A specific form of {{Role Playing|Game}}, mostly applied to {{Tabletop RPG}}s.

RulePlaying occurs whenever the rules begin to dictate not just whether a particular action succeeds or fails, but how the overall story progresses. This can be good or bad, depending on the general opinion of the gaming group. It does, however, tend to be in contrast to what {{Tabletop RPG}}s were created to do. (Supposedly, anyway.)

There are many things that can bring RulePlaying about. For one, if the players don't pay attention to what their characters would want to do in a situation, and instead spend all of their attention on what the rules let them do, that's RulePlaying. For another, if the game master takes a heavy-handed approach to rules enforcement, requiring a skill check for everything and giving only the standard bonuses, then the players will be required to rule-play if they want to stay alive. However, rules-heavy gameplay doesn't always devolve into RulePlaying; skilled game masters will often give bonus modifiers to players who are roleplaying their characters well.

RulePlaying is the dominant mode of play in [[WesternRPG computer]] and [[EasternRPG console]] [[RolePlayingGame RPGs]], because there's no game master there to give roleplaying bonuses. It is the preferred play style of {{Rules Lawyer}}s and StopHavingFunGuys. Otherwise known as RollPlaying (because typically in this style of play, you'll be rolling dice a lot.) The spiritual opposite to ScrewTheRulesIHavePlot.

The RuleOfCool may be a rule, but a game master who follows it is not considered to be RulePlaying. The same applies to the RuleOfDrama, RuleOfFunny, RuleOfScary, and any other rule that is vague and open to interpretation.
* The Ur-Example was ''TabletopGame/DungeonsAndDragons''. In early editions, character generation was done by rolling up random stats and then seeing what class you qualified to play. Want to play a wizard? You just had to hope the dice gave you a high enough Intelligence score. In practice, most groups used HouseRules to be more lenient and flexible.
** A possible drawback of the more miniatures-rule heavy editions of D&D (notably third and fourth) is that especially during combat players may focus more on moving their physical playing pieces around and choosing actions from an established standard list and less on actually playing their ''characters'' as such.
* ''TabletopGame/{{Traveller}}'' was infamous for having random character generation tables that could [[DeathByOriginStory kill a character before play even started]]. The current edition allows much more choice in the process and makes "killer character creation" ("Iron Man") optional.
* ''TabletopGame/{{Rolemaster}}'' is equally infamous for having rules that require rolls for ''everything''. There are even rolls for basic hygiene and walking without falling. Bad rolls on these checks can move you to the game's "beloved" and ''lethal'' critical failure charts which are designed to humiliate your characters while maiming or murdering them.
* ''Webcomic/TheOrderOfTheStick'' is an example of this enforced on a story-verse. The world works specifically according to ''TabletopGame/DungeonsAndDragons'' rules even when it defies normal logic. The characters frequently hang a {{lampshade}} on this even though it probably shouldn't seem weird to them. The rules are, of course, suitably interpreted for RuleOfCool, RuleOfDrama, and RuleOfFunny.
* ''ComicStrip/KnightsOfTheDinnerTable'': The rules always win and its only on very rare occasions that a rule is widely agreed to be broken. One of those occasions was the "beggar mob" rule which stated that 10 angry beggars constituted a mob and could automatically overbear a target. Brian tried to discourage BA from using this rule when it was used against the party but, failing that, decided to turn the rule to his advantage by having the party hire their own beggar mobs to overbear targets.
** There was also a widely agreed upon Moratorium/Treaty in Muncie banning the use of coupons, which had previously led to a coupon based arms race (since gaming is SeriousBusiness in the Muncie community.)
* In the 3rd installment of ''Literature/TheIntercontinentalUnionOfDisgustingCharacters'', Ringman's [[spoiler: wife]] accidentally lets the front door to his house close. Because 2nd Edition AD&D's rule for opening an unlocked door doesn't specify that the door has to be ''stuck'', Ringman is forced to make a running start and slam into the door with his full strength to get it open. And it takes two attempts. If the normal-strength person who'd let the door close had tried to open it instead, it could have taken all day.
* In ''TabletopGame/{{FATAL}}'', the one and only thing you can choose about your character is your gender. Everything else - from your class to the width of your anus - is determined by die rolling and modifiers (with some arcane mathematics thrown in as well).
** And if the [[NoWomansLand default setting]] is used, it's generally more convenient to play a male.
* Lampshaded in ''TabletopGame/{{Paranoia}}'':
** ''Aaaaahhhh cute little roleplayers. "I roll a D20 to determine my entertainment. I rolled an 18. Now I'm having fun."''