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Satire is a form of humor, and is considered the cruelest form of comedy. Satire points out the folly of people, organizations, institutions, and ideas.

Often, satire will use {{fictional counterpart}}s of real people as characters, as a {{parody}} of RealLife. However, a satirical work can also use original characters to explore the foibles or ramifications of an organization or course of action.

Satire often relies on current events, which raises a danger that it won't be appreciated in another era. The poetry of Pope and Dryden satirized English politics of the 18th century, but few would appreciate the humor now. The best satire can still be appreciated on its own merits even after the thing it's criticizing fades from consciousness. Occasionally, a piece of satire regains relevance in similar circumstances; for example, satire aimed at [[UsefulNotes/GeorgeHWBush George Bush I]] (or, perhaps more justifiably, UsefulNotes/RichardNixon) can often be easily applied to UsefulNotes/BillClinton; 1990s barbs at Bob Dole were recycled in 2008 to target John [=McCain=].

The Roman poets Ennius and Lucilius are considered the progenitors of the genre, though almost all of their work has been lost. Latin satire was generally delivered in verse, like most literature of the time. It was considered the sole branch of literature native to Rome and there was no Greek equivalent, though some Greek comedy, such as Creator/{{Aristophanes}}, had elements that we would consider satiric. Creator/{{Horace}}, Persius, and Creator/{{Juvenal}} are perhaps the three most famous Roman satirists, ranging from good-natured (Horace disposing of a dreadful bore) to savage (Juvenal's condemnation of sodomites pretending to be philosophers). They are for the most part preoccupied with urban life, morality, and how other people suck.

Literary convention divides satire into the Horatian (good-natured, almost {{affectionate|Parody}}, light-hearted, and more likely to view the target as [[HanlonsRazor foolish rather than evil]]) and the Juvenalian (contemptuous, abrasive, scornful, and outraged, relentlessly mocking a target often regarded as outright evil).

See also {{Parody}}, {{Pastiche}}, {{Farce}}, MetaTropeIntro. Compare {{Deconstruction}}, as a lot of satire incorporates elements of it.

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!!Examples:

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[[folder: Anime and Manga ]]

* ''SayonaraZetsuboSensei'' makes dark commentary on general shallowness, escapism, [[TakeThatAudience otaku]] and society in general.
* ''LightNovel/KinosJourney'' basically does this OnceAnEpisode as Kino travels from one city to another. Notably one episode has a democracy where only a single citizen is still alive, all the others having died because of their absolute belief in majority rules.

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Art ]]

* Superflat is a PoMo art movement that was started by Takashi Murakami who was inspired by Creator/HideakiAnno. It sometimes satirizes many aspects of Japan (particularly things sparked by {{Anime}}) such as consumerism, the prevalence of {{Kawaisa}}, {{Lolicon}}, and {{Fanservice}} along with the {{Otaku}} subculture that is the driving force behind all of them. However, since certain artists associated with Superflat are lolicon otaku themselves, it could also be seen as a form of self-parody. Furthermore, it should be noted that not all Superflat works are satirical in nature - Superflat Monogram, by Murakami and Mamoru Hosoda, for instance, is merely a Louis Vuitton commercial.
* {{Dada}} was a PoMo movement that was a satire of modern art and post-WWI malaise.
* WilliamHogarth
* JamesGillray
* HonoreDaumier

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Comic Books ]]

* ''TheLeagueOfExtraordinaryGentlemen'' is a {{Deconstruction}}/satire of Victorian era fiction and values.
* ''{{Tintin}}''
** Especially the album "The Blue Lotus", which references the Chinese-Japanese War in the 1930s.
** "The Broken Ear" is a satire of the Gran Chaco War in South America.
* ''ComicStrip/SuskeEnWiske''
* ''ComicBook/{{Asterix}}''
* ''Magazine/{{MAD}}''
* ''ComicStrip/{{Nero}}''
* ''ComicBook/TomPoes''
* ''ComicStrip/{{Pogo}}''
* ''ComicStrip/{{Peanuts}}''
* ''ComicStrip/LilAbner''
* ''ComicStrip/{{Urbanus}}''
* ''Creator/RobertCrumb''
* ''{{Transmetropolitan}}'': An excessively Juvenalian satire of American consumer culture, Politics, Journalism, Television, Religion, Cyberpunk writing, Utopian futurism and the future in general.
* ''Not Brand Echh'' had satires of many Creator/{{Marvel|Comics}} comic book heroes as well as a few other companies' characters.

