomach, 22 in all. This also puts the final nail in the coffin of Mr. Larrity's plan to sell Gameavision off so the company can be liquidated.
* Parodied in a ''WesternAnimation/DextersLaboratory'' episode where Dee Dee's paper route is beset by vandals dressed as ninjas. After she beats them in a paper-delivering competition (final score: 1 to 0), the other ninja give the one who lost the competition a rolled-up newspaper; he smacks himself in the face with it and collapses.
* On ''WesternAnimation/DrawnTogether'', Ling-Ling commits Seppuku upon losing a game of Not-It to impregnate Toot.
* In ''WesternAnimation/FamilyGuy'' when Brian and Stewie enter the universe when Japan conquered the world, Meg, being the ButtMonkey in every universe she's in, commits seppuku when Peter told her of being ugly and dishonorable.
* Parodied at the end of the ''{{Popeye}}'' WartimeCartoon, "You're a Sap, Mr. Jap" when the last remaining Japanese officer commits suicide by drinking gasoline and swallowing fire crackers.
* ''WesternAnimation/SouthPark'', in typical fashion, played with this rather irreverently when the Japanese Mr. Takayama moves to town and opens a restaurant next to City Wok (owned by the angry and stereotypically Chinese Mr. Lu Kim), sparking a rivalry. Lu Kim builds a "Tower of Peace", planning to lure his rival to the top and push him off, assuming he will get away with it because "Japanese people [are] always killing themselves". When he reveals this plan to Takayama while struggling atop the tower, Takayama [[DefiedTrope angrily refuses to be associated with such a stereotype]] and overpowers him. However, when it is revealed that [[spoiler: Lu Kim is actually one of several "split personalities" of a white man]], Takayama realizes he has been duped and [[ZigZaggingTrope throws himself off the tower in shame]].
** In another episode, after [[ButtMonkey Butters]] is sold off to Paris Hilton to be her pet, he finds out that her previous pets have all commited sucide over not standing her any longer in increasingly ridiculous ways, ending with Cuddles, a spaniel who commited ''ritual sepukku'', white clothes and japanese characters hanging from the walls included.
* In an episode of ''{{WesternAnimation/Futurama}}'', Zoidberg is ridden with guilt after he breaks Professor Farnsworth's bottled ship and blames Fry (and he's forced to pay the exhorbitant price of ''ten dollars'' to replace it). Ashamed, he confesses the whole thing and, since he won't be able to pay Fry back, he attempts to kill himself by stabbing his chest with a katana but he just ends up bending it on his hard exoskeleton. The owner of the sword angrily tells him how much that sword was worth. Zoidberg [[AesopAmnesia yells that Fry did it and runs away]].
* In the French series ''WesternAnimation/{{Clementine}}'', the titular protagonist travels to MedievalJapan and befriends [[UsefulNotes/JapaneseMythology Momotarou and his companions]]. During this adventure, a {{samurai}} commits ''seppuku'' [[FamilyUnfriendlyViolence on-screen.]]
* In the [[DarkerAndEdgier fifth Season]] of ''WesternAnimation/SamuraiJack'', while hiding from [[KnightOfCerebus Daughters of Aku]], Jack [[TalkingToThemself begins to argue]] with [[SanitySlippage his own subconscious]] over whether or not he should simply kill himself while he still has his dignity, as his situation seems totally hopeless. [[spoiler: He almost goes through with it in Episode 6, but Ashi talks him down and is able to renew his HeroicSpirit.]]

[[folder:Real Life]]
* The TropeCodifier was WarriorPoet [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minamoto_no_Yorimasa Minamoto no Yorimasa]], who did this after losing the Battle of Uji in 1180.
* [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kusunoki_Masashige Kusunoki Masashige]], the chief general of Emperor Godaigo, is said to have done this after defeat in battle.
* [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oshio_Heihachiro Oshio Heihachiro]], after a failed revolt against the Tokugawa shogunate.
* [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saigo_Takamori Saigo Takamori]], after the Satsuma Rebellion. Though there's discussion among Japanese historians about whether he ''actually'' commited seppuku upon being defeated, or he was fatally injured in battle and his supporters ''said'' he killed himself to protect his honor (complete with beheading his corpse and hiding his head [[DecapitationPresentation so it wouldn't be used as a trophy]]).