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Film ]]

* The movie ''ThePlayer'' satirized Hollywood's crushing effect on the visions of individual artists as well as the kind of people that environment attracts.
* ''Film/BeingThere'', which brought us [[SeeminglyProfoundFool Chance the Gardener]], is a satire of the human tendency to favor style over substance and take things at face value, particularly where media and politics are concerned. Basically Horatian.
* ''Film/CannibalHolocaust'': It is the most sick, vile, twisted, bloody and most violent piece of satire ever made by a film director.
* ''Film/AClockworkOrange'' is a satire of the battle against violence in society
* ''Film/DrStrangelove'' is one of the most well known satires of the Cold War, and of the foolishness of the nuclear arms race. An interesting case where Horatian techniques were put to a Juvenalian end.
-->''"Mr. President, we must not ''allow''... A MINE SHAFT GAP!"''
* Creator/CharlieChaplin's ''Film/TheGreatDictator'' is a satire on Hitler, Nazism and Fascism. Given the subject, it's Juvenalian, but surprisingly mildly so.
* ''Film/ManBitesDog'' is a satire on the sensationalism of the TV industry.
* ''Film/MeetJohnDoe'' is a satire on the populist movement in the United States and Europe following TheGreatDepression.
* ''Film/MontyPythonsLifeOfBrian'' is a satire on religions and ideologies and their followers, more specifically Christianity. Generally Horatian and very gently toward Chistianity, but other ideologies get sharper treatment.
* ''Film/{{Network}}'' by SidneyLumet is a satire on the television industry. Quite Juvenalian.
* ''WesternAnimation/SouthParkBiggerLongerAndUncut'' is a satire of censorship.
* ''Film/ThankYouForSmoking'' is a satire of the tobacco industry. Combines Juvenalian and Horatian techniques to great comic effect.
* ''Film/ToBeOrNotToBe'' is a satire of Nazism.
* ''Film/TheTrumanShow'' is a satire of reality TV and television in general, yet it inspired the television show BigBrother.
* The films of Creator/JacquesTati are a satire on the contrast between the traditional society and the technological innovations of the modern world.
* ''A Serbian Film'' is a satire ([[LyingCreator supposedly]]) of modern Serbian cinema and the history of the nation as a whole. So Juvenalian, [[PoesLaw some couldn't even tell it was a satire]].
* ''Film/WagTheDog'' is a particularly Juvenalian satire on the US news media and politics.
* ''Film/{{UHF}}'': Music/WeirdAl's film mocks retro pop culture, TV shows and movies. Targets include ''Series/TheBeverlyHillbillies'', ''Film/{{Network}}'', ''Film/StarWars'', ''Film/BlazingSaddles'', ''Film/{{Conan the Barbarian|1982}}'', ''Franchise/{{Rambo}}'', ''WheelOfFortune'', ''ThePinwheelChannel'', ''Series/TheATeam'', ''Film/TheShining'', ''Film/CloseEncountersOfTheThirdKind'', ''Film/GoneWithTheWind'', and ''Film/{{Gandhi}}''.
* ''Film/{{Idiocracy}}'': A satirical dystopian sci-fi critique on human evolution in modern society, mass pop culture, mainstream media and commercialism. It also both references and lampoons classic dystopian sci-fi films like ''Film/TheRunningMan'', ''Film/TotalRecall1990'', ''Film/TwoThousandOneASpaceOdyssey'', ''Film/LogansRun'', plus the novels ''Literature/NineteenEightyFour'' and ''Literature/BraveNewWorld''.

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[[folder: Live Action TV ]]

* ''Series/TheDailyShow'' satirizes modern US and global news events, as does the SpinOff, ''Series/TheColbertReport''. Whether their satire is Juvenalian or Horatian depends on the subject: FoxNewsChannel? Juvenalian (particularly when it comes to GlennBeck). UsefulNotes/BarackObama? Horatian. UsefulNotes/GeorgeWBush? Are we talking 2001-2006 or 2006-2009?[[note]]First period is mostly Juvenalian, thanks to the Iraq War, etc., while second period he was seen as more or less pathetic, and leaned more Horatian.[[/note]] The rest of the media? What are they saying now? Etc., etc., etc.
* ''Series/YesMinister'' satirized 1980s UK Governmental policy and decision-making. Generally Horatian with occasional dips into Juvenalian territory.
* ...and its SpiritualSuccessor ''Series/TheThickOfIt'' now satirises UK politics in the 21st century. Purely Juvenalian.
* ''Series/{{Veep}}'', TransAtlanticEquivalent of ''The Thick of It'', is, despite coming from the same crew, surprisingly far less Juvenalian and even moves into Horatian territory, with the politicians and staffers mostly being overworked or likably incompetent rather than scheming sons-of-bitches. It helps that there is no clear equivalent to Malcolm; the InvisiblePresident's messenger to the VP's office is possibly the saddest schmuck in the District (and the District is ''full'' of schmucks).
* ''Series/BrassEye'' satirized the reporting methods of 90s UK news media as well as wider social and political issues. Out-Juvenals Juvenal himself.
* ''{{Frontline}}'' satirized Australian current affairs programmes in the 1990s.
* ''HaveIGotNewsForYou''. Fittingly for the editor of Juvenalian satirical magazine ''PrivateEye'', Ian Hislop's contributions are toward the Juvenalian end of the scale, while Paul Merton tends more toward the Horatian end when he isn't making plays on words or indulging in surrealism and flights of fancy.
* ''Series/{{MadTv}}'': This took Mad Magazine, and put it our television screens in the form of a sketch comedy show.
* ''MockTheWeek''
* ''UglyBetty'' satirizes the fashion industry. Horatian.
* ''Series/{{Bewitched}}'' continually satirizes American conformity, consumerism, and racism. More or less Horatian, per the standards of the day.
* ''Radio/RoyalCanadianAirFarce'' satirized Canadian politics and current events and just about every other aspect of of Canadian life in its long run. It was something of a [[FollowTheLeader forerunner]] for Canadian television and influenced the Creator/{{CBC}} in particular for a number of years.
* Another Canadian series, ''Series/ThisHourHas22Minutes'', was a satirical presentation of current events and was shown in a news format. It was known for having strictly Newfoundland performers and a particularly eastern perspective on things.
* ''Series/MontyPythonsFlyingCircus''
* ''Series/SpittingImage'': satirizing politicians and other celebrities of the day.
* ''Series/ThatWasTheWeekThatWas'' kickstarted the British television satire boom of the 1960s. Juvenalian.
* The "Really!?! with Seth (and Amy)" skit on ''SaturdayNightLive''. Constantly points out the absurdity of celebrities or politicians by comparing their actions with how the same actions would affect ordinary people. Typically Juvenalian, although Creator/TinaFey's "Really!?!" to Greece on her first guest appearance in 2008 was more disappointed than nasty.
* Creator/VanKootenEnDeBie: Dutch comedic duo satirizing Dutch society from 1964 until 1998.

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Literature ]]