* [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matsunaga_Hisahide Matsunaga Hisahide]] deserves some credit for perhaps the most spiteful ''seppuku'' in history. The man himself was WickedCultured and a notorious schemer--history credits him with several made-and-broken alliances with ''and'' against several contemporary warlords including UsefulNotes/OdaNobunaga, and always in the name of self-interest. Finally fed up with the man's ChronicBackstabbingDisorder, Nobunaga eventually laid siege to Hisahide's Shigisan castle and demanded Hisahide's head as well as a priceless teapot (known as the ''Hiragumo'' kettle for its lovely patterns) owned by Hisahide as his price for ending the siege. [[DefiantToTheEnd Hisahide's response]] was smashing the teapot, commiting ''seppuku'', having his son sever then destroy his head, and finally blowing up the castle. (Or [[http://kissakoculture.blogspot.cl/2013/04/the-strange-fate-of-hiragumo-kettle.html according to "others"]], going to the castle tower, ranting at Nobunaga while carrying the kettle ''full of gunpowder'', then [[SelfImmolation blowing himself up]] when done.) There are no historical records of Nobunaga's response to all this, [[AtomicFbomb possibly because it was not fit to print]].
* [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Azai_Nagamasa Azai Nagamasa]] and his father [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asai_Hisamasa Hisamasa]] were also forced to commit ''seppuku'', again due to a siege by Oda Nobunaga. While ostensibly allies of the Oda, Nobunaga declared war against the Azai's allied clan, the Asakura, and in spite of attempts to stay out of the fighting, the Azai ultimately fought against the Oda. After the Azai failed to decisively defeat the Oda, Nobunaga besieged Odani Castle in revenge and both Nagamasa and Hisamasa committed ''seppuku'' rather than fight a hopeless battle against the superior Oda forces, widowing Oichi, Nagamasa's wife and Nobunaga's sister.
* After the forces of [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Takeda_Katsuyori Takeda Katsuyori]] (son and heir of UsefulNotes/TakedaShingen) were destroyed by the combined armies of Oda Nobunaga and Tokugawa Ieyasu at Temmokuzan in 1582, Katsuyori, his [[MayDecemberRomance much younger]] second wife Masako, his eldest son Nobukatsu and several maids of their retinue committed seppuku.
* In light of these events, it is almost [[KarmicDeath karmic]] that UsefulNotes/OdaNobunaga did this himself during the events of [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Incident_at_Honn%C5%8D-ji the Incident at Honno-ji]]. UsefulNotes/AkechiMitsuhide led a coup at the Kyoto temple at dawn, with his own men vastly outnumbering Nobunaga and his smaller number of bodyguards. Seeing the writing on the wall, Nobunaga committed ''seppuku'' and his ''[[{{Uke}} wakashu]]'' [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mori_Ranmaru Mori Ranmaru]] set the temple on fire as he had been ordered so as to prevent the body from falling into enemy hands. Whether ''Ranmaru'' followed his master in death through ''seppuku'' or not, it's dicussed; some say he did, but the majority says that [[LastStand he went down fighting Akechi's soldiers.]] In any way, Nobunaga's eldest son Nobutada was pursued to Azuchi Castle and also forced to commit ''seppuku'' when Akechi forces laid siege to the castle. Nobunaga's body was never found.
* ''Seppuku'' seems to follow the Oda family. [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shibata_Katsuie Shibata Katsuie]] was a famed general serving the aforementioned Oda Nobunaga, and after the latter's death he in turn opposed Usefulnotes/ToyotomiHideyoshi in regards to who would go on to lead the Oda clan, since the designated heir, Oda Nobutada, had also died (see above). Katsuie backed Oda Nobutaka, Nobunaga's third son, while Hideyoshi supported Oda Hidenobu, son of the deceased Nobutada. They eventually took up arms against each other, but a combination of snow, isolation, and incompetent subordinates cost Katsuie the battle of Shizugatake. With the main force of his army lost and his castle surrounded, Katsuie committed ''seppuku'' and lit his fortress of [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kitanosho_Castle Kitanosho Castle]] on fire. He and his wife Oichi, Nobunaga's sister and widow of the aformentioned Nagamasa Azai, [[TogetherInDeath perished together in the flames after she refused to leave his side]]. Just one week after Shibata Katsuie perished, Oda Nobutaka, the son he had supported, was pressured into ''seppuku'' and committed suicide in turn.
* Prime Minister UsefulNotes/HidekiTojo attempted suicide by pistol after Japan lost UsefulNotes/WorldWarII. He was saved by a blood transfusion. [[ShootTheShaggyDog Then sentenced to hanging by the Allied military tribunal.]] The Allies wanted to make the point that they weren't allowing him to take the easy way out, and that he would die at ''their'' pleasure for his crimes. (He still went off with ''style'', sorta..)
** Not to mention the fact that, reportedly, some ''500'' Japanese generals ''successfully'' committed seppuku.
** Admiral [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Onishi_Takijiro Onishi Takijiro]], who came up with the bright idea of kamikaze planes, not only went through this but refused to use a kaishakunin for his seppuku after Japan surrendered. It took him some 15 ''hours'' of agony to die. The note he left apologized to all the pilots he'd sent to their deaths.
** Subverted in the case of [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matome_Ugaki Admiral Matome Ugaki]], also involved with the ''kamikaze'' planes. Right after the Emperor announced the rendition of Japan in August 1945, he decided to carry out a "last mission" in which he would crash a plane and commit suicide. However, this sort-of ''kamikaze'' attack never took place; later the rests of the plane and the corpses of Ugaki and his three subordinates were found on the beach of Ieyajima Island, apparently struck down by American anti-aircraft fire.
** [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korechika_Anami General Korechika Anami]], one of the high officials who opposed the surrender, committed Seppuku on the morning Emperor Hirohito was to announce the surrender. This was realistically portrayed in the UsefulNotes/WorldWarII documentary movie ''Hiroshima''. He also left a suicide note which read:
--->''My death, is my apology for my great crime.''
** During the Battle of Saipan, over 10,000 civilians committed ritual suicide under the direction of Hirohoto rather than be taken captive by U.S forces, this was so word would not get out that they had little to fear from the Americans and would be actually treated rather nicely as prisoners. Over 5000 Japanese soldiers stationed on the island also committed suicide.
*** [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chuichi_Nagumo Admiral Chuuichi Nagumo]] (one of the men behind the Pearl Harbor Attack ''and'' responsible for the Battle of Midway) shot himself in the head almost at the end of the invasion itself.
** Aversion: [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kotoku_Sato General Kotoku Sato]], who had the thankless task in the Burma offensive of 1944 to take Kohima without supplies and support from HQ, declined the opportunity to commit seppuku and insisted on a court-martial so that he could expose the incompetence of his superiors.
** Admiral [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isoroku_Yamamoto Isoroku Yamamoto]] wanted to do this when he learned of how the Pearl Harbour attack went off; the attack was supposed to happen ''after'' the delivery of a declaration of war, so that [[RulesLawyer it would not be a sneak attack]]. He was denied permission by his superiors, and ultimately died when his plane was taken down in Bouganiville.
** It wasn't unheard of for Japanese naval commanders to commit seppuku as a form of GoingDownWithTheShip after they had been defeated in battle. Arguably, the long-term result of all the ritualized DeathEqualsRedemption was to leach the Imperial Japanese armed forces of their most experienced and honorable officers, [[NicejobBreakingItHero making a bad situation even more desperate]], as the American officers were largely not bound by any such tradition.
** Colonel [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hiromichi_Yahara Hiromichi Yahara]], chief of staff to [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitsuru_Ushijima General Mitsuru Ushijima]] during the Battle of Okinawa, reportedly asked Ushijima to commit seppuku with him, but Ushijima declined and forbade him from doing so, telling the colonel:
--->"If you die there will be no one left who knows the truth about the battle of Okinawa. Bear the temporary shame but endure it. This is an order from your army commander."
*** Ushijima himself, however, ended up commiting seppuku alongside Liutenant General [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isamu_Cho Isamu Cho]]. Yahara was captured by the Americans, wrote a book about the Battle of Okinawa years later, and lived until 1981.