* Creator/JonathanSwift ''Literature/AModestProposal''. One of the most Juvenalian works ever produced.
** ''Literature/GulliversTravels''. No, not the film with JackBlack. Nor the book of the film. That would be SelfParody.
*** Jonathan Swift in general, really.
* Some of Terry Pratchett's Literature/{{Discworld}} books are satires of government, religion, and other things, often with the assistance of parody and pastiche. Typically Horatian.
* Miguel de Cervantes' ''Literature/DonQuixote'' satirizes nearly all of its contemporary examples of literature and theater and ridicules them; also a Juvenalian take of Spanish society at TheCavalierYears.
* ''Literature/TheConfidenceMan'' has characters that are satirized {{expy}}s of 19th-century authors.
* ''ForrestGump'' (the novel, but not the movie) was a fairly biting satire of Americana from the '50s to the '70s. The novel was more Juvenalian, the film being Horatian.
** Its sequel, ''Gump and Co.'' was a less-biting satire of the '80s and '90s, including a light dig at the original novel's [[ForrestGump film adaptation]].
* Many of the works of Creator/MarkTwain are clear examples of satire -- most famously, ''Literature/TheAdventuresOfHuckleberryFinn'' (protestations to the contrary on the back cover notwithstanding).
* Andrew Martin's novel ''{{Bilton}}'' is a satire on lifestyle journalism, involving a rude and alcoholic Marxist intellectual who works at the Daily Globe, a newspaper so swollen and fatuous that it has a supplement listing all the other supplements.
* ''TheDevilsDictionary'', satirizing a wide variety of topics (and Juvenalian to the core). Notably contains an entry on "satire" teeming with sarcastic disdain for those who don't get satire.
* Alexander Pope's ''Literature/TheRapeOfTheLock'' is mocking the hubbub that sprang up when a friend of his cut a woman's lock of hair. Long story short: [[TraumaticHaircut hair gets cut]], [[SillyReasonForWar war erupts]]. Very obviously Horatian (the targets of Pope's satire were his friends, whom he thought were making a mountain out of a molehill).
* TomSharpe's ''Literature/{{Wilt}}'', while primarily comic farce, is also a bitter satire on academic bureaucracy and the heirarchy within colleges and universities. The theme is more deeply developed in the later books of the Wilt series, but Sharpe, a veteran of the unglamorous end of British higher education, makes some pretty trenchant points about what education should actually be ''for'', and lays into the sort of people who let ambition, or wooly thinking, or vested interests, get in the way of delivering education to the people who arguably need it most. the Ipford Technical College is there primarily to provide vocational trades education and continuing education to adults who missed out earlier in life: its Principal misses the point entirely and is wasting the budget trying to get the place one step nearer becoming a university, for his personal prestige. Despite the fact this is not what it is intended to be and it is far more effective doing the job it was built for. Interfering politicians, Ministry of Education bureaucrats, political extremists, trendy teachers, ridiculous or grandiose "Mickey Mouse courses" and others who get in the way of the purpose of education are also mercilessly hammered.
* ''Literature/TwentyThousandLeaguesUnderTheSea'': Very Juvenalian, the novel satirizes [[TheEmpire Imperialism]]: The ''Nautilus'' itself is a parody of TheEmpire - a OddlySmallOrganization that manages to be a NGOsuperpower, their members only [[FromMyOwnPersonalGarden consumes sea products]] and [[ConLang speak only their own language]], but we never know any of them, nameless masses. The only one who matters is Captain Nemo (the Emperor), who [[{{Egopolis}} claims a entire continent on his name]] and constantly crosses the MoralEventHorizon [[AboveGoodAndEvil for no other reason because he can.]] The three prisoners personify the attitudes about TheEmpire of the conquered nations: [[StockholmSyndrome Aronnax is the high class, who tries to get all the knowledge he can from the Empire]], [[TrueNeutral Counseil is the middle class, who passively accepts his loss of freedom as something inevitable and doesn’t want to make a decision without the approval of the high class,]] and [[ChronicBackStabbingDisorder Ned Land is the lower class who rebels constantly and uselessly]]. However, after seeing Nemo’s KickTheDog moment with his WeaponOfMassDestruction, the three classes agree that [[StartMyOwn Nemo’s empire]] [[HeWhoFightsMonsters is as bad as any other]].
* ''TheManchurianCandidate'' (the original novel) satirized Red Scare politics of the 1950s and McCarthyism in particular. Extremely Juvenalian.
* ''Literature/BeautyQueens'' is a satire of the media, consumerism and gender roles.
* ''Literature/CharlieAndTheChocolateFactory'' satirizes parents who coddle and indulge their children, and the [[SpoiledBrat spoiled brats]] that said children become (embodiments of gluttony, greed, pride, and sloth), with a contemptuous, Juvenalian approach as the brats meet a variety of blackly comic fates. The SeriousBusiness of the Golden Ticket hunt and its media coverage come in for gentler, Horatian satire, especially in adaptations. The 1971 and 2005 film adaptations dial back the aggressiveness of the satire with regards to the brats. But the [[Theatre/CharlieAndTheChocolateFactory 2013 stage musical]] not only updates two of the brats to satirize vapid modern celebrity (Violet) and parents who try to excuse a child's downright malicious behavior (Mike) but tightens the screws -- several of them suffer karmic DeathByAdaptation.

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Magazines ]]

* The pornographic magazine ''{{Hustler}}'' uses satire to express Larry Flynt's beliefs and opinions. Almost always Juvenalian.
* The articles in ''PrivateEye'' are mostly Juvenalian satire...when they aren't hard-hitting straight-up exposés of real wrongdoing. Sometimes articles do dip into the Horatian (particularly the Prime Minister parodies, which are usually too ridiculous to be truly stinging).