** As the Soviets advanced over Manchuria and other territories that had been conquered/colonized by the Japanese, many colonizers either were killed by Japanese troops or chose to commit suicide rather than surrender. i.e, nine women who handled a telegraph station located in Sakhalin Island (then known as Karafuto Prefecture) killed themselves when they learned about the fall of the island to Russian troops. There's a statue dedicated to them in the northernmost city of Japan, Wakkanai.
* [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seig%C5%8D_Nakano Seigo Nakano]] (the right-wing political leader who founded the ultra-nationalist group ''Touhoukai'') commited seppuku in 1943 after not only losing his power struggles with the aforementioned UsefulNotes/HidekiTojo, who wanted to expand the Empire despite Nakano's belief that it would bring unnecessary sacrifices to the country as a whole, but being banned from all kinds of media within Japan ''and'' being placed under house arrest.
* In 1945, after the Japanese surrender was signed but before it was formally broadcast by the Emperor, [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kyujo_Incident there was an attempted coup]] by the War Ministry staff and part of [[PraetorianGuard the Imperial Guard]], in order to prevent said surrender. The then-War Minister, [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shizuichi_Tanaka General Shizuichi Tanaka]], managed to undo the coup and specifically told the people involved to ''not'' kill themselves... but nine days later, ''he'' commited {{seppuku}} by shooting himself dead in his office. According to the letters Tanaka wrote before this, he had intended to commit suicide all along on behalf of his soldiers, [[TakeAThirdOption rather than either joining in a coup against the Emperor or being party to a dishonorable surrender.]]
* In 1945, UsefulNotes/HidekiTojo's predecesor as Prime Minister [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fumimaro_Konoe Fumimaro Konoe]] commited suicide via CyanidePill. He apparently did it after his refusal to collaborate in "Operation Blacklist" (to exonerate Hirohito and the imperial family of criminal responsibility) made him come under suspicion of war crimes. Even more, Konoe pulled this exactly 1300 years after his ancestor, Fujiwara no Kamatari, led a coup d'état at court during the Soga clan.
* In 1970, [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yukio_Mishima the nationalist author]] Creator/YukioMishima visited a Self-Defence Force base in Tokyo and, together with his private army, the ''Tatenokai'', took the commander hostage. From the balcony of the commander's office, Mishima gave a speech urging the soldiers to overthrown the government and restore the powers of Emperor Hirohito, but they mocked him. He then went inside and committed seppuku instead. Mishima's biographer believes that the coup attempt [[ThanatosGambit was simply a pretext for the act of seppuku]], [[MagnificentBastard which he had been planning for at least a year.]]
** Mishima's ''kaishakunnin'' and NumberTwo, ''Tatenokai'' member Masakatsu Morita, failed to properly aim for the head cut. He tried ''three'' times before letting his companion Hiroyasu Kouga, a former kendo champion, step in and do it. Then, Morita (who had already said [[TogetherInDeath he wanted to die alongside Mishima]]) commited ''seppuku'' too and Kouga was his ''kaishakunnin''. (''Kouga'' himself, on the other hand, didn't commit seppuku, and after some time in jail he was released and either became a Shinto priest or a member of the [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seicho-no-Ie Seicho no Ie]] new religion)
* 46 of the The47Ronin who staged a GambitRoulette to punish an evil nobleman who forced their lord to commit seppuku went through this as well. Once they were done and explained their ''very'' complicated situation to the shogun [[note]](they should have been executed by law for killing their enemy, but since they did it for the sake of their lord and not for personal motives, their UndyingLoyalty couldn't just be ignored in a society where honor was everything and actually caused a BIG LogicBomb)[[/note]], he allowed them to commit seppuku instead of being dishonorably executed; the SoleSurvivor, a mere teenager, became a monk. Additionally, a man who had mocked one of the ronin in the past went to their graves and commited seppuku as an apology; he was buried next to them.
* IdolSinger [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yukiko_Okada Yukiko Okada]], who [[DeathByFallingOver threw herself off her music publisher's building]] in 1986, inspired both a wave of copycat suicides and the term "Yukiko Syndrome" to describe such copycats.
* In a ZigZagged version, similar copycat suicides began after the ''accidental'' death of [[Music/HidetoMatsumoto hide]], which was most likely ''not'' an example of the trope. [[Music/YoshikiHayashi Yoshiki]] and [[Music/TaijiSawada Taiji]] [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hide_(musician)#Death immediately made statements]] that the death was ''accidental'' (which may have been a half-truth, as it was ''accidental suicide''), with Yoshiki ''begging'' hide's fans not to commit suicide. It mostly worked, although it was too late for three people who committed copycat suicide before knowing what had actually happened.
* An American example: Budd Dwyer, Pennsylvania state treasurer, was charged with receiving kickbacks of $300,000. On January 22, 1987, the day before his sentencing, Dwyer called a press conference in which he [[AteHisGun put a .357 revolver in his mouth and shot himself]]. Before doing it, he said: "Please leave the room if this will offend you." His very last words were "Don't, don't, don't [try to stop me]. This will hurt someone." By doing so before formal sentencing, he officially died while still a state employee -- meaning his pension and life insurance benefits still kicked in for his family.
* While not involving Japan there are many examples of this from Roman society:
** The most famous being the suicides of the killers of Julius Caesar at the Battle of Phillipi (dramatized by Shakespeare) and the case of General Quintilius Varus falling on his sword during the defeat at the Battle of Teuteborg Wald. This cued Augustus' famous BigNo response of, "Varus give me back my legions!"
** Another Roman example, and one that is almost exactly like the Japanese example, would be the suicide of Marcus Porcius Cato after the disastrous defeat of the Republican forces at the Battle of Utica in 48 BC. After the loss, Cato feared being captured by Caesar... and then pardoned, therefore having to live the rest of his life in debt to the man he most loathed. He spent his last night reading Creator/{{Plato}}'s ''Phaedo'' (a rumination on the immortality of the soul, supposedly a dialogue held by Socrates before his judicially-imposed suicide by hemlock), then plunged his shortsword into his gut. Slaves and friends were able to find him before he died, and tried to bind his wounds; but after they had left, Cato ripped out the bandages and stabbed himself again, this time succeeding in cheating Caesar's clemency. This scene features in ''Series/{{Rome}}''.
** Roman nobles in general, in fact, were expected to commit suicide to avoid shame or to redress big wrongs. This is where the idiom ''to fall on one's sword'' ultimately originated. Also the Roman state, like many others, seized the property of convicted criminals. By killing oneself rather than being executed, a Roman could insure their family kept their wealth.
** Possibly the most famous Roman to commit suicide in this manner was Lucretia, a semi-legendary Roman noblewoman, who (according to tradition) was raped by the debauched son of Lucius Tarquinis Superbus (a.k.a. Tarquin), the last King of Rome, and who, after going to the house of her father (one of the city's chief magistrates) and explaining what the prince had done, killed herself by stabbing herself in the heart with a concealed dagger to preserve her family's honour. The traditional story of the founding of the Roman Republic has this as the triggering event that led a number of Roman patricians, led by Lucius Junius Brutus, to overthrow Tarquin and establish the republic (with Brutus[[note]]Yes, ancestor of [[Theatre/JuliusCaesar the other one]][[/note]] as one of the first two consuls).
* Speaking of similar practices outside Japan, records exist of HornyVikings asking their friends to MercyKill them [[ICannotSelfTerminate on their deathbeds]]. See, according to Myth/NorseMythology, dying outside of battle wouldn't get you into WarriorHeaven, but if your friend finished you off, then you ''[[LoopholeAbuse technically]]'' "died by the sword."
* A highly unusual form of suicide was chosen by German politican Jürgen Möllemann in 2003. He was well known for his love of parachuting, which he had frequently used for publicity in his election campaigns. He was just about to board a plane for a jump when he was informed that police was raiding his office and home on charges of corruption. Apparently he chose not to open his parachute...
* There's a controlled cell death inducing gene in humans, actually called ''harakiri'', it's protein ''hrk''.
* In 1985, when it came to light that the crash of [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japan_Airlines_Flight_123 Japan Airlines Flight 123]] was the result of incorrectly executed repairs, a maintenance manager working for the company killed himself to apologize for the accident.
* Swedish Nobel laureate Harry Martinsson killed himself this way. Using scissors.