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Music ]]

* ''SpinalTap'' is a satire of rock bands
* TheRutles are a satire on Music/TheBeatles
* Music/FrankZappa
* Music/Chumbawamba
* Music/JacquesBrel
* Music/TheFugs
* Music/RandyNewman
* Music/TheDeadKennedys

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Newspaper Comics ]]

* The ''ComicStrip/{{Dilbert}}'' comic strip is a satire of the corporate world. Mostly Horatian.
* ''CalvinAndHobbes'' contains a variety of satire. Most often Calvin himself acts as satire of [[ItsAllAboutMe narrow-minded self-centeredness of people]] or the shallow ethos of the consumer society, sometimes other things. His father's behaviour is often satire of certain kind of parental behaviour. Both of them sometimes offer satire of [[SeriousBusiness hobbies taken too seriously]] (bicycling for Dad and chewing gum for Calvin). And there's more.

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Radio ]]

* On his radio show, HowardStern will satirize any number or things he doesn't care for, most notably the hypocrisies of {{Media WatchDog}}s.
* ''Radio/AbsolutePower'', a [[TheBBC BBC]] radio series was a satire on spin-doctoring in modern politics, and media manipulation. The SoundToScreenAdaptation shifted its focus: still satirizing media manipulation, but more in the context of the nature of celebrity.
* ''Brian Gulliver's Travels'' is a six-part SettingUpdate of ''Gulliver's Travels'' on BBC Radio 4. It updates the satire to be about 21st century Britain, giving us, for example, Sham, the land of alternative therapies.

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Tabletop Games ]]

* ''{{Warhammer}}'' and ''{{Warhammer40000}}'' were both originally satirical, but they're played so straight these days that many fans see them as SeriousBusiness.

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Video Games ]]

* The WebGame developer Creator/{{Molleindustria}} has specialized in making satirical games with relatively simple gameplay.

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Western Animation ]]

* ''WesternAnimation/TheSimpsons'' is one huge satire of late 20th and early 21st century Western society.
* The more recent seasons of ''WesternAnimation/SouthPark'' usually use satire as their primary source of humor.
* ''WesternAnimation/{{Futurama}}'' frequently satirizes aspects of modern life, from our waste and consumerism, technological evolutions to our short-sightedness to relentless and irritating evangelists.
* ''WesternAnimation/{{MAD}}'': Its a spiritual and satirical successor to Mad TV, in the form of an animated sketch series.
** It even had the nerve to ridicule James Cameron's: ''Film/{{Avatar}}''.
* ''WesternAnimation/InvaderZim'': It’s done an excellent job with poking fun at Human Life in the Far-Future, from the most technological of devices and gadgets, to the futuristic of food and drinks ever consumed.
** Even the aspects of daily life in the far-future have devolved into a tortured mockery of itself. In a most Juvenalian manner.
* ''WesternAnimation/TinyToonAdventures'': This show mocks and laughs at American Retro Pop culture, also old fashioned media censorship policies.
** ''WesternAnimation/TinyToonAdventuresHowISpentMyVacation'', the direct to video animated film of the series, jabs its toes further into Summertime Activities, such as water fights, boating, including a car trip to a satirical Disneyland Park, Johnny Depp in the form of a skunk cartoon, and even the late 1980s horror films ''Friday The 13th'' & ''The Hitcher''.
*** ''{{WesternAnimation/Animaniacs}}'' uses this kind of humor 4 years later.
* ''WesternAnimation/PinkyAndTheBrain''
* ''WesternAnimation/{{Daria}}''
* ''WesternAnimation/{{Recess}}''
* ''WesternAnimation/{{RockosModernLife}}''
* ''WesternAnimation/LooneyTunes'' pokes its cartoonish fingers at early 20th Century pop-culture, both American & Foreign.
* ''WesternAnimation/{{Beetlejuice}}''

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Web Site ]]

* ''WebSite/MinistryOfHarmony'' satirizes news stories from China in a Juvenalian style.

[[/folder]]

[[folder: Web Original ]]

* TJOmega has his ''Plastic Addict'' series which does this of the bad toys he reviews during them. He's repeatedly pointed out that they're not to be taken seriously and are meant to be entertaining.

[[/folder]]
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