* Though the method was a [[CyanidePill cyanide capsule]], the suicide of UsefulNotes/ErwinRommel following the botched 20 July Plot to kill UsefulNotes/AdolfHitler follows the trope. By taking his own life, he was able to preserve his honor, save the Wehrmacht the disgrace of having one of their top men executed as a traitor, and most importantly keep his family out of the hands of the [[KangarooCourt People's Court,]] which was treating spouses and children as co-conspirators.
* As mentioned in the ''VideoGame/{{Hakuouki}}'' example, [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harada_Sanosuke Harada Sanosuke]] attempted seppuku as a defiant response to ridicule from a Matsuyama retainer who claimed he was a peon who wouldn't know how. He survived, suggesting that the retainer might have had a point, but seems to have come out the better for it; he subsequently adopted as his personal symbol the image of a circle with a horizontal line through it representing the scar that the attempt left behind.
* During the filming of the ''Film/JamesBond'' movie ''Film/YouOnlyLiveTwice'', actress Mie Hama had severe problems in learning English, which threatened her chance to keep the role of the Bond Girl Aki ''and'' could potentially ruin her whole career. Hama suffered an HeroicBSOD and threatened with commiting suicide if she was fired. The producers [[TakeAThirdOption defused the situation]] by having Hama switch roles with the other Japanese actress in the cast, Akiko Wakabayashi, who already was fluent in English: Wakabayashi played Aki and Hama took the role of the ''other'' Bond Girl, Kissy Suzuki, which had less speaking lines.
* An unusual variant occurred with [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitsuyasu_Maeno Mitsuyasu Maeno]]. Maeno, a ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pink_film#Second_wave_.28The_Nikkatsu_Roman_Porno_era_1971.E2.80.931982.29 Roman porno]]'' actor, was also a follower of the same ultra-right wing ideologies that Yukio Mishima espoused; However, while Mishima was an influence, his true idol was right-wing leader/[[{{Yakuza}} gangster]]/war criminal [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yoshio_Kodama Yoshio Kodama.]] When Maeno learned that Kodama was implicated in the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lockheed_bribery_scandals Lockheed bribery scandals]], [[BrokenPedestal Maeno was devastated]], believing Kodama had betrayed the Japanese right-wing movement. He dressed up as a ''kamikaze'' pilot, arrived at Chofu Airport on March 23rd, 1976 along with several other actors for a film about ''kamikaze'' pilots. Maeno then got in his Piper Cherokee, flew to Kodama's home, circled it twice and drove the airplane straight into Kodama's home. The attack [[SnuffFilm was being filmed]] by a second plane shooting film for the planned movie, and an amateur radio operator claimed he heard Maeno transmit a final radio message of [[FamousLastWords "Sorry I haven't replied for a long time. Long live the Emperor!"]] A rare example of the trope where the person committing ''seppuku'' attempted to [[TakingYouWithMe kill someone else]] at the same time, though Kodama survived and Maeno was the only fatality.
* There has been quite the discussion on whether the death of [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gracia_Hosokawa Gracia Hosokawa]], the daughter of Akechi Mitsuhide, counts as this. It took place when the Hosokawa household was about to be taken over by [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ishida_Mitsunari Ishida Mitsunari]]: Japanese sources said that Gracia ordered her retainer [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ogasawara_Sh%C5%8Dsai Shousai Ogasawara]] to kill her so she wouldn't be used as a hostage by Ishida, while Jesuit sources said that Ogasawara did it on his lord/Gracia's husband Tadaoki's orders rather than Gracia's but for basically the same reason. What is agreed upon is that Ogasawara himself and the rest of the household members ''did'' commit seppuku after setting the place in fire.
* Toyed with in the case of [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nogi_Maresuke General Maresuke Nogi]]. Ashamed by [[MygreatestFailure the number of lives lost under his command]] in the First Sino-Japanese war, Nogi petitioned Emperor Meiji for permission to commit seppuku. His petition was denied; the Emperor told Nogi that "if you insist on killing yourself, let it be after I have departed from the world." When the Emperor did depart, seven years later, Nogi was still ready; [[TogetherInDeath he and his wife Shizuko]] killed themselves [[ExactWords shortly after the Emperor's funeral entourage left the palace.]]
* Most recently, famous judoka and gold medal winner [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isao_Inokuma Isao Inokuma]] commited suicide like this in 2001, possibly due to the financial losses suffered by his company